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Thomas E. Jeffrey 
Microfilm Editor and Associate Editor 
Paul B. Israel Susan Schultz 
Assistant Editor Assistant Editor 
Assistant Editors: Research Associates: 
Toby Appel Robert Rosenberg 
Keith A. Nier W. Bemard Carlson 
Andre Millard 
Student Assistants 
John Deasey Pamela Kwiatkowski 
Leonard De Graaf Joseph P. Sullivan 
David Fowler Barbara B. Tomblin 

Leonard S. Reich, Associate Director and Associate Editor 
Reese V. Jenkins, Director and Editor 

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 
National Park Service, Edison National Historic Site 
New Jersey Historical Commission 
Smithsonian Institution 

University Publications of America 
Frederick, Maryland 

Edison signature used with permission of McGraw-Edisan Company. 


Copyright ¢ 1985 by Rutgers, The State University 

All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication including any portion of the guide and index or of the 
microfilm may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval systern, or transmitted in any form by any means—graphic, 
electronic, mechanical, or chemical, including photocopying, recording or taping, or information storage and 
retrieval systems—without written permission of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, 
New Jersey. 

The original documents in this edition are from the archives at the Edison National Historic Site at West 
Orange, New Jersey. 


National Park Service, Edison 

Rutgers, The State University of 

New Jersey National Historic Site 

Edward J. Bloustein Roy W. Weaver 
T. Alexander Pond Edward J. Pershey 
Tilden G, Edelstein William Binnewies 
Richard P. McCormick Lynn Wightman 
James Kirby Martin Elizabeth Albro 

New Jersey Historical Commission Smithsonian Institution 
Bernard Bush Brooke Hindle 
Howard Green Bernard Finn 


James Brittain, Georgia Institute of Technology 
Alfred D. Chandler, Harvard University 
Neil Harris, University of Chicago 
Thomas Parke Hughes, University of Pennsylvania 
Arthur Link, Princeton University 
Nathan Reingold, Smithsonian Institution 
Robert C. Schofield, lowa State University 


William C. Hittinger (chairman), RCA Corporation 
*Arthur M. Bueche, General Electric Company 
Edward J. Bloustein, Rutgers, The State University of NJ. 
Cees Bruynes, North American Philips Corporation 
Paul J. Christiansen, Charles Edison Fund 
Philip F. Dietz, Westinghouse Electric Corporation 
Paul Lego, Westinghouse Electric Corporation 
Roland W. Schmitt, General Electric Corporation 
Robert |, Smith, Public Service Electric and Gas Company 
Harold W. Sonn, Public Service Electric and Gas Company 
Morris Tanenbaum, ATET 



National Science Foundation 
National Endowment for the Humanities 


Alfred P, Sloan Foundation 
Charles Edison Fund 

The Hyde and Watson Foundation 
Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation 


Alabama Power Company 

Amerada Hess Corporation 


Association of Edison Illuminating Companies 
Battelle Memorial Institute Foundation 

The Boston Edison Foundation 

Cabot Corporation Foundation 

Carolina Power and Light Company 
Consumers Power Company 

Corning Glass Works Foundation 

Duke Power Company 

Edison Electric Institute 

Exxon Corporation 

General Electric Foundation 

Gould Inc. Foundation 

Gulf States Utilities Company 

The Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers 
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
lowa Power and Light Company 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley H. Katz 


Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. 

McGraw-Edison Company 

Middle South Services, Inc, 

Minnesota Power 

New Jersey Bell Telephone Company 

New York State Electric & Gas 
Corporation — 

North American Philips Corporation 

Philadelphia Electric Company 

Philips Intemational B.V. 

Public Service Electric and Gas Company 

RCA Corporation 

Robert Bosch GmbH 

Savannah Electric and Power Company 

Schering Plough Foundation 

Texas Utilities Company 


Transamerica Delaval Inc. 

Westinghouse Educational Foundation 

Wisconsin Public Service Corporation 


Reel duplication of the whole or of 
any part of this film is prohibited. 
In lieu of transcripts, however, 
enlarged photocopies of selected 
items contained on these reels 
may be made in order to facilitate 

A Note on the Sources 

The pages which were microfilmed for this collection are 
in generally good condition in the original. There are 
some pages, however, which due to age are lighter than 
normal. Additionally, because some volumes are very 
large and have been bound tightly and cannot be un- 
bound, there are intermittent occurrences of slight dis- 
tortion of the edges of a small percentage of the pages. 
We have made every technical effort to ensure complete 
legibility of each and every page. 

Rete red an eoe t eee aeO 


The Menlo Park Scrapbooks, Volumes 1-40 are a set of fifty-seven 
technical scrapbooks (many of the volumes are sub-numbered), plus an 
index volume. They are the first in a series of scrapbooks begun by 
William Carman and Francis Upton in 1878-1879. New books were added 
and old ones continually updated by Upton and others until 1882. The 
books were occasionally updated thereafter, until about 1889. There are 
approximately 150 scrapbooks still extant for the entire series, and there 

are indications that the series may have comprised over 200 books at one 
time. _- 

The clippings are primarily from technical journals, although some 
are from popular magazines and newspapers. They cover a wide range of 
subjects, including telegraphy, electricity, electric lighting, the 
telephone, and the phonograph. Most of the material in volumes 1-40 
dates from the period between 1875 and 1881, although there are some é 
clippings dated as early as 1873 and others as late as 1889. The remaining 
volumes are primarily for the years 1881 and 1882. : 

The following titles were placed on the scrapbooks by Edison's 
assistants. Although the titles adequately describe the general character 
of each volume, many of the books also contain miscellaneous clippings , | 
about other scientific and technical subjects. 



Book # 





Cat. # 






Index to Scrapbooks 

Galvanic Battery 

Combustion of Coal; Theoretical Heat from Boilers 
and Steam Engine Cost 

Untitled [Electrical Conduction] 


Mixed - Etheric Force 

Electrical Testing and Apparatus 

Electrical Testing and Apparatus 

Electricity and Railways 

Electricians and History of Electricity, Notices 
of Book 



Electric Light 

Electric Light 

Electric Light 

Electric Light 

Electric Light 

Electric Light 

Electric Light 

Electric Light 

Electric Light 

Induction (Magnetic) 






Magneto Electric Generators 

Magneto Electric Generators 

Magneto Electric Generators 

Phenomena General 



Polarization and Secondary Batteries 

Carbon Telephone 

Carbon Telephone and Far Sight Machine 

Magnetic Telephone 

Tasimeter and Electric Light 

Thermo Electricity 

Telegraph Apparatus 

Telegraph Construction 

Submarine and Subterranean Telegraph 
- Cable Apparatus 

Telegraphy - Automatic 

Telegraphy - Facsimile 



Book # 

Cat. # 





Telegraph - Duplex, Quadruplex, Multiplex 

Telegraphy - Fire and Burglar Alarms 

Telegraph Other Than Electrical 

Laws of Electricity and Magnetism 

Laws of Electricity and Magnetism 

Transmission of Power 

Electric Lamp 

Radiometer and Vacuum Pump 


Lightning Protectors and Atmospheric Electricity 

Static Induction, Condensers and Plate Glass 


Various Electrical Appliances and Torpedo 

Various Electrical Applicances 



Although each scrapbook page is represented on the film, the 
contents of the scrapbooks have not been filmed in their entirety. Many 
scrapbook pages contain oversized and odd-shaped clippings that cannot be 
completely unfolded without obscuring other clippings. Moreover, it is 
not uncommon for many successive pages in a technical journal, and 
occasionally even an entire issue, to be pasted onto a single scrapbook 
page. To have filmed the clippings in their entirety would have required 
several! times the present number of microfilm reels. 

Each set of facing scrapbook pages has therefore been filmed only 
once, in such a manner as to convey the greatest amount of bibliographic 
and substantive information about the clippings on those pages. Most of 
the clippings do not relate directly to Edison but dea! instead with 
scientific and technical subjects in which he and his assistants were 
interested. Those clippings that are directly concerned with Edison and 
his inventive or business activities have been filmed in their entirety. 

Menlo Park Scrapbook, Cat. 1000 

Index to Scrapbooks 

This book is an index to the first forty volumes of the Menlo Park 
Scrapbooks. However, some volumes do not appear in the index, and 
others are only partially indexed. There are 433 numbered pages. 

Blank pages not filmed: 1, 8-15, 24-33, 44-49, 54-67, 92-93, 96-101, 
110-117, 120-135, 144-185, 198-203, 216-221, 224-237, 240-253, 266-271, 
274-287, 296-305, 314-321, 340-357, 362-373, 378-433. 


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bli-by Onages” Wg. 
Hh, Chaat Oraten Ng “bo, 
Hoe foe make, by No Wefhins Fas, 
Ciferernents by 13 LO Hofchunt Gy. ———. SEN 

“pt 77) 
Dreclimrs hie foanake “rd, 

Unductin alone? Fbceghes’ “Feb, he as 
Bruck of thy b, by PSiahani Pall oy 
Weta GMO ha, 
Cofertnent shee 4 Kb Uerbests FRE. Bout. 

Hl Sretecledlovs Hels Pbnt: "yb 
' i ow . Vo". THcvrn feck ” “. 
: ; Aipelived puthad. ae 4 ge, a9. j 
A a GQ 4 . . 
sae a pf? ii feuroeloct, fr Brstilesting ir olagronnal Mens "Yay. 

pers ers 3 

‘ I ie Mrraden rchagher bachin Sled. hes. 
Heat Gon chi Pray liters Malini Goo. 


te ss RS 

we ch Chk e “Go 

Legdancdass Yes: br, Go. 

nn ad a . hy, 
Dacha iguat hese aia wader bug uy, . 

he jeilion VM ZY. we I Vpaefihe 
Loigetioal Wud m Leif, 


| Tum bh. Var. | 


Tcliies on AM rrversly re couclapy ly. 


bhealeie Loft By ar 19. ne: Nea, 

leo Nein “Be, 
ena Ofok ho. 
1 Clooflawd « S-Terll ee eer: “Vag. 
0 Olle MMos r009 befae Kon, brs, Mets p Eonar 1 F, 
u PM Lereww SR SEAS 48. ay wf, 

Koce ernefee races ceutde CO sa dad “A, Vso. a Ne. 

Uholimelice, vale nesthacl, forerit Sag f,, is cover lan lirn sft toflises ” “ap 

etelinee , dye Cer wae aN 5, 

; Gb term oly 1S OTe. 

nanklatioe Oe jie oof OM, els le light Us, Xs, 

Mh, adbisie oe haem of on te fins Meisellroun, Yes 
Cheap Lobia, wll Bs, 

Lalint eh, hohe: San, 

Koclaenl, Hole on lhe “ap, 

: She Nanelers ofelight- Vp, ‘ 

Bud Soeetl- “ths 

A Mt Sérindend of “Yeo 
AMechament Melsorv of ' 7. 
Hostile herepnrerils sae wn 
hn forovements wn Leabiie, GE 

| Kbadden WAS, Rhrt- EE: 

: Ch rscerocloto' We 
Made wo (GP by Mrovermant-e ae 

: eheart Chu U ZL $$; 

“fis ’ fhe 
Macs Cu Ohas. a 

Mi, reer ‘ Ho 

ae Sa we 

Cruchars’ #2. 

Cole sores ere Be 4. Yas, Vyb 7 xy iy ay, be, 
Mle (Q 42. 4 
Weihua daecennd So PAZ ME Mt, 

54) a “2D. 
“Crrecthads ' We 

confer | Matern 

| Metiéle ww by Pscnctangn So 

he Lee LB 8s 

os -oelearedtie into Cleroned hati Gy BL leat Mle tA “FS. I. 

tthe fastenee of the Aro tv Jrcandescont Lamps Gi 

4 oo tere He Fi 
| Aewliicds Ad GE 
Mrarvtent OM 4% a2 < 
Sufloved, ef batiig» ow, ape ign 

hoes “ys Sbisel: Leerryfe Aeagu later Tos 
Gb, Lornefea coritesllla by L utecuit- pe 

‘ 1 Hea feleite-d, Fs Whe py 
ee ee tae’ Pike, 
‘Shemini Hetastins tao. 
. Wesléivs Yr. 
| Sls alti of Ielerercts en habia Lermfes Ge 
lel ( Sob Lovngf ) Hs. 
| Sets Leica, Yoo, 
her Clestiie of Sache vs 
Jobe Cochhixfis ‘i uh, 

Pencils Conisl Apecsidenind® Jr, 

Kiree bes. Checlite WZ 
he confecrceliine: ¢ of thei Carbone the Celiiirodem wp. y fag “Ye. 

» Geelire he bide) ass 

, Cuy-conbow eo, Ls, 
if ; 
Ductelet: Yoo. 
: Me More Sroffer vee Too. “M. 
genes Soy. 
Oe bvlbitiin pte hy Ape Cecbiee, df 
WE Sengers arian on Clevens Leary fay. fo 
Brush My. 
See oa Me 
Gosias Me Me serd. Ln Me hone 3 lag. 
Sener Yffeariial Vatsie fees Yay. 
 Mhe-corhen, a 
Pals file fublhteland eller dermanrt yas 
| Porky -avicl Hastaus Fr. 
Olercce cerecl. Berecues eermype Sb yi 

ee ‘97 

emanate ohare aie oTeT 


yee dobtie 

be TEST ee ow cay 

en || Meg reelesrh/ laf le Bt ati ofa lomactucles Grcsversede bp wv Guseent- 

La 4 


of lect Dlhtition/ of Condetsbg Matisfeew lio) 

Lb % 
Melia of Be ccleg twcotad "Up . 
cae ra ! Sfearhe vi Gees 34 Pt». 
Dyidsilanif eve by the En alticts Mnimente” YY 

Ora be Auretusintil Low pf Keelia- hypearieat Ge, oy 


Ov thi fiinflaeatiine of the Lelia cles eiithe Iucleccliin Gfaate he, 
Sfoets of Mac mltiltzed Bald romflliait fan labiobgtc Go, 
OetediliEhcbie-mnagualé hs eli of Mee celine unk Ee ae “Ys, ~ 
bv the Ee, hefeure'af elestivalt, 4 andl om Clea Ai Buuagy a Yy 
bu-ke flow of Sequcs’ Yu, 
Crfterer rental Delesone vel eh Decbeatiiust 2 Onwticnts o tore Enwce a 
htiiial Geng Ke Ae 
Aiunvefe ae Abwotide ammirand Mat thanwl 
trl Elacbrurabg names rate ey, 
Sibelerleritank hornencbedesis ft, sav et Eicdiieal Moet” bez 
Liibisltien’ dane eprstiininithe ndiver f Mag agente 3%, 
thecteee’ Ee, Mobreuler Metin ee. : 
y : hr pica “he Magritte oh Geyer ae wel Bur ‘ 
Wa he Aber Ditialeinof Meyer eain/ntabandle saat filatit Uz, 
Ou Mlagrelis? Gourtacleldity fav Maechunedl,, L foam: frou Ug Ug ; 
WA DQruidedetion of Magnelisind ix Busetles frog Keniplated 4 ffirrbhagth %. 
YV AMewr heli batiisn Elecite, anda Mb ihafst nail foigut (i 
| Yheohss nv of dle habe Se cht en’ a coonftrentecl Gea Yr, 
he 7 of tha sana protidiond rt he Moms pve onthe Lathe on agnelihin! WE 
Gu Clactiver Aebensitids unel hut oensirn wv ecbarliite Units Te a 
Mi te 57. 
of Subranemitirs b, VA by Me bew Fh, 
Ov es aneomente oti vn to : 1 len cuclars eonsbiiclions Wb hy, 
On tha Wemrmemay Eleabiti- 4%4. 

it kth aw f lcber by 
fej i Me 



Neen varere/ 

; Ow he hts Lovech an 
2 sera’ i es y Me AL paced he o, 

AIeled one 

Chay if of Laclsiely 

othe vik vg pp ae aagh bani tia’ Se, %y. 

Y. “eft es y Ly ftorveert/ 1a Yer, 

 Chebiveal Vortines "Cys, 

Sabvanburrent belie sMeians of eonme Sahin sect eefiankeds 
Scegc Mrntecte tei ftacititt fenrliiD eb sbiees “Ng, Sob, 

Yer, +33 
ad ¢) aun 

Lz, se dara of cv Cornducliliceversted by ahrinrent- “Me. : 
Ccrnuacl &; frag ye (gt 

Solin od mie 

$a. abso p15 r) 

Rt eT Ts se ey 

OM Shssrsees 
as Bf Me A ee F Peartey OF 
Wabiscleghe ye W. FO Chien Sabie 
— IE igen oy PS, Yes, 
Jf WH Shoclbed Gy, 
Midd Ieliiiey GS 
on ’ KM orto "og, 23 29%) 
chet of El ebiveily Me Lbweriitis Bowe f Herne! Vag, 
T Nise fees lea inclaly Cotrsedl Light ee ‘ 
clita Iudtrulir - for atheewwer eg th v Uotaitiiw ofthe Earth hor, ba Ny, 
She Meclrceal faypertics of Chentaa une Lcd Milerite “Ya, 
feat A oelze cet genvesile andi susfer htees forlicad cartbicel Ufeege veenasoledeins “7 69, 
Aralagy Mliiewn Ptetnely, ase Lclowsucs bondleclév by: Yo 
Othe lo Magra pctcton dle lx tlane oflblurs alas flight 
ster heifeane lef Exsth “Ypy, ‘ 
Ale ti of ee bteiliy wi Seaulated Celgrafle Muies "ey, 
Ei die Gini Cialiak Melasreleyys eg, 
Hes vetoes witha daleienely of Cersonle Crnemnitl ot Bice haarihesfecbtenleuli 
wecerole op Atha foe cnerenitlel heliieens thomidly, 
louthers aa aa saa rrbtaciienenit and ha taghhdf tid 
| fon ee is Batiny “ey 
: thi iesticl ae feamet/en Clusenetber he Yep. 
QDelinunaliin’af a ferrite of conkicel™ fies be Mies Ney, 
| Gu thartheory of ets Mhseuftiow — “Yoe, | 
Anncale yee or! 8b her coueser of Sorend ex eue/ neifersh i / | i | : 
Be, desufutd heaage f licbiveely You, oe | : 
eae D ik eee, feressecrcienet tle Gru toing ~llluls Yes. iM 
. he the r1sesaile: Moaserisnricls 4 ha Mel ass satis | 
- Mo Babig: Verte and Yo. 
Cb Asowevaliie Soren Qeuciliner ancl Ourrunt- Os, Wea ye Me ftw. oa: 
A aww flanernunenun Stilecel Clectivity “Yoa,"Tes: 
| Poclimal Oetestioned ad Atinul Current “hyo, 
| Ouchy Llectiee de ae p Liye fea 8 a, 
he Sh elu Lae ofthe LbiisS ertetbuss Bp 
cee Coeahap 
Ye ter Heer’ wey eer re "Pons We 
2 a Yo. 
| Olocbien Clcbizonetiie fore! ven of rage: Al oe Hs, 
Secs res fororcsliin! of Ernerg Te b he 
: OwLhs Qeonents~ 4 efeere 
Celetessit of Teale ae soap he 

ye a 

ou ial : ’ 

A log sealics 3 

iow deeds 



Crearsed by Led mea wll bk 



i ae Merci 
j are, ra . ‘é . 
HM eegureltne’ ‘ LR A Oink Currerbei/, “ce 4 Bae Cs Le 

Secale plage. 

Dibirnuiteon fileeal A ffiaity ppleiins of Uettomitss terre Fas, May: 
3 She. Bor Oo Wher Sole here! 

: . a a 
: Of helivineleve Aree af conta er Melbmee: ae me 

‘ CLbiveal Duchorgee ad Caentune DQ bes 
: Plrlwehis Gee eo High Liege - woe, 94-07, 

| cf, dey tho Mee Mviteadl Gree valent fbeat of latin &M leagnelisi? Jou 
Vie alee tetsu Clenlil fr denser Py ee, CBivls~ Yoo, 

we: Sebllilivs 4 Nhs Elid dried 2 Corwen, a 
yp... AD livio: Ca 

Do htedt 4 Lig hit flen! Brtbives 


Ovthis Clitin ols ef Sep eed tohrche of feat’ eirpfan foe of Malic Goo. 
Qewmet celine! of? oe , laagreet eo Le tite, Oreste oe 

ene Dbscticl, Rist ln Lol: ao een theibe l dislsteel earl ikine reeves ferrasnered hy Be 
AG forntle Slice of Metlov pas 
He lo eel: Sheopey. g Nhe Sy Atti ntee | Guerre” wee 
Ke Moe hranveal Meliin’ of Lag eg hla. aie 
Lhe Mlanalese KLebiiv Bou er eae 

af Yi ot oriate Keo Shuery Vf Mag netee Mele’ Cs 


rare erecta etna 

Dauger of Ley 

MWMatosis F, wt hin Chae Discharges a Sart- 
é Leg hee be yiel Ooriceiataee 
5 Cpls Meg arnoscttout fadfier Chclecaluns Yes: 
: Coffer corse’ Sen On dlecclirs 

¥, J ae line 
iligrafelec Mg reelicne « 4 
; Lighiowng heals pie Srtabatish Yer, 

i Ourehy, ae, 4 


Pyslemn! %. 

: WA . ‘i xy 

° Oonidielirs meed. aerereeale “a Ves BR 

Dennis f Sgt Misi Cec Yo 

DO Losige Sac salle ~ Yo. 

: QDescryfiliin, ~, “4 fe Zao Yo Yay. 

‘ Cates RR erie als Ge. 

a a eed Cd Kbeant bf, es ‘hive Le abnteul ctrtarudesy ent for CPrdes b say Uy 

Op. Bsvarlha fan fer oe and ey Y, hevreelies Yo. Yes. te 

A lornalie! Qik eree, es fo Lbs et Cincher Ceol Ye 

LE bad Bene Ailey waethne « Made Mos Ye. 

oy ae wid Peaclan ay aa “G hes, 

A hear Ortrn! fon of , 2, Mhavinage hee. rae “Vis 

Oonubsicelein, Be Foe. Yo. 
eS SY 
yas 0 , 396 

Lefont G 


is Yau, 
bay bord: Rou, Yo. 

a 2 Jw Oeil? f- Us aS; 
Groen aes ae Z 

Ys ZL, Yor, Yoo, 
fies eA pte Li diag council 

Gites oni, 


Hlooe stab tr, trek: Lier tolerigt coces frstirlecl “Yh 
Par Voy, Sos Lob. 


“Con heelsiv 

o> OM pate Vad peceoced Mohs eg 

A nse ctl. oval iiig Cats Yes, 
Gittcriwit evatnclovacirs Meiliry Aelities and snece Sip flantion aft Breclecelirs Bry r6, 
Sferaow f LUM Peeve ents ifrenref Con cbaitiry “Yu Y. 

ret yao aii hg ftv te Conclave Vee 

Qn Merv G 

Fife, (4 San hes ia agar 4 Go. 

Lobtrng Ueladby, Kt | 
CO Eagles ow Leliiny Cd Bits Yo 

A Oins Ouscle damayedby, Yu, 

Cauvcomsfbans OM searbelisvalas foiiues ve BiitiePiss Bs, 

ad Loe Ble ps Yur, 
Saray heats GlManepleans Etddincy. Th 

Ab Dhrasliiing vbarialiiris rude ee. sneer Deen Centelell lecicheley Yer 
Somes faalcrits of ty AO Mame Td a 
A Prnscernarst int tu foegronry fihiw dascllsii decay Mesbisnays Toms 

Beaded Liskin oe Yes. i 
utc Shs  Cines Feo. 
Garferesrenits by, Drath aid delicn Tote 
Prenhes of, ow jl,  Uor. 

Leg hbiiveug Stivhe Ys, You Yee . 
Ball, Yoo You. 
“ beens dlrige, YosYfrz., 

Serve elbeervedl a Ceneer by LL Dinas Gey, 
DU bdards bfruns Bb. Gey, 

SO disse Ha ce bok as Oa 

OT RO medion x. Yh 

" theenvalsone m4 Sect Ye. 

hoses bs hisses eee Aes cent, efor eal bers Th 
Su alow AD. 184.  aiveais ' %, 

ines ECL 246, 

\ Mel of Seeasdmint ClDenl lenks “Yea, 
eh thgs. “Gs. 

brags ” “66, 

i E eee Ou blastic: Catevayps by Gof Myson ye Yes. 
f Seamer vay : EM. felon Cafere thes Sait of hate “os. 


in iS A Aerie ni nam ene  evney te 

¢ tvs xy omens Vat 
Bb Aes, abe Mh 
Atl, Thy 
kpeseond Wile Geli 

wf, Ae Mela REY ae 

- Meters Bice Yaw. 
Cteans Miter Yen. 
 Clslea., fp. 
Calspioriwld PoMeller Y. 
Chsrmecmabit (beinial retiline') %, 
(clfeancles’ Uy. 
Dyyecercerele ve echo, 7 breeds tte “y luge Gere bi Vey fy 
a Brahe bles Yay, 
” wMirscs Ty. 
eo hen 

LL. Mice Drover baler Yoo 

i, Deifarale bagh Mlals from thet Cres Yag. 
Lae er iy eee A 
A ifhintiin of lecbriiuly be tharubuctiourt brig of tebe Ye 
Maes hug hily fbilienofecsmbittnrtethee Matile “th 
 eatiuf lasting cov CrrcrrneaSRedusts “Gy. "tho.“fap 
: ‘ overs Solelas! ‘ty ; 
SF Coffer cash tron! fy hy. 
Cashes yao wel Melecl, felons "fy, 
Thenerrily frrveifp thy. 
frans Hove Bitlet Galera lasts ferespes “to. 
Wvereng nalitred Corres reared i Heceeee 463. fas: hs, 
eVnedll Atel plating Ua. 
NY 2S ok ERA TS Om 
Pyfer tececl Ly AL Mth boo ines Brats Merein Cigancers “Ge. 
Shialbees sitthed of filatiiig bent Nil wih trihel Gy, "ha, 
: Cee Sawcvlegateore) wu Llecleo.rndaller “ “fg, ! 
Heh aie vs hfucr ulies for Leclio plating ys. 
Dangers of Geloonders Ite hy, 7 
ehechelletuig aithent- a bathay "eed, 
Utfor thebuiphhtiiy c chs, 
Cacbie/ladiiig witte Barmatls —10fss.toy es 
Baths y Nalin; Serf, S24, 
Peefertecs y tleclok trial defruselicl snetels “3, 
Clabio-nelallargy of Cable. Yan to, 
| Nestle Leabiwinetatleeroy Pohey 
Calin flaliig Doeictd Feathers "yy, 
D8 4 hw Mathrd he Fof AM Might Mohs. 
’ Beate Alig fe eleclioly hs Ye. 
ert eee naimand ada welch. rnelallergy fad "166, 
, Cleche- Lae “fy, Bslley, 
‘ Arche flatin Mlent Lecott. “hy “hy. 
Ciel lofung the vent kernties ep 
: ” ae Lijres “Sag, 
a oi ie fet ay ‘tg. 
cbse fileale SP wethi Melati of bale +h, 
asl Sebecliin/ +e/s0 4, Mss, hye. 
Cag. Foe, Py Lecliclif., 
SSO a 
bas 90 of eb, “by. 

» 1A : Wr 
Lol 2 Opceead woth w, leery lerndl betel “he 
‘s is 

; y, ! Y;,: a ae i . . 
ell MMe teatind flint flit b Maron: fend) orien’ Bp 

Lheon waht Malin 

Coffer, foreullar bhavesr ofr Go, 
Col nibiae : 
SGrpdrogenta netal ea, 

Bichienié or th. 
Aosaageng by Srduction/ 

Ow AN Cecdd22Ence of Gilet ane flcise? ys, 
Listy rau feo Metered ty, 

Ux. , , : 
Se, Oat eal Mleretion. of 

SE rye ine penn enon teeta 

neg ee ee 

Maas ease ct ee eS gta ne 

: Sele igre Edesond 

Mey hs Ertetoves 

4 Pe Wes uly Rebel» ref, 
i Polarizing he cacleaned 

| Aelleiwebea ws LONG f 

Medaal bleticing , Si Uy mn 

Lo . Gyr. Ho, 
lo. Yay. ei. 


i : ae f- Suen. Lb we of. 
Y Cier denld Mehl bese t C4 Mbt es 

Ae “ede ofform Me! fre 0h ica 

Gf ve Pblecesiee? 

Be Heifepu' Co Conf Med fUT APNEA eecremtak ¢y Mg ceerren ld Vos 
PAs Ghanes canes le %G, 

ao Wa 
Me. Mo riale Mensredoaeeds f° Marler wo Secitnez: We 


Shy, Shy, Yoo, 13h, Yoo, 

' ee ight ; Mithad off "Spy, 
‘ of Elcrms Mera dl banp by Mortéii Aa tr 2 

og si 2 Neeted, a theltval, Ye. 




Hone ; G Moree aud Uelbciw Wor; Vigg- ; 

Masten , Sel afc at Barlow Sos. 

ia Mdieday ie SOn sane ot VUE Ee WYla 2 

Hing ip Mew taty at Bbc “bfike thee edt JESS ee, 



Aap d MG Quite Elity, vLogs ho- “Uy 


Cfthiséns me ral, “Sha, 

Marar- dale ofly neat % Liew Tirnell 

nner Bee Pre se aaa 


4 27, lagu 


i 210 

Updo asd Ler: aS. 
Mag ples, Sette. , be 7 
Lat, hey 
fh tf . KZ the 
Ee hoter sens te wth? Lalet ond Titferrclecl Hb 
lhe the. ak fou oe fe oF el legninle Meath Feared 4 4 %, ll ge 
fed Hierny oO Buz, Mey net C. 
Hone Wiles, hel os: “we Moantthe, el te eacl li #6, 

| Mecredrofies Hee bel. vaulted ¢ follecontretalig , Yb. 

fou Fene MM, 

Che ero dS WM, Oe obs . 

{Mecre fibeens’ H Cryflcs 

Seeekso e De 

Yow has, ‘fesittsy, bo. Hoh, hy 
Ra the Llafhene bs, 

ee Ah. tectrehed ow ge Fee vy of the, 2%, 

: Pfft Mediu “ths Va 

} | Mu melody’ Ii foc! Veh ow thes weltivie aud EL Live ls Thos 
Joy 9 y 

| Su also \ “ay OAN, Hoeslery, , Soon. 

A Sool, 

wih veel fae! ‘Mle: ren! “p, yo, 

ha és of. Magnes valeen/ oe 

bles wer, Ge, Uy Mp fy 

Seas fi on ds chalice csshewege thang ite np gaa Se, 

Aoresheceliin, “ ithe rercen Le Cay Mequon GG, 

Of Sie. wflaamend yi ls Cerbon/ oi C09e Lite Seon uf 7 

| Osunches onteMea tyreelie, Re bins Celaresalions My $s. 

Oferenan x wd. te hkl oollag euclsaliont an ae) Boag. realetatean Gunrandteal G 
Ov the Conuleletl wand Mery eee. bitonof Ve leah GG! Us, 

He. ye delar 




Dh YY, I, 
a «@ Mdfi he ind ofthe rnagnule Cave ees cy feonf ee a test % 

Safe yd ane. Magputiin’ p Soow Ye a fe 
Cn, hecleds hes elovalees conte 62, rnnguelisalions y “Sent. Gch Spon Jotul eal a 

orche AO, ay a on 
~y off jeclesig, ie 

Pring el 

Ne egnilics frcflertis fhe Mel, ‘anelDe baler vA yo 
iy aélicn? Y (Weat- wn Mag welivalisas ‘he 

Pel Lhegw/ ¢ orn hehe AM, ag nelesen(fe Ma, orclevon mys reat ai 


Mawes Hgraliiruttelat dled heas aii ie, 
| Ghverlealy f Lad hd - os, antes “Lg a 

| Pk w Ge, 
| herrenbiiol’ oe, 

: Orhkew D frcbict fox Words Geoifrwed wy, 

Ko Gein froraltirarnd piles elledier-teteeed aoftore, Ios. 

ted D is 
: Mlilliogy Lelie athe Tresverjils f Gy Mecrech & 
Lhclas *tlealule e: Vt Yay, 
L OG + G Le Il 
I else \. aul. coal binsformed tle helen 1S, 
lena ct hnicleclion: pf Ma lller Ml a LS ve 

LM My 
Amalya inating, den cece orl ebhler a 29. 

Cog , HY 
ee Mevg eels COILS Offecenesila ye 
hac 4 210 erad Ch ebrtcle bigs 

Seon Chaft remo wiih AE Re GY y 0 Magaret 

Ae of! oe Preerefocel Geves “77 hosel on’ Oe beeen Bhs 



ar rs Esa 


} i e/ Ceagueliio cB eee ead cstel ‘the if likesrey Dorn frees OG 5. 
Match, bro. yg." 
GS thane oe iy Gal Goo. 
Dikihisen pty Megarclitint uit fhe onlicr of Ma Meg neti 1G. 
SSS Ry PT ae Brunanents Moy, seer "Ope, 
Ard ee Mag nels hy, 
Moy velces dol J he, 
Su! fe wtiad Qe cae Gey 
oh: aagrecbce stim "E. 
a Luftacili, Go, 
He Gill. Mag buted Irs ‘Gee, 'his. ba. Gue fy Meg 
Loelge ow the jh of Llctie aby Gos. 
A Sébitw Me cegated "Goa! 
AM cies fatiire of Craton’ Mary sects “bh, ha. 
a ie (M Shonszont Merrmners be Gs, 
ee : is he tyrelies Melia ab the fawunt lire Gag, 
S Qe as es, rent Iron Sys Gop, Gog, 
etacadyialatle Dy fliter fr en ly aaa “ ths Cin fuss toret-e cwnighlt of Hawinly balers 
wr tonfiaty marke onihare atenck arate de Gu, 
cs ferrm of Moonie Vioiy chatle forfeulliil, tg orveeiins otk Hea lany waver Eb, 
é. homel frrcerees ferecbial Me, nrc! om ¢ 
chess Meg aces Chrcrvaten, Yoy 
Mag, noleis Fos Ope a 
ae inal, : Goa, 
Mb ols hate tM eig gavel Yu, hs, 
Aernagheabler, me 0d on’ thy ves Maynate oe % 
Megnilici Meredeaus’ be, 
eth: CL. fa Ma rch “98, 

Doser 4 “fe, ‘Dy “yche Ma scl Hee ae Uys Oe. Ta Mir vaiiin? : 

Perse, pe Magprtis Clan fen We try lessens Lhe Eos he, eeledy 
pee Gag oe 

be, Ee Sheeli onl Ve Mare anelede Saar My, 
! }vihe: Clit elraatiati of ees a a 
Y Locadeleire aud Tek Gog 

ore é ears papas wp f & he fli Me rgprelicin) a 

Law of he Ma wel or ing, were arn Ltheak Gy, 1, 
Che ag) TnL, year thin! a en ye 
Vee Z Oe Gob, ; 
; rom i ae as ass Lf 

BaenMebe Gya, 

Ree Tere br ma 5 

Meaguetiint Ji 4b Cove. Sm, LY A er Ae hewn andthe, La Me ces, Yop 

pi pene fow Att by hits Ma ten, ine Ue 
Je Lay 

Ow fiat f 

Bota Mesyeidlitend Seo Yoo, 
boenengey wWVbny Mea as Ger. 
ae Paver MAM pew Coan fe i fonte, cy bel “Ie, 
aay eye Moltew Srow, “, $2. : 

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hp P-dheriaon) Cfo bithernans Cree, ww teikeif Bs. AUS hinble Gry, 
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6 OreMithans plent Meth and lar acca Gas. 
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Clever aiid the combanatiine Yes 
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SI ithe ian 15 fy Benguet % 
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Menlo Park Scrapbook, Cat. 1001 

No. 1. "Galvanic Battery" 

This scrapbook covers the years 1873-1882 and contains clippings 
about batteries. There are 131 numbered pages. 

Blank pages not filmed: 111-131. 

ors ro ray 


977 Brond 8t., Newark, NJ 

{Juno 25, 1875 

sea. ‘hat you can all understand, as you know 
something of electrical decomposition. But there 
was"cno disndvantage. Ife found: that, ag the 
J copper did not dissolve, it became a famous plince 
for all sorts of zoophytes, ant alge, Larnacles, and 
{protozoa to grow upon; and as the ship went 
i Uivough the sea it became a living forest of ull 
1 theso things belonging to the vegetable and animal 
‘world. his was very inconvenient, and retardod 
tho ship, anit so thesa protectora had to bo taken 
‘jaway, when, of course, the capper—wearing away ng 
Lefore—was not covered so inuch with these living 
‘{erentures of tho sea, hat was an application that 
brought an unsatisfactory result, 

Another application was this—aud T do not know : 
why it ceased to bo used. It may, indeed, bo useit ¢ 
still for anything.I know. Some of you tried, I . 
dare say, when you went homo after tho first 
lecture, an exporiment with the zine plate and 
copper held on the two sides of tho tonguo, and You 
found that there was an unpleasant finvour, ‘Now 
the nursorymen tool advaninge of that property for 
uso in yordens, ant they thought that they could 
prevent soft animals cilmbing up their trees, I 
will draw a ketch of the arrangement :—Suppose 
wo havo 'n pint growing up, ‘The plan was to 
pul round the stem a little band of copper, and 
then a band of zinc, ‘Then ns the creature crawled 
along,—a snail, or alug, or caterpillar,—when tho 
little fellow was on the copper, and put his head for- 
ward, le came upon tho zine ; he did not like it, and 
at onco threw his head back; but ho tried it again, 
and still he did not like it: so at Inst, after various 
attempts, ho turned tail, and went down tho plant 

eT galvanic battery hay been applied sometimes 

: tM... Frosote finds that a. Grove’s battery. is most ! 
! efficacious when the nitric acid contains 40 per cent, af | 

Pi aad, ~~ 

TO Np ake Mer ennnenrmetsaa greg emnenrn sna 


A Counse or Six Lecruuns, 

Yullerian Professor of Chemlatry, Royal Institution, 
Detavenep at tun Roya Isatirution or Gniat 
Barra. —Cuntsrsias, 1874-5, 

(Contintied frona py. 113.) 

Lecerunn V.—Etxctnoryrina, be. 

*, I want—in tho remainder’ of tho lecture to-day, 
‘and in the noxt Iecture—to speak of tho practical 
‘ applications of the voltaic battery, aa 

», Yon aro all aware, I daro say,—at least every 
girl and every boy ought to be aware,—that if you 
yet Jold of a truth, it generally has somo uso, or 
outcomo ; if you get hold of a falschood it is barren, 
itis useless or worse than useless to yourself and 

to those round about you. If you find a real fact it 
will abido by you, and you can turn it in ono di- 
rection ‘or another, and make it useful in various 
ways. It is the suine with a true or a false theory. 

I gpuke of that in the lust lecture—did I not ?— 
with regurd to the theory of Galvani and the theory : 
of Volta, Gulvani's theory as to why his frog]is going fast, and mmuking oven moro noise than 
kicked’ was an incorrect one, and produced vory| before, But therd is a great deal more noise than 
little result, It would nover linve [reduced thega| worl in this caso; you will find that if wo touch it 
beautiful things that we havo upon the tablo hero ;]in any way it will snimedintel stop, The dificulty 
but Volta had n batter theory—an truer view. I do] is that we got very little mechanical work out of a 
not say that it was perfectly true, but it was n| galvanic bnitery. “These machines aro simply toys, 
nearer approach to tho truth; and that theory be-| and any atlempts which havo been made to apply 
enine productive, and led people to think and work | tho voltaic battery to Inrgo machinery ave failed, 
in various waya, and go wa lava these great reaults, | ‘The fact is that it is very much cheaper to burn 
and all theso beautiful applications, Remember, | coal in a ateam-engine than to burn tho coal in 
flien, that it is ‘a great thing to get hold of a true order to reduco the zino which is digsolyed in the 
{net or a true theory—great not only in itself, but} battery. However, thero is no mistake about tho 
also in the results that How from it. : power being capablo of production, and, of course, 
‘There wero various carly resulta from tho gal-} we can drive any sort of machina wo please. Hero 
vonic buttery. Ono thing that Davy tried was|is,a little locomotive—n jolly Hite thing, which 
this:—You know that the bottoms of gliips aro cop- | carries its own battery. It is a bichromate of pot. 
pered, in order to protect them from the water and j nah battery, 'Thero are two carbon plates and zing 
from the things that are iu the water, You know, | betweon, and the bichromate of potash solution ig 
too, perhaps, that the copper wears awny gradually, | put in thia cell. I have simply to lower tho zine, 
and, of course, as copper is a costly thing, it was |and there it gocs. It takes itsclf along very well ; 
desirable, if possibte, to protect tha coppor sheathing | but ff we had a train of carringes attached to it I 
of. the ships; and Davy Uhought that if he put/ think it would be puzzled to go on. I dare gay it 
Various pieces of zina abot the copper, the zinc | would hardly run over my notes, Oh, yes, it will, 
would dissolve and the copper would not, Ho tried }Z do not apprehend, .howover, for vtho reasons I 
it'with what woro called “ zing protectors,” on the | mentioned to you just now, that wo shall over bo 
copper sheathing of tho ships, ‘and no doubt. with poing along our Failways by means of galvanio 
very. good effect, becaugo tho alne did disgolve, and | batterios.:’ Coal must bo used in reducing zino, and 
tho copper waa: Brotedled in tho-salt wator of: tho | wo: can-omploy it botter for making steam, How. 

worked by it, Hero is ono which I will set foing 
with n little battery, consisting of two cells of 

forming of temporary magnets, Magnets aro nade. 

and unmade in rapid succession. Now the machino e 

to machinery, and we havo machines which can be ? 

Grove, ‘here it goes. It depends upon the i 

Sn ee aE a ENT A Cee Mek SOREN SOs CE ed 


Jane 15, 1878.1 THE THLEGRAPHIO JOURNAL, tas 

ever, thora nro many mechanfeat actions which do You to look at, But you underatand that wo never 
not require any strong power, and for those pur- | get any galvanic effect at all unless we have perfect 
poses it fs useful, It has been applied to clocks, }conduetion. ‘Tho medals which’are omployed must 
und hy the kindness of Sir Charles WVhtentstona we ; conduct the force, and the liquid, ninst conduct the 

, have ‘an electric clock in tho fute-room, Some. | force. ‘Therefore, at first, it was supposdd that it 

times clocks have been mado to work originally | might bo easy to copy a medal or a eoin, but that i 
with electricity, but I do not think that thesa ai would not ie possite to copy other things ah 
4o yood as clocks which re merely reguinted by fare not conductors. But there was ono great tise 
electricity. Wo ean attach a clock of this sort to covery made which brought about the copying of 
other clocks, und thus wo can employ common other thinga besides motnllic boitics, and it ia 
oheap clocks, ani Koop them timed by our standard discovery upon which, I think, an insufticient 
clock by means of e ectricity. These clocks are! amount of attention has beon bestowed. | Without 
employed for dropping time-balls and firing time: | that discovery it would have been impossible for ug: 
signals in diferent towna of Mogland, and this is {to produco all thesa effects which we obtain now 
done very cnsily, : by the electrotype, Some discoverers lave pa. 
Dut another application of the galvanic battery, | tented their inventions, and mado large fortunes hy 
which is more common by far than its application | them ; but the gentleman who made this discovery 
to clocks, is the ringing of bella. Mere I have aj—n friend of mine, long passed to hia reat—ditt 
aeriva of bells, ond here is n Leclanché battery | not think it worth while, or dit not care to patent 
of two cally, I believe Mr. Murray told mo that| it. . Ifo, at tirat, merely announced it, I beliove, at 
this battery haa been going fur x couple of yenrs.ja Soirée in this Institution, It was Mr. Robort 
Hho value of this particular kind of battery fs that Murray the father of Mr. Murray who lent me 
it only works won it ia wanted, and it weara ont} thoso bells and aome other things in tho room, 
very slowly. We have only to touch any of these} 'Lhia great discovery ounbles us to ten either n 
knobs, and the battery sets ‘something ringing, It{ plaster of Paris cast, orn gutta-percha mould, orn 
has also brought out’ this. mark —" Ollice” That} wax mould, into a condueting surface, Chis Brent 
shows that tho ‘bell is being rung from tho office. discovery was the application of black-lead to the 
Wo touch thia other knob, aut n bell is sot} surfico of tho east or mould, You Inow black- 
ringing, and we ving out tho word “Study,” so | lead, or plumbago, of ‘graphite. It goes by thoso 
thne wesee that the boll is bein grungy fromthe study, | various names. Here aro some tine apeelmens of 
Dy imorely pushing these knobs wo minke contact, | that black-lead; but tho binck-lead which is em. 
ont thug nre ablo to ring the bell. ployed in electrotyping is in a state of powder, 
. But a much more important application of the| Now black-lead is a very good conuctor of clec- 
galvanic battery {a to clectrotyping, nnd to electra. tricity, and we lave simply to rub these moulds 
plating and clectro-gitting, and to that subject I} over with it, Hero isa gutta-percha mould whieh 
nvite your attention during tha remainder of our|ia somewhat elnstic, iy of you enn prepare tha 
hour,” moulds like this, and thero” is no difficulty jn 
You may recollect that I have already spoken to| getting black-lead at home and rubbing it over the 
you about the sintple clectratyping trough, aul how} moulds, You havo then a conditcting surface. * 
wo can copy medallions, ‘Chis ix such a trough as| ‘Chen you twist your wire round the moutd, ant ie 
nny of you can employ. It is sold in the shops utr} you like to vartish the back of the mould so much 
cheap price. "hire nro somo still cheaper; but T/ the better, ‘Vake care not to cover tho back with 
have not brought a cheaper ono here, though some black-lead. Pineo it in tho bath, aud in the 
of ny own juveniles, with myself, tried. one Yester- | course of au how you will have the mould covered 
day; for while wo succeeded in making medallions | with copper where it has been covered with bluck+ 
wo did not think they were quite good enough to} lead, IC your first attempts are not suvceasftl, try 

ydteaant hefora you to-day, Ifowever, with this! nyuin, and then yor will be rewarded with sucecss, 
“apparatus Ihave no doubt that wo can easily pro- | und suecesa which comes ut Ing: after a few failures 

Ware what wo want. Here are the zine ant the}is moro valuable tin sttecess which comes in the 
medals, and there is the porous cell. | ‘Then we put {first instance, When you have deposited all yor * 
the medals ina bath, and wo pour into thia bath any | want, lift off the copper with your thumbnail, trim 

sulution of capper, Wo put into the porous ceil! it with pair of seisdora, and then you can bitrnish ° 
Visulpliate of potash, or common salt if wo please, {it up aud puta polish on it, or yout can afterwards 
und tho zing will dissolve in that. ‘his fun copper) —hy the process I shall describe to you pre 
wire, by which wo enn join to tha pides of zind iny | sently—cover the medal with silver, You'ean turn 

of thesu medullions we like, and then we have (hem it into n silver medal instead’ of 0 copper medal, oy.) 

hanging dawn nt the side, A geaduat change will [if yor prefer golt to silver, as gun people do, 
tnke place, which is represented in the dingram, | yout ean turn it into a gold medal. ; 

Where you"seo the inedallion hanging down, |” Now that is tho simplest kind of cell in which 
change is taking place, aud the copper is boing | you can produce this elcctrotyping, In practica it 
deposited on tho medallion, whilo the zine plate— is ofton actually curried on for commerciat purposes 
which is in the other cell—is being dissolved up at {in that woy; but if you do not want the electro: 
tho sume time, Any of you can try that if youj typing ona Jarge seale it is better to omploy n 
tike. We havo’ some thiigs which have been pro-|xeparute battery. ‘Chia ig a small Since's cell, 
pared in this way, * Hero, for instance, is a tittle} You may tke nny other buttery you like, It ig, 
medallion of Wellington, ‘This ‘}ins beon just | better nut to employ too strony nm battery ¢ but any 
taken out, and thero is the medallion witha rough {of tho forms will auswer. ‘Lhe Smeo and the 
outside but thore is no doubt about the perfection |Danicll are, however, perhaps tho best for’ this 
and smoothnoss of tho impresston itsolf. ° Probably | purpose, becauso thoy nct' constantly, ant. com> 

Atwilt-be well just to prsg:round some of these for | paratively slowly. You place across your trough a 


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By Mod. MORIN, . aa : 
, = ss Bors ft HHO JOURNAL. : tune #, 1875. we ; 4 4 
‘Ix a memorandum presented by me tothe Academy + ; ee ‘ . Tuna ty 1875.1 8 TELE i110 ‘ . H 
on tho 24th Jane, 18 21 described 1 sulphate of | author proceeded ton brlet relow of tho rival contact on in See ee re a = : 
copper couple, which I proposed: os suitable to + ant chomical theories whivh liad beon ndyanced to ; > ine bet low! - H | 
therapeutics, and in which the precipitation of the | account for tho nection observed in tho galvanie or : ae ins Delma alovly flubla,. tntcep one -aditttonat Intornal | Hulsko, tho author coneluted by saying that tho por- . 
we copper was avoided both upon tho diaphragm and ” \ voltaic cell, co } qo ; “Although inferior to Daniel's battery in tho matter tet enel for universal nse nuything in con. : 
upon tho zine, I was thus onabled to construct | Having shown that tho former was in direct oppost- ; of constancy, tho Tcolauché possesses » decided nestlon th tstegraphy will aver be necounted perfect : | 
me gome clements which worked oven after two years ° tonto tho principle of tho consorvation of cneruy, Bei advantage over any other battery which has hithert via still nv thing of tho futuro, and aust, when if } 
> ‘land ahalf, Unfortunately tho electromotive force ‘ fand Gant the nT festing apparatus inventor 1 ee Deon tried go far ag tho socond condition is coneornod, venta onan its nae ne ronliao on the | ! 
, i 5 tale . : rf : ‘ainco Faraday's timo lind ¢ ated : 4 bates Me aned a 6 j 
/ | u was execedingly small; and though its use might Hic eerie) ho explained tho latest theory which o No -nuteceasnry sroule can taka placo from either | giving In the work dono s complete oth stata of i it. 
H particularly suit one motliod in the application of - Shad heen put forward, ‘This reconciles to some etioed r diffusion, Tho defects whon the battery | materialy consumed, and inspira on tho th “hand 
A < | therapeutics, it would not bo so suitable for nuother , jextent the provions \hrecrica, for it allows on tho one is j : we a aCuine Iny in tho cosroaiya action which takes | tho perfect contidence of the Daniell in bein St : 
‘incthod, In somo cases n few of the couples auf. * Taind, to Ak wupporters of the contnet theory, tliat - ‘ , Vite pin ih ue wre: Ho connecting wits is united | any emergency, and aver ready to respond to what. t 
f ficed to furnish: tho necessary resulta, since tho ; the initiat netion is duc to the simple contact of dis. , ‘ necting wito by the fumes ol (cca antag 7 the con. | over demande nro mado upon it, t : 
} moderato intensity of the current was compensated * similar bodics, whilst on tho other hand it asserts 4 In te ostleurnd tha Latlcere cad: the tocar off} ‘Tho discussion on this interesting paper was f \ 
' for: hy its prolonged duration: in other instances, .- | ‘Hint thiia action ean Lo maintained only by chomism, : whitedlent,. ‘Tho first twos it was pointed oath adjourned, and resumed on tho 24th March; it again ; i 
on thio-contrary, a vory largo number of tho elo. ; i Tho weak point of this, howaver, te wel ag of tho a ; 4 heen got rid of toa great oxtent by tho introduetion ootupiat eee neta attention, of tho mectings on tho l 
ments woul bo imperative, but required for afow } sonnet ery? Ferrari od en Ais : of tho trougle form of Leclanchdé, but tho last-named cise. Tho Tnpae ang on Lt wae ually beought _ ‘ , \ 
te winutes only, : ee i 4 eo Obs u had not tha far boen erndi B i * ortainly form tho J 
BY ssf Tiwi to object of ocading th neenvenien Iie nee to ae Uk mde ume, oraoied, SU fhe us| moe cape of on ok ove stra ison Uh 
1 : | Mfattending the use of apparatus #0 bulky, and at tho” force AS" hora without the (enlenritallgiorean tonnes of, this battory, it was urged, fa tho porous! report of tho ditouasion. Ne | i af ne sony at 
SA {annie timo so costly, as ovidenced in theso latter ; ‘equivalont from some other form, it is dificult to seo its or partition. Whether in tho earlier or later form | upon by several well-known gentlemon Str aie 
e + (instances, that I havo just constructed anew couplo | ‘how tho simplo contact of two dixsimilar bodies can of i Meso corack: or fake, ovving to tho formation of tho| Walker’ entored onrofullg ints to. selative r. O, v. 
ey . Wavhoso:olectromotive force is much superior to that : ‘itself elt into play any novel form of energy. Ex- } atato of solution ‘nto “tho it thoy pass from no} grphite and other battorlcs, Mr. Hawkins gave : { 
of {tho:elementa employed for therapeutics up to ¢ periment, too, it would sccm, can bring but little ‘ resiated. "This anc tho iva ny ‘ form cannot bolintoresting dotails of tho Leclnehé battory. Mr. \ kt 
) . tho present dato. ‘Tho couple I rofer to ling a great i serance to ncatistactory solution of tla dittentty, ; rola denne Ho gel vane polar! uation dinquality | Alfred Bonnott read somo interesting statements i 
: } Wig *Yanalogy to that of Bunson’s, to which it is scarcely tint fo for Au ae i itso at preaont must be left : i atrain is to bo vlazed upon ft 2 Meet a crated te Peer ee aisha) pinonte with Togard to now { 
% inferior with regard to its clectromotive force. ° o tho scientific imagination, . a “Joeal," and cannot bo reliod + Dr. John Hall Gindstono spoko 
Y Unlike Bungon's clement, in which the carbon is, ajiaving potted out the deletar ie olfgats of igateanic ’ 1 ‘ tonaneo of a constant current. el anon forthe: anal She foe ea ne caer auee wallet } 
art rey ry * polurisatio: a : y : ; Mr. Ti, dry pr 
Plunged ite nitric eld te carbon of this hone H ty Latterieg aro more or less subject, the nuthor pro- ' tion at alt tn Daniele of having (f porous parti. | rosults obtained in the Post Ofice. Me digging { 
clement is surrounded with a chromic salt whose | ceodla to stato tho conditions whieh, in is opinion i { h ‘4 battery, tho * gravity" form of | doalt with batteries for requirements of largo tit, { 
preparation is duoto M. Faucher. Thissalt, barring Rd bo fulilted Us erfect battery’ f tun : attory waa introduced: in this the liqnids aro kopt| and oxplaincd those uscd by tho Exch ge quantity, | 
" the water, very nearly represents the chemical con- { _ [alrout lawcaee thee ace fern abe aed aro O8 ‘ i apart “by tho foree of gravity alone. ‘Tho Minotto, | ho also oxplainod and nhowed in netion the Company ; ; | 
a stitution of Jacobi's solution. | talloga se Mees y a , f no,af the, host a of tho class, is universally | Thormo-Hfcetric pile” (of whieh wo skal! ae i 
‘An iden of tho advantage of this new process | (1) ‘Mint tho owrrent obtained from it should bo i ; |! rtieroeon ie uettnd swell he for some special readers a separate description). Mr. Alfred Stoo, i 
may be convoyerl by the stotomont that to produce | - foustants iat \ ae ha i yitnetfon. Sugland, ina given universal Pai sane Sicroating particu ara of tho well-known 7 
i determinate effect the abovo apparatus is reduced 2.) Whon tho battery is not actually requirce : , . . ... Dr, Simons furnished further Hl 
to about one-eighth of the Bzoat the sulphate of : a thero should be no action golng on in it i auotifeations witch fe tntterg Matented tor. a a Seunsnnsanley Mr. Proceo entered into minuto detail i 
copper apparatus, and it does not require cither ; attended by a needless concumption : nso in tolegraphy shoukt firey “tho current Baek an lig Ghecorssnent at a batteries ae 
maintenance or supervision. It is shut up, and Gy uanterin employed in ike. construction , . , obtained from it te not constant for any longth of} attention to tho dificult nature of aicatoal amen : 
‘ Veonsequently of ensy transport. Moreover, ono of 3° Med insintenanea. should not bo expensive, iN fimo: thero is a vigorous chemical nction attended | clature as at presont adopted. Mr. Warren Do Ia x 
| thego elements hna heen working for several ‘months, seen ete ate. should by a8 inexpensive ag My \ with unnecossary waste going on avon when tho] Ito showed his chloride of silver battery of too 3 ! 
[these cleineats ina been we Lhd apace urs at ah ove te eben ality oe i 5 battery is nt rest, and tho” matoriala omployed in it} clemonts, and with tho afd of condensers ind vacuum H 
: “and, having regard to its presont condition, Thopo hee er a hondling thou, : aro bath expensive and dificult to handle, “Notwith. | (ubos exhibited various oxperimunta ou tho stratifi | 
its duration and constancy will yet last a consider- ‘Tho Dani a ia wolected’ as tho frat battery for -° { ‘ atanding all this, Grovo's battery was largely omployed | tion of light. ‘Tho diseneston after a roply from the : 
bl : eae . ‘ examination, not moro on necount of tho time. ‘i : until quite recently in America, So also was tho| author, was brought to n ‘eloso with Dona ablo ; 
*: Sees £ PSS SOO as * | honoured position which it occuptes, than from the , spartalr oF yatzoroton eatery sacl iutore foi Tangri {fos tHe peeellents ; ‘ 
, , fact that in one or other of its numerous modifien- i s volution “of Iichromnke Of carbon immersed ina} oo. . e, men tPA tices ies Ca een sa 
; ; ; vf potash ns tho negative; MV aby HW q 
To a Danie llr, , ctl ies a ptcor ginseng |. eS. 
‘ 4 ioneldt., Both of them aro now fast disappoarin ° deo its “ae Tanit Be 
and tha »muechauieny oF ane “rdinary : ior let Ae \ in favour of ono of tho ntnerous forms a Trnvity Murnsné. W ATTH AND Co.,‘of Baltimore, an enterprising 3 
ie battery fulfilled moro than any other, tho first | battery, tite Callaud, the Hill, tho Lockwood, tho; ee toleginpty: material: nnd clea’ real apparatus ; 
{ y a } K i Fi kera, ted ov" dd effective Battery — ; : 
i conto Hit ot conta ee H but Vint na fend 6 rt ho Callaud, which isn gravity battery puro and! Tnuulatorsof whfel weglronuliiog enilon. ‘Phelustlator i : 
Unneecssary’ wasto of materials is constantly golng on i ample, fs hat which Ig coming into most extensive i red th ron tho {a dntotaod to lo tnertes into miele? * 
7 e 4 i ‘ tise in America, Complete rest, so ng to provont tho: {bored throug h tho battery framo when the cell or cells ‘tt 
in it by zoey a eae ul the inn on a ha H : imixttro of tho two liquida, {s casontiatin it as in all! of the battery nro placed upon it, From its peculiar | 
sult each are employed, ‘and Tio fomount ‘ot f ' , Shailat ‘ene of gravit ee dor. oflcient working, form theso cells nro maintained freo from moleture, a 4 
real work dono. is thus out of all proportion to tho i satisfactorily fiat fs ro ire i aad “appoats: 2): 
matorinta cousumed, With the object of surmounting \ ithe ape i ft Hit 3 ror red of it. : 
‘ this ovil, which is inheront iu allforms of two fluid : “ pecinl feature of tho Lockwood fs the nrrango- j 
es ea Phecth mk ww bntterloe, M, Leelanché introduced tho battery duoniti othe pegativa clement, It consists of two; , i 
tie Es nner esr Trem See o, MY chia, although admitted to rio coils of coppered wiro, and an upright: { 
i which bears his we Th i it batt admit Wy | standard formed of n straight ploco of heavy copper F i 
Proceedings of Socicties. bo suporior to at gr Preah batterice jeer { wiro provided with nuts and washera at cach end.! ? ¥ 
5 jane tho disadvantages to which thoy aro aubject Ghee 7 Those colla ara wound in roverso directions, and the: | 
ROOIETY OF TELEGRAPH ENGINEERS. slanoy ie not to bo fuund in tho battery wvhon it a j influence of tho electric current passing through the | : 
‘At the ordinary meoting on Wednesday, roth March, | incessantly worked for any longth of time: tho varia- ! BR coils when tho battery ia at work, is auch as to keop : 
Mr. Latiaen Crank, President, in tho ehnir, ; {ion in the strength of current is nitributed—frat, to | te By the nrorelotra ef the buttery. alesse, i 
G y a o : * 1 
Tho paper read was “On Battertes ‘anit their |tho unconsumed hydrogen accumulating in tho nega: j thero is ‘nny special virtue or not in this ereangoment| H 
of the coppor plate, the author was not at preaont i 

Employment in Lelegraphy," by Jastes Sivewniour, | tive clement, and the giving riso to golvanfe polnrisa- 
« Associnto. After stating that it was not hia |tion; secondly, to. the formation of double salts— 

Lorides “and ziuo nmmonic chlorides—which 
g : : 

prepared 10 809° ston to tho Balti batter ai 4 hecauso it drips directly to tho framo-stand or into a 
tho: form manufactured b Me ae Bl attory, aud Trough arranged for the purpose. ‘Tho insulators can 
: il by Messrs. Biomens an bo mado of any insulating material, but aro mostly 

: manufactured of glasa and poscelain, Already they 

{ Faro oxtensively uscd in -Amerien, and Mr. roscott, 

+ Pelcctrician to the Wester Union Telegraph Company, 

1. predtéla that thoy will-como into gonernl usc. That 

; | gontloman's opinion {s- tho reanit of an achuat 

| personal aequaintanco of the uso of over fiftcon 

hundred of thom, ©.) , 

{utention to cnter ufo the history of {ha battery, the | oxyc! 

PA rte ution 


“T distinguish; lowoyer, in the hydro-batteries ‘ 

weighed beforo the experiment, 21°859 gr. After]: 

fincly-ground substances, such ag yormillion, sulphate ‘Of tho zine dissolved, Now to preclpitate 3000 grins- s: Faraday found that distilled water, in 

. Nature, Vols x. No. 245) Suly 9, 1874.0 |, ' é ~ ay ee a aceace at oe : . sBenerall yy those chemical and diffusion processes, 
: | ‘On Vaporising Metals by ilectrletty The following | Les Mondes. Vol. xxxiv., No, 6, june a 874 ; | Pit cube ly studied by M. Paalzow in nrecent | ial Aigo bak teat with ig open elrenit, from those |; 
‘Tatnyplo-roaulta obtained by frictional electricity may bo { . Electrolytic Pile-—M. L. Maicho.—A doscription o [ , er - of oggendorffa stnnalen, — Kolilranach | ae h are called into play through elosure of the 
of intorest; porhnps, tno, of uso in tho investigation 7 - ‘ this battory has alrondy nppearad in our pagos (sco sae f Alone appenra to have previously endeavonred to; ~ ‘cirenit, It is only to tha enlorific values of the 
of certain minerals aud tho netion of intense heat} * ‘menronarnte JounNat, vol, i. p. 173)+ One gonerat |i os dotormine tho electromotive forces of liqnida by tho Intter that the compensntion for current work can ¥ 
upon them, ‘Tho description of n okinracteriatic expe- | consequence of tho construction of batteries ‘ia the {f:. . f =electrometric method (Poy. Ant., Ba D2 : jhe attributed, ‘This may be explained with al: : 
Vinent fo all that will-bo necesunry to explain tho|- t wonr of the elements composing them, oven whon:tho M. Panlzow repeated his ex: eriment “7 Dy 200). Daniell clement. If in constructing such wo use]? 
‘process, and to show how similar veanlts may ho ob. i otroult is opon: henco if thoy aro tnused for noveral succcas, ‘ho quantity Bot 7 iat i He without amalgamated zine, which, befire closing of the cir- j 
_oiued from othor substances. A very fino thrond of | nye tho current fs rapidly weakened, and porkiaps Le- but often exceeded by ‘olectricitte 3, whill ronal cuit Is hardly attacked nt all, then, after closing, 
“teheot platinum, of about an inch in tength, is placed comes nil, ‘This Inconvoniunce, very serious oven for 1, sulatora of the menswcing 8, Which tho in- tho entiro enlorific valuo of the chemicel Ss 
’ Wotwoon two mieroscopio allies of glaas, and two plecos ! bustteriea at rn wwoak aleoteoraotise fores, auch ae thee te and which, in the taaniputationa tnt nroacessene ‘the battery is equivalent to the enrrent-Wark, Tf : : 
jof thin shect copper with rounded onds are placed in need in telography, necosuitatos Tho cual alwaya recur. i ‘however, Unamalgamnted zine he tuken, there nre |: 
: i 1, tho + to pieces of thoso of higher power cach timo wo conso | bean _ ¥ q ig o taken, { 
FETT eee ee tara brantte i as! : : ‘ them, bo it for ofow Trowes only. Those dint: With aid of the galvanometer, on the other hand, ¢ two chemical phenomena to be distinguished—the 
“Neo oxtona Beyond tho glasa slides, but not to bo ns’ ‘culties disappear with-tho clectrolytfo battery; tho somo goal regults have been obtained. Wild hns { Missulving of the zing which would secur even in 
tbrond ; 0 chargo of clectricity from about 8 square fect | | only attention consists in changing tho zines when |; shown that there aro liquida which follow, Male the open cirenit, and that whieh is produced by the 
‘of Loydon jar is passed through the metals: tho effect | { they aro used up, and in renowing tho acktulated water. Jnw of tension : Duets lic series of members of t} current. T have convinced myself by experiment 
of tho hont from the chargo is 40 ynporigo tho plnti-{ ‘Tho exponso is t contime per hour per cloment, for nf} tion of tiNtitict x “ igheat value of electromotive | that the purely chemical dissolving of the zine in 
‘num, which is instantly condoned in n transpirent { purfaco of 3 jaro Speirs of sored Hines ‘ant iy Liquid tte niained Worm-Muller con the glosed circuit is equal te that whiel: would 
flay . veslie] : a of this surfaco will uso up in tor fore . sotively. ini 5 ocenr in the open circuit, and tha “work 
(ASAE serena ria tetteae| Ha eas ais aA a ala Keytar ey th lyons oc 
{to dotermino the charactor of tho ‘motal and its offect ‘Joss of the mercury may bo valued at 10 contimes, and wards all liquids, fr ween water 2 “dissolved by the current, 
H % i i ho sulphurio acid entines,~-total { { no difference ef tension hetween a 5 : 
“fapon roflected or transmitted light, Copper, tin-foil, ! tho expense of the sulphurio acid 20 ¢ i Airy hias found i L that the thermal currents A Daniclt clement was constructed, the zine was 
Min-foll amnatgamated with mercury, gold, aml silver, 1frane, If the proportions are accurately calcutated, | and nitric acid, ant Tiqnida nro extremely not amalgamated, the cireuit was opon. ‘Tho sul- 
‘oan be used is 2 staal, manner, bitt they produce aud tho sen cutraly used, wo ona depontt in 8 fale Wativeon water, eae oe atele cteadiet this phurie acid hind 'w ap. gre 043. "Tho zine plato : 
loyors very dissimilar iu appearance. ‘To act upon < yanic bath a pound of copper equ / enlent |: wenk, ‘Tivo ather frets F ; : | 

; hypathesi vo tho highest remnining twenty minutes in the open circuit, it 
‘of antimony, sulphur, ce., a line of tho powder must ‘of copper wo must havo 1127 grins, of zine, whence it. Fetion with other substances, gave the highes! ame Bt aN per q 
tho mado, and tho chargo bo passed through in, tho follows that the Kilogrammo of coppor doponited by : Weer and Quineke, that diaphragm-currentsare wolghed a1414 § Hy having (hus leat o 745 7 : 
‘samo way as through the platinum. Part of tho vapour means of the electrolytic battery's current will cost considerable only with distilled water. lg st nt Af numer clement was mada 18 like the 
oscapes from batween tho slides, but this can casily bo i franc, Boventy eleruonta used to produce tho olce. | MM. Panlzow's observations refer chiciy to the ‘first as possi ie, ‘The circuit was closed, and the 
‘eondensed. upon cach of two pieces of glasa placed in linia light eont bout 50 centimes an houry Mf. La! influence of the nature of tho separating surface on; voltameter inserted (with copper electrodes in sul- 
* ‘Ig ‘such a way asto intercopt tho vapour ns it passes from ‘Maicho says that “ tho electric curront follows a direc. ; influence 7 ne aiatttie constancy of this force, und | phate of copper), ‘The unaimalgamated zine plate 
: betwoon tho two stides; it is then condonsed inn Tong} ¢ ition contrary to tho genorally received opinion, and is; ‘ electromotive foi ae earrent works i i weighed, before the experiment, 21°893 gr.3 aud | 
‘but narrow lino, ‘ho which the glass in In faut of tho highcat importance, meriting an attentiva! : H the compensnion bee ora Nave thought itindispen-| after the experiment, which lasted twenty minutes, 
‘affected by ae Heat and tho Ce produced by | oxamination, According to Mi ald eory te Stang : ae See ath rae faco af separation belweer 20'927 st having thus lost 0°96 gv. Inthe eopper 
tho oxpansion of tho vapour. aro worthy of notlco,; { goes into tho conducting wirefrom tho trou qa oe : sable to liv paar re . ; {voltameter ovag4 yr. copper was separated ont. E 
‘Considerablo difficulty will bo found iu vaporising | -. 1p tho zine, Does not this theory suppose tho oxist. ; the liquids. ML. Dinlzow at Gaines aa Nhe quantity a7 zine cnivatent to Ants, whose | 
coppor, doubtless from its being such nn oxecllont con. enco of on offcct Leforo its cause, confusing Overy Ox»: : ey ition. Mo specially studied a hq) hate of zine, separation waa attributable to the current, wos} 
‘ductor. Somo of tho powdored substances appear to : anation, ‘and rendering rescarohoa based on {ta : isting of uinalgamated zinc in sulphate of zine, aaa Tn the closed cirenit th ‘as thus | 
srequiro 6 small spark to bo passed through them boforo vital lex very diftcult?’? At a futuro timo tho} ae hydrated sulphuric acid, distilled water, sulphate Sieat ar 1 ti he oa ciret then was i ans 
‘ thoy allow a largor chargo to pass, as if tho particloa r rf 4 {ses o polut out * other not love important: ‘tat vith amalgamated zinc, ‘The fiquids were dissolved by the purely chemical process, which 
cad t E 0 author promises to p L of zine with amaly one taining | also occurred in tho open cirenit o'966 gr.—o'a50 
«wooded polarisation. . : causos of error’ whose study hoa been too much ; in a sories of large Ustabca, it We tol isin mi Geogi Ga his quantity of zine is hnost ‘Po 
ree wee em PE ge rape imag stam neglected until now. ' Zine, the second sulphate ot 2 } ome pheaes 4 
eras ; 7 Us poe cris shh fe Delta of ST calle hard sulphuric ned aul als: F sama, sthe first zine plite fost in. .the open | 
5 yhato of zine, th ri ; 
J ve . ~ tilled water, the fourtle bag aut athe cleetrode of With tho some Ind of zine and sulphuric neid of i 
Ne? Yar al. ef ! 7. e 3 Ww ys the fied baryons ¢. ‘Tho zine electrodes wero tho ae specilic fravity, Several experimcile hae 
ek Ata / ' 5 an RE rue Ong analgama Ve 1 nitror-compass nud ; hnade, the results fully agreeing with those described, 
: ? F connected with a Wiedemann mirr Y i This appenra to mo important in reference to tho 
3 saat anita . . | contest between the chemical and <the contact 
“|” Prof, Macueop mado a communication * Ona Simple), ; = sheinfeal proces ini tha; theories (though I cannot hero pursite the subject 
. | Apparatus for Showlng Internal Resistunce in Battery ‘ . Wists ron Ustso tan Carpavpy Bartreny.—In using: caso of lyiit hatcoriets tho she ea Tandy those Tien 6 pursi : y 
x i) Celle." Two tuber about half a motro long, aud ono a tho Callnud battery for telegraphic purposes, it often: 4 battery itself, it readily app fant -electrorno If, now, wo were to ascribe the current-work of 
‘ of which fa twico tho diamoter of the other, aro closed “4 happens that the connecting wires aro enten off by its batteries can furnish a eonsiatt liquids contain liquid Datteries to the calorie values of the diffusion 
‘at their lower'onds with corkr, On the. corks, aud oH cnergetio nctlon, Tho remedy, saya the T'élegrapher, foree, in which all the constituent a srocessea, it must only be those whiel appear in tho 
‘ within tho tubes, reat two discs of platinum foll, con. Is to atinch tho wiro nf the bottom of the copper plato, cither the same noid or the samo radical, | Trosed circuit; and ovidenco must he furijshed that |: 
“i nected with binding-scrows by platinuz wiros passin, and havo gutta-perchn to proteot ft all the way down According to the principle of consety ition 0 ae yo tho diffusion “al lace dilferently i the closed |: 
, through tho corks, ‘Tho platinum plates ara covor to Sts lowest polit, Whon oi! is used on the furfneo we expect i compensation in the battery itse or hh it from th Kes thes eel Tit] yn hel if ' 
j with small quaritities of chloride of silver, and tho of thia battery to provent ovaporation, tho zines ina j tho current afforded. Tn tho battery undor cont circuit from hatin thoopen, Hitherto, such proof]; 
‘tubes aro filled with a solution of chlorite of zinc. + bo readily cleaned—of tho deposit of black oxide with ideration, sulphate of zine, hydrated atlphuric! is wanting. But according to tho experimenta. 
‘Eneh tubo is provided with a disc of amalgamated; ! which tho oi combines—by dlpping them in a solution rite ter, sulphate of zine, one would seek this) with tho battery, sulphate of zinc, nmurintic neid, |- 
-‘aine soldered to n long copper wire, which is. well * of caustic soda nud water, and scrubbing them with a fel Wee ay 'a enloric processes between the : acetate of protoxide of zine, sulphate of zino, the i 
fortknt nf RS UE iT Cra Hee Ta | Common battery braslt, It isn good plan in telegraph a NTH uid MO From theso tho chemical pro- | current here can neither bo attributed to the one 
“,j80 that thoy nearly fit tho tubex, ono being exnetly, © ofticos to place tho Callnud locals In a caso with shelves constituent Hat oo t their enlorifie values, are, 05 | nor to tho other, inasmuch as cokl is produced by 
‘{ double tho diameter of the other, and therefore ex- - and glass doors, on tho walls of tho room, aomo 4 or 5 censes, I reference siminated ; there renin for the diffusion, . en [3 
iPasiug four times tho surface to tho nection of the «| feot from tho floor, in order that thoy may always bo } previously et i at sronesses of difusion, ‘Lo Lincline, therefore, at lenst in tho ease of liquid |’ 
ay sttees ue cevrous ott be foals Tenraaie md ta pala eights : Se Ht to those M. ranlzow thinks impossiblo, | batteries, 40 Nobili’a opinion, that the currents}; 
° aser! 0 Me i 

ees sia oucrout wit be ne ° snarenta WY to ray eee found a battery in which, throngh pro-; 
: minished ‘uy lower Fhe zine Mate in the tubo. ‘in os . oe  tueion only coli is produged, and whic 
“order to obtain the amo deilcetion of tho galvang- #3) Je \ ‘. A . iy csssce of ie F natrong current this is th o Pombin 
motor by Shi nnerow cell, the iintahen hotweon tho : Vw Yiy UMMA one | ‘ \ ‘ ; Mot: Sulpliato’ of ‘ane, ruurintie acy tape 
i u \- ween |- . i ' te i ot | 
those of the larger O10, Brusett ae Seay Wear Pe ee Ferre josie: ane srntextte et ste ‘tituaton process here, murinti 
An foding battery hos been described” b} “7 * electrodes. Of tho di P 

produced by them have similar origin to that off. , 
thermal currents, and that the componsation for the. 
ourront-worl: is to bo sought in the heat absorbed } 
from without. I am nt presont occupied in ox- 
| perimentally testing this view.” 

Tho apparatus may also be used to show that op. + % cclron ( ine gives a lowerin. 
[poet celle of tho same kind will not produco a current, : - fir A.B. Taurie, ya, Siaimied that tt some ; ae ned nee Aerie with acotate of 
‘or this purposo the platinua pies ara connected. an olectromotive force ractleally constant. § of tem arate it acetate and aulpliate of protoxide 
-[togotter, and thetwo zine plates joined to tho galvano- og | Carbon and sino plates: dip into a solution of protoxid sxeil, givo no change of temperature, 
v°, (/jmeter, No current will flow, whatever tho. dl stances ' ere | toding in fodide of zinc, tho fodiue preventing | - G of zinc mixed, 
‘{between tho plates: arane | volarization, . The ztuy ahould not be amalga- 5 

4} inated, and should bo. removed ° 
| Hon, when tho cell 1 wok workin Ne ‘tosted 
by'a quadrant electrometer, the clectrontotive 
| cores was very. appbroxtmal ely: ony volt, and 
hour's short eireulting,:" Ae pe en 


FORCE or |" 


tT was demostiated ‘by Graham, in ona of his 
‘erearches, that palladium has a powerful at- 
tractive force’ towarda hydrogen, so that it’ can 
condense, in Its pores, more than goo times its own 
:| volume of that gas; and further, 
thus condensed amt combineil } 
repeated «| power of deoxidution, 
Platinum ¢} oxide. of iron to, proto 
gen), that: | ferrocynnide 
~ reudily ox | ceived hy 
polished 1 fand cond 
by acidule | ozone y 
* From researches (especially 
tromotive force of gas:l 
that this force depends not only 
Minitics of the constituent gase 
[Power of condeiisntion of4tha so 
the clecttores. 
inotive force of ny 

repnred oxygei. With palladinm clec- 
Hitnomena: is still moro comptioate 
hd oxote from the eli 

tliat the hydrogen 
tad’ at yemarkable 
80 Uhat it reduces sults of 
Nido salts, nit changes rei 
of potassium into yellow. Ie con 
ydrogenium (the hydrogen thas combined { 
ensed) ns the netive form of that 

hemical decompo ; 
milladium neting ina voltameter 
je Lecomes-coated with n dark 
oxide'of palladium, 
ed in unrcidulnted water, and in a 
je motal tukes its original properties; 
ther, ns a atrongl 
ervations, Inelud 

or silver wire rolled round the pot,: ,The spires of this , 
wire are sufficiently wide apart to avoid capillary action : 
and as they enwrap the pot they come In contact at an 

infinite number of.points with the liquid which exudes 

It is at all these numerous points of contact : 
that the air exercises its, oxidising action ;and: effects ! 
depolarisation, The battery can be charged with liquid ; 
and discharged again by turning ,a‘tap..1f zine and ° 
, liquid be supplied it will last indefinitely, because, the j 
air is always at hand, The electro-motive force of 
ic potash solution iss 
th pure ‘sulphuric’ ac 

This oxide ia 

oxitisiny body. 
that of the timo 
ing of the palladium with hydro- 
plain tho difforcucesa obtained in the 
rmparative oxperiments with platinum 

those of Butz) on 


on the opposite 
but alio on the 
i bodies forming 
the high electro: 
as-battery with platinum clee- 

Lo this is owing’ 

coll charged with ca 
From these data Prof, Villavi, Yolts on'an average 
tizipato that a gna-batter: 9p 

trades would present a still 

of Bologna, was 
y with patladiam 
renter electromotive 
electrodes; and his 

contact «| led to an half an hour after they pave, in: the 
» & constant deflection of Go® 
appearing cleetro-negitive, He alse 
amilnr electrodes wilh chetienlly 
lrogen, nnd thoy gave ne enrrent fn 
He then formed with dheso 
gaa-hatterics,-—tha ono with platinun, 
Ir palladium olectrotes.—put them in 
ion, and closed the cirentt’ with (he 
vhich gavo an initinl deflection of 
With oscillation—to 20° or 3 
and after somo time to zero 
licnted n suporiority of tha palladium 
Ag soon an tho galvanometric. defleetion 
d sunk only a few degrees, ho author conipared 
means of the galvanometer, the platioun 
ndium in contact with hydrogen, and ob. 
tained n constant deflection af Go" to 70°, 
before this experimen: 
trodes had not, durin 
Tle compared again t 

the hydre | elec 
force than ono with platinun 
oxperiments have verified this, 

i le first tried to com 

motive fwree of two 
Uitinum, the other wi 
dium is i] secondary actions prov 
forced (o reduce the p 
they ure 4 forma, and then study 
may thus] the comparative action of 
hydrogen | jy hy 

ware directly tho clectro. 
8 clements,—one with pla. 
palladium electrodes: b 
ed go disturbing Uiut he was 
henomenon to its mo 
Tle thug examined, firet, 
platinum and palladiuis 
then he compared the netion of 

when the circuit waa closed’ bya shunt of to ohms - 
during 10 minutes, the clectro-motive force diminished 
nt 1 < and ‘it “returned ‘to ‘its" original 

it had bédn operied three minutes,’ 

about’ 16° per ‘cen 
value'after the ele 

Aydrogen, anu uppe 
quite immersed in ncidutated 
tho foregoing investigation, ther ry to 
@ the palladium, which can be dono in 


it is neceasnry to 

ion of oxygen in yas-hattorics with pla- 
finum electrovtes is very complicated, Prof. Villari 
commenced by taking two ordinary gins tubes,— 
ono containing 2 platinum, the oth 
plate, both motals well polished,. 

t: so that tho teyntive ¢ 
this process, lost Uieir uction, 
0 two platinum and palladineg 
electrodes covered with oxygen, which at frat, a 
atated, gave no deflection; und remarked tut the 
latter gave a strong deflection of 50° to Go’, the 
pearing as the attackuble clement «if 
the combinution. 

This observation, repeatedly confirmed, is nn ine} 
ication (M. Villari says) of ‘a secondary 
tion of the battery with pal 
dium electrodes, and which weakens its: inte 
(HL it is nearly equal to that of ti , 
A similar phenomenon occurs with the pla- 
80 tint tho platinum cannot be used as 
electrode of tho palladiuin batte 
ther, if ns soon na the galvanometer conn 
tho opposing batterien has been deilected only a few 
degrees, wo close ono of tho circuits for a fow 
minutes with a short copper wire, it ia found, on 4 
removal of this, that the nection of the other hatte 
Preponterntes, on necount of ti 
actions which wenken moro {) 
‘0 than that closed with the long 
yanometric coil, Annlogous observations and 
parisons were mado on batterie: 
electrolytic hydrogen and with 
+ and similar 
ry | haps leas warked thar 

tho. leas cleotra-chemical :dftfure 

tinum and hydro; 


“The Fuller battery, now extensively used, is 4 
romiate‘of potash battery, 
terior glass: jar containing a, 

or a paladin 
—and giving no 
the galvanometor, when the tubes were 

Ho next halffilled 
Prepared oxygen, and 
after a long time, the galvanometer 
alll remained at sero; wheneo must bo inferred 
cither that the metuls had no particular influence 
on. the oxygen, affecting ity netion in any way, 
or dint the influctice in both was the same, 
tecide this ho took two 

modification of the’ bit 
It_consists of an: c 

Med with acidulated water, 
both tubes with chemically 

solution of bichromate of potassium (1‘part bichro- | * 
observed that, 

inate, 3 sulphuric acid, and g water), in which the 

cs Inside of the glass jar is 
& porous cup, the bottom of which is covered with : 
a layer of ‘mercury to the depth of half an inch. 
The zinc is cylindrical in form,“and terminat 
a foot which rests in the mercury: ; ‘The remai: 
portion of the porous cup is’filled with a solution * 
of sulphuric ‘acid and water, ‘one part acid ty, forty ; 

sof water,’ ‘The improvement claimed by the’ in- 
ventor consists in maintaining the zine always 
standing in the mereury, which renders the battery , 
Very constant, Its clectro-motive force is about 
double thatof the Daniell, while its internal resist 
ance is low, and, even when the exterior resistance + 
is quite small, the. battery remains rema: 

carbon pinte is placed. 
appearing in tho ac 

to platinum ele 
Polished platinum wires, 
merged in neidilnted water, pave no 
* he then filled one of the two tubes with 
chemically prepared oxygen, and kept the other 
Ii acidalated water; a alight « 

peared, which quickly decreased to nit, 
ul with oxygen’ acting 

some time ag electro. 
It is therefore clear that an 
negligearble, is nso to 
i plate covered with 

netion of this kind, perfectly 
bo attributed to the palladiu 
oxygen; and it may therefore bo aflirmed that these 
metals linve no special influence on this 
rees withthe nlready 

he ordinary secondary 
to battery closed with 

known fnot tint neither 
oxygen when 

hemically prepared 
‘emulta wore Jind, thy 
» corresponding to 

serving in a voltamater ns positiv 

‘Tho aation of oxygen is, on the other han 
lively when it is obtained electroly 
vthinsenge tt is mixed with 
“ ozone.’ M. Villard, usin, 
“obsorved’ that tho ono: d 
‘wns strongly -électro-pos! 

f certain quantity: of 
two: platinum electrodes, 
ipped ‘in ozoniaed oxygen 
‘9 towards tho’ on 

geniacd palladium. : 
Mari compared (wo batteries (o- 
ro charged with hydrogen aud oxy: 
eotrolyically. thirty to forty minutes 

gethor, which we 
gen doveloped ol 

FS ee ce 

hose | 

Dantell~sulphite of copper inthe lo 
nd sulphate t 


i ‘This battery has 
the Italian: Telegraph’ Company: and | 
Railways, Its'.cost’is’a°s0 francs 

‘a5 ‘francs for-a'Callaud’of: equal’ * 

- Current .(Lluatrated).—M,  Trouy ‘ 
pparatus containg 40 or 80 elements, and its volumo 
Joes not exceed 2 or 3 cuble declmetres. Ench of tho 
Hloments is composed thus: betweon two dises, ono of 
feopper, tho other of zing, aro placed a number of 
round picces of blotting paper; one hinlf of the roulean 

j has becn saturated with sulphate of copper, tho othor; 
half with sulptiatoof zine, Tho cloments nro arranged 
! for tonsion, in a caso of hardencd enoutchous, and: 
: About a conmunutator and galvanomoter; tho whole. * 
: being enclosed inn mahogany box, Wheu tho Apparatus: 

+ Ia to bo used, tho clemonts nro simply all immersed nt! 

| once in ordinary water, which, absorbed by tho pai er,” 

; dissolves tho attiphnte of copper and sniphato of 2! 

z producing tho chomical action necessary to a current, 
Tho paper remning moist a long time, To rorchargo 
tho pile, it ia suMiciont to immergo it one-half in 

sulphate of copper xolution (since the sulphato of 
zine is continuity being produced). ‘Chus tho battery 

is very cconomienl, nud suitable for speciniists, or) 

“ medical men, who may only uso n dattory at long 

. Intervals, "Tho modo of using it is fully detailed, 

————SS——==——— EE 


Tus electric machine ‘for blasting purposes was) 
atented in 1875 in Canada, the United States, and 
England. Several advantages are clainted for it | 
over the ordinary. machines—for example,’ the A 
exciting surface, is cylindrical, since, according to i 
Hearder in the Philosophteal Magazine, Vol. XV. po 5 
ago, “cylinder machines have a superiority: over | 
plate machines of equal surface, in the proportion of / 
four to one;” the reversal of the crank, by the 
operator under nervous excitement of firing, causes : 
no damage; provision ‘is made’ to absorb any | 
moisture that may get within the case, so that time | 
does not impuir its efficiency if laid’ aside for. some : 
months, Its weight is.only 20 tbs., or about two- ‘ 
thirds of the old battery’ with its cases, It is com- 
petent under every condition” of atmosphere, . 
whether damp, dense, or ‘rarefied, to evolve at the | 
will of the operator, a supply of electricity sufficient.’ 
to fire fifty exploders. tt is also claimed that, by * 
the tse of Mowbray's.patent electric, fuse exploders { 
in connection with the blasting battery, fully twenty ? 
‘per cant. of the explosive may -be cconomised—a | - 
considerable saying. : core ° i 

ne,; | 

iy , n 



——eeESESSaoeeeee SS 
|] Exucrmean Avranatus.—Letters Patent have been { 
:pawarded to Mr, Stanley, of Holborn, for improvements t 
: [in electrical apparatus, stated in the Specification to ; 
sfeonsist in the construction of tho class of elcetrio bat- 
| terles which generato disnamie electricity so as to 
‘Trender them moro portable, by making the cell (jar or 
bottle) which contains the voltaic couple of about 
double tho internal leugth of tho netive portion of the 
Mates, which will be generally of zine and carbon. 
‘| Lhe plates, if they extend Leyond tho half tho interior, 
must be insulated from action of the exciting fluid, 
3] or they tay bo half length, and ho fixed either in the 

slate cover rests on theedge. As for the sulphate 
of zinc, itis constantly formed by the action of the 
battery, and there is no occasion to renew it, 
{op or tho bottom of the cell. The purpose {4 that : ” 2a. an 7 s ‘ 
the battery mny be turned upside down, and in guch te eine steel kets used up after some une ae 
position there will be no elcetrical action, as the fluid tas tobe replaced. ‘The paper is renewed at the 
(or MInids in caso of an inner pot) will not then touch | same time, ‘The copper, on the other hand, freed 

clastic substanco, in such a manner that the fluid! current, will serve indefinitely. 
cannot escape, Within tho sealing is a yatyo, s0 fixed | - Such is the moist pile so called hy the inventor: ' 
that tho internal gases many eseapo nt less pressure and it may be remarked in passing, that this name 

{han would brenk the cell or tho senling: this valyo} has th dvantage being rigorous XO y 
consists of a tubo with a picce of sheet india.rabber | sEtlig Conse tate ice en sens 


0 } the E fry pile is ‘ine: : pes A 
tied over it as an nir-pump valve; the novelty being | applied to: Zambonta files, whence an only : their Employment in Telegraphy,” read before 
¥ ; Mie eheeanen ou tla te Ay fealed a y cell, in virtue of the moisture they absorb, M, Trouvé's 
far g vided for connection of | . ile? eel olive 
Untterics with apparatus to form a portable boll, For! pas Haat Plg A cerca as 
ree i this a Lox is divided into two parts, ono to contatn the { nie | ene varies with ¢ “i ers 
1 i battery, which is closed, and the other to contain tho’ inform, Its resistance varies with the diameter further o 
) slectrieal ball ee a taller to roll up tho condneting | of ae tise of copper and ae and ihe thickness Grove's)'hi 
{wires with ouch, This part ling n door which closea | or tie intermediate pile of paper. Vor a given F ical worki eleg i es 
1 { tho apparatus when out of uso, and a handle above for | diameter of, metallic discs, one cannot diminish : practical sorting for telegraphic purposes gues, 
B {! Fearrying the whole, Mr. Stanley claims as novelties a! much the quantity of haer without prejudicing to 
4 } long cell, half active; a sealed cell with a peculiar , some extentethe durability, which is one bf the 
a ( valvo; # water-tight cap for cells ; a cloged receptacle : principal merits of the pile. On the ather hand, | 
H i with solid terminals for cells; 2 boll rendered portablo; | in, proportion as the thickness of the paper is! 
) frat eat e dente eeoae sane ceneraeng the. ongae increased, you augment the possible duration of 
) threo being noveltica as instances of application of tha i active service, and at the sume time the peguele : 
*} provious parte. : BEC ey ' toa caer ; 
Soeonpeliag aida Ser ements awe me al M. Trouve's first application of his pile was to; 
an ee ACen therapeutics. He unites a large number: of 
HIC JOURNAL farm 1, 1857 clements, of small size in a Case (the smallest | : The addition ‘of this merc 
: hee ne Fs aera ena metallic discs are the size ofa French sou) and ture of the batte! 
MOIST PILE OF M. TROUVE!. . thus produces what is said to be an excellent! : : 
oats: ¥ : Apparatus for Application of the continuous cur. 
Tins is a Daniell which has the advantage of | Pan peer oa ithas considerable tension \ 
acting without liquid, or at least without free” “The pile algo Tinds’ application 1M. "rouve's + 
quid. capable 7 escaping. on tits vensel Srhich syutem of military telegraphy, an account of which: 
Gon toa 7 Sond die eine, 2 ie a da ils ! | has already been giveivinoyr pages (Trtcorarite | 
way ima Foun lace zine Z (fx. 1) and 9 dise « Jovnnat, vol. iv, p. 184). "The portable battery is 
, Of copper C are placed parallel to each other, and," ‘here arranged in three superposed cnses (fig. 2) 
separated by a pile of paper discs of slightly less ot te al , 

‘diameter. ‘This mass of paper can absorb a good 

‘saturated solution of sulphate, of copper, the - 
upper half with a solution of sulphate of zinc: | 

hardly occurs except on § 
. 80 that there scarcely any internal work of the 

the Daniell, | a 



Telegraphic Progress in 1876," 
ly. appeared in the pages of the |; 
on was’ made of the new formof 
recently introduced by Mr, 
‘The introduction, however, of a n 
attery by one whose experience on the Bubject 
extends over so wide a range as Mr. 
deserves something: more than a Pp 
So-many galvanic combinati 
another are almost dail 
‘hot saturated solution. of sutphate of copper, : 7 that we 
extending toa certain height in’ a vessel, so that ofthemunnaticed. [tis 

pet Cue sees seals eed aaa ‘ ich has alread 
\PHIC JOURNAL. [inno 1s, 2872, | ; ; : | Jounsat,t menti 

|. Bichromate battery 
john Fuller. 


long as they last, permanently am 
“not only rescued ‘the Bichromat 
being included amongst the lumber 
a fresh lease of ‘life, an 
prospect of a lofiger existence. than even in its 
palmiest days it could formerly have dared tohope 

wns of one sort: or j 
being brought forward, |e: 
Pass bythe greater number | 

is therefore nu small comfort | 
clement has simply to be lowered till the:  - : when amongst the crowd we alight upon one whase 

behaviour thus far does nat ‘be! 
which it at first si 
ment in the every 
scems likely to be attended wi 
The old Bichromate of Potash, Carbon, or 
yas it has been indifferently 
ht by most people to hav 
atter of history, and few anti. 
arance on the scene of action | : 
in active competition with such rivals as the ' | 
icll and the Lecfanché, 
g of it in his paper 

ie the fair promise 
ht held out, and whose employ. 
practical telegraphy 

Electropoion batter 
tho plates, ‘Tho batteries aro sealed over with somo , from the copper deposited by the action of the ; : pamed, A tious 
cipated its re-appe: 


Mr. Sivewright, ° 
“On Batteries and : 

the Society of Telegraph Engineers in the begin. 

samation of tte ; 
in both this and + 
Grove's battery, had constantly to be seen to; ae 
he adds, * Bath (the Bichromate and : ¢ 
ve now had their day,so faras general | 

(acta SELLE T IG tg, 

ning of 1875, says, “The amal 
zines; a point of vital importance 



in all probability be speedily numbered 
amongst the experiences of the past. “The wonder 
really is how, in the face of the other forms of Tf! 
. batteries, they could ever have stood their ground 

gam which is thus formed it will be found that an 
electra-motive force will be produced as powerful 
‘as that: in the original combination; and’ the 
strength of current will be in no way diminished 
so long as a good connection is ensured between 
portion of the metallic zine 

80 long and so well as they have done." In the 
discu sion which; followed conse 
"or water to one St sulphuricacia. 
which is of the shape show 
in a porous tube, to wh: 
added, and which is the 

quent upan. the § 
“Ue zinc element, 
nin the figure, is place 
ich an ounce of mercury Is | 
Hed up with water only, ° 
i ury is the essential fea. 
ry, and to it the disappearance of 
jections which were prev 
ainst the old Bichro 

‘| this amalgam and that 
which remains, : 3 
The electromotive force of the combination is 
equal to about two volts, or twice that of .the 
Daniell's cell; the internal resistance, by varyin 
the thickness of the porous vessel and the atrengt 
of the solution, may be made to va 
ohm up to four ohms, according to 
the battery is called 
In point of cost ¢ 

the main ob, 

mate form is chiefly 

plute is in this way kept perma+ 
nently amalgamated so long as it lasts; the con- 
Sequence is that not only is the internal resistance 
of the batte 
stancy—the sine qu 

jon to perform. . Tao 
is battery compares very ., 
favourably with those which aro ‘at present em- 
Taking, * for in:tance, the 
aniell, and assuming that both are. employed on 
a hardsworked wire, say joined up in closed circuit 
or on one of the railway block-signal circuits, the 
statistics of the cost of each will be found to be 

ely diminished, but its con- 
tion of any galvanic combina- 
tion for telegraph purpozes—{s to a Rreat extent 
insured. The action, after the battery is charged 

loyed in England. 

and the elements are connected with each other, 
ly, and ccaches a 

deal of water, and remain moist w long time, § seat : : ‘i f commences atriont “irmed|atel tks 
: under cerlain working conditions, ‘fhe lower : . d Ee eoge SEU A : maximu N's 
half of the pile of paper dises is sonked with y 

The maintenance is a very simple matter. On 
“an ordinary working circuit, such: 
‘ pSUeK, : ; , as a single ntedle or moderately busy printer, no 
‘Thus we have all the elements of a ‘Daniell : : a * extra crystals will be required, after the battery is 

Prime cost of a ten-cell. trough fitted > 
COMPTCLE sssrsearserearersrores 
Sulphate of copper for six months 

Complete rehewal at the end of six 

» for instance, 

as the\solution remains of an orange colour, none, 
i when it begins 
‘be added to it. 

‘ {| The only specific fault which developed itself. in 
Uattery is lost; this loss Is the greatest fault of | : Jt : Rent eacahe cating prone oe pver gil con 
“ . zinc element, under the influence of the acid em- 
ployed. This danger hag.-been effectually got rid 

‘battery, and ihe two ‘liquids giebarated much Y A. » Once setup, fora period of six months. So long 
etter than with a porous vessel, Wit h such an . : : ' pat toads a 
“arrangement, the using up of the copper sulphate i 5 Se? beac it is stated) will be réquired; oni 

Fuller's Mercury-Bichronu ; 
Prinie cost of a three-cell battery (equiva. 
lent to a ten-cell Daniell) .srcrerecron LO 15 0 
Bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid 
for Six MONS sisssserorressressrinresercsoere O 
New zincs and mercury at the end of six a 
MOMS sessssssorrssororsrseseonseceneerene O 2 8 

passage of the current, 7 5 |. ‘to assume a’bjue tint need crysta 

of by covering the rod: 

made of hardened caoutchouc, with covers made 
of slate, ch contains three elements; and 
With these nine clements, the speaking apparatus 
may be Worked at several kilometres distance. 
The pile, it will be readily understood, can be 
carried without care, inclined to one side, or even | 
inverted without any inconvenience. : 

The moist pile may also be applied to the 
Apparatus for communiention in trains, and in 
pencral wherever it can be transported. In 
telegraphy it will be employed by preference on 
circuits of a certain resistance, to which it is 
more pecially adapted. by reason of its con- 
tiderable internal resistance, It is, moreover, 
much Jess liable to variations in internal resist. 
ance than the ordinary Daniell. But the princi. 
pal advantage is that  alrend: indicated-—viz., 
the suppression of the internal work of the pile 
when the cireuit is open, 

h'some protective cover. 
e like. An objection 
that even when the 

cel} was not in action, the zinc seemed to be 

acted upon and gradually to disappear, 
» doubtless be the case, for the mercury 
j ". power ofeffecting thi 

« ing—wax, indin-rubber,o 

lates nor porous pots are 
urged against the battery i: 

Neither the carbon 5 
~ o evidence has 

taken into account. i a 
hefore us as to how.long these are likely to last. 
The former would appear to be practically inde- 
atructible, and no appearance has hitherto been ob- 
ny local action going on with them, nor 

ut from theresulting amal- { 



(Conctuded from yago 42.) 

Tryltence of Carbon’ Dust and of Sand in the : 

Bichromute Pattery—A curious fact, which shows 
the superiority of the sand Latterivs, is that, in 

certain circumstancer, tho energy of theso batteries. | 

| §s greater than that of a couple of small dimensions 
with free liquids ; but in all these cages their 
: Senate tee is higher, . 
M iat is tho eause of this augmentation of fo: 
in tho batters of Chutaux ? Thin question divides 
itself into the two following: What function can 
the conl perform when pounded and piled up round 
tho negative electrode, regard being had to tho 
polarity of tho latter? What part does tho sand 
play in tho transmission of electricity between tho 
two electrodes, ‘ i 
Tt resulta from my experiments that tho mixture 
of carbon round anelectrode of the same material 
has tho effect, at tho outset, of, rendering the enrbon 
negative, if’ it is positive, or of increasing its 
negative polarity if atrendy possessed of it: but at 
the end of about a. quarter-of-an-hour, this effet. 
gives place to another, which is in tho opposite 
direction, for then the carbon becomes positive, if 
it is negative, or stil moro positive, if it is already 
so. Ag to the action of wet sand substituted for 
the free excitative liquid, it appears that its interven. 
tion in a battery may considerably diminish the 
effects of polarisation; aud, neting in conjunction 
with tho pounded coal, it gives n real su heriority to 
tho battery of Chutaux over all other batteries of 
hat kind, 

Tujfluence of the Greater or Lesser Proportion of 

Die hromute of Jotushin the Excitative Solutions 
There always avo in. tha nection -of blehromate 
batteries auch contradictory eflvcts, that wo enn 
only decide whethor it is or‘is not advantageous to 
increase tha. proportion of bichromate of potash 
when we Jaye fixed on the kind of effect whieh 

ought produced by the battery, \ If this effect | *: 

ought to be durable, thera is au advantage iu not 
using much bichromate, for tho electromotive force 
ia not increnged, and it has been found that the 
oxpeniliture of the zinc and the weakening of the 
solution ara more considerable, in a given time, 
with tho solutions rich in bichromate than with 
poor solutions, But if we wish a moro energetic 

tumedinte action in tho battery, it is certuin that the |, 

solutions richest in bichromate are tho ones to Bivo 
* tho most effect, 

sg ftylitence of the Greater or Lesser Proportion of 
Sulphurio Acid in the Exeitative Solution.—In my 
oxperiments on this point the onorgy of the current 
incrensed with tho quantity of acd, but the con- 
sumption of ziue was much grenter than the 
dncrengo in the energy of the battery warranted, 

It is probablo that a part of the increase of 
the onergy of tho bichromate battery with .tho 
Poggendorit liquid is to be attributed to tho 

. sulphuric acid which is thero ino Jarger proportion 
; thon tho othor liquids. For prolonged action, it is 
“ihnitely better fo use ry (ghey acidulated 
, and we have proof of thi oisi 
and Dronier solution, wh heels 
most energetic effects, while yet it contains the 
least proportion of acid, 9°83 per cent instead of; 
I2°1d por cent, : 
action of Ohrome Alum in the’ Bveitative 
Solution.—In order to ascertain how chrome alum 
_ mnixed onco with tho solution would act, I took 
some violet crystals of Uiat alt, and having dried 
and pounded them and dissolved them in water, I 
compoxed rin oxcitative liquid of chrome alum of a 
slaty violet, which with a now aystom of olectrowtes,' 
Nke what I had used for my experiments with tho’ 
quid solutions, constituted ‘a veritable: voltaic 

hich gives on the whole tho] ' 

The addition. of | s' 
ing weed. 

This couple -gavo a curront mich moro, cnergetio; 

; than I should have suspected, and nearly equal, i 

tho first momonts of its 
battery. ac > i 

Td short, the bichromate battery unites in itsolf 
four. systema of chomical reactions, necting in tho” 

lowing, to that of a Danicll’s: 

samo manner, and n fifth unfortunately too cnorgotio, ; 
which: acts in a contrary direction, ‘This Inst is” 

what enuses tho formation of chrome alum’ at the 
negative electrode, ‘The four others ara: (1.) Tho’ 
oxygenntion‘of the zinc. (2.) Tho reduction of the 

dichromate: :(3.) ‘ho transformation of the sulphate, 

of sesquioxide of chromium into sulphate of 
protoxide of chromium: and (4.) Tho reduction 
of tho sulphnto of potash, We understand, after! 
that, why tho effects of this battery are 50 com: 
Wicated and sometimes even contradictory. - 

Conclusions—It_ results from tho preeeding 
rescarclics — { 

1. Ehat of tho different: arrangements of tho; 
battery of bichromate: of potash, tho ono whic! 
gives the best results, in respect of the constanc: 
of tho effects, of tho onergy of tho olectromotiv 
forco, of duration nud ceonomy of action, is tho 
arrangement with tho sand and carbon dust which 
M. Chutaux has given it, but always with tho con. 
dition that the moisturo of tho sand be sufficiently, 
sustained by menns of porous vases, 

(2). Tht tho excitative solution which gives, on‘ 
the whole, tho best effects, and above all the most’ 
regular and tho most constant effects, is that of: 

Voisin and Dronier.. © Seong 


If tho action proditced is to ‘bo continuous aud, 

durnblo, the galt ought only to be 20 por.cent of the 
woight of tho water, and tho liquid can pass four 
consecutive times through the battery; this pro- 
action is {o be momentary aud energetic, there is ai 

advantayo in dissolving a larger quantity of galt, 
for the foreo increnses with aie ‘quantity. : 

portion may oven bo reduced to 12 per cent, if the 
iquid undergoes only two passnyes. But if the 

Roverting (o MM. Voisin and Dronter’s salt (page 

41), I may add, that with resistant cirenits and a 
sand-battery with coutitiuous flow, it will be quite 
sufficiont to use t part of salt with 10 paris of water; 
but with free lqui 
to prodtco a momentary action, n largo proportion 
of the enlt should bo used; and the more concen- 
trated tho solution, the more onergetic is tho eflect 
produced by it. Uhego liquids in the saud-battery 
with continuous flow may re-pass soveral tinics 
through tho battery without invalying much loss of 
forco, nt least in tho earlicr moments of f(s netion, 
which is due, as 
that tho chrome alum which is produced as reaidua 
may itself form (onco it is furnished), an energetic 
oxeitant which usefully adds ils action to the 
remaining solttion of ti 
tho only kind of battery which gives a reault so - 
advantageous; and it is thus, doubtless, that I 
havo becn able to make the same solution Yespnes 
through my battery 15 times without the appa. 
ratus put in action by 

il batteries, which aro auly fitted 

vio shall afterwards eco, to the fact 

chromate, Whis may be 

it being arrested. 

Shh Coa Re 

ToLadintings © aby tue Leo. | 

Tun Inox ayn Zine Barreny or Dn. Vesa ann.—An 
‘J endeavour has been made in Germany to replace the carbon 
Jin the Bunsen cell by east iron, In this couple, the iro 
i plunged in ‘concentrated nzotic acid ut first 
| Piasive state; after a eertain time, however, the 
tion of the liqnid diminishes, and the iron diss 
effervescence, and the cell. hag to be Unnounted at once. 
Velsmuana, however, has found aw 
by adding silicium. 


n | 
nasumes a | 
concentra. | 
olves with | 
Dr. | 
reas for remedying thin! 
by ad “He thus obtains a metal which remains! 
inactive, and the E.MF, of the battery is not diminished, | 
ilicium permits also of more nzotic acid; 

cal“number6f fornis which’ ropeated|s¥occu 
¥ invariably be referred to the samo gondral 

vover, 3 

A paper“ Onan Ate Battery," by JIL Gianstoxe, 
PhD., LBS. and Ateunn Thing, .G.S,, was also read, 
Tho guivauic battery which we aro about to describe is 
founded on n reaction that wo brought under the notice 
of tholtoyal Society Inst spring.® Wo then showed that 
if pleces of copper and silver in contact aro inunersad 
inn solution of nitrate of conper in the presence of 
oxygen, A decomposition of the salt cnaues, with the 
forinntion of cuprovs oxide on tho ailver and a corres. 
ponding solution of the copper, whilo a galvanic current 
passes through tho liquid from copper to ailver, We 
stated moreover, that this was no isolated phenomenon, 
but only one of n largo class of similar renctions, It 
veemed desirable to examine more fully tho history and 
tho enpabllitics of the elvctrical Powe thus produced, 

It was proviously ascertained that tho combination 
of tho oxygen takes place only in the neighbourhood 
of tho silver; and tho following formulu tay serve to 
ronder the chemical clinngo and transference more 
intelligible :— 

Beforo coutnct-— 

mg +O 4CuzNOs-+-CuzNO34-nCu ; 
after contact— 
maAg-+-Cu.0 + CuyNO3-+ Cu,NOy+ (n= 2)Cu, 
This action {s qvidently n continuous one until either 
tho oxygen or the copper fails, 

Now the oxygen of the atmosphero is practically un- 
Himited it: amount, but thero isn difteulty in bringing 
nny large quantity of it into contact at once with the 
silver snd tho dissolved salt, 

To f{neilitate this, wo arrange tint the silver plate 
should have a horizontal position just under tho 
nurfaco of tho Siquid in the cell; az, in fact, we con. 
vert it into n sill silver tray full of crystala of tho 
same meta), which riso in projections to the very 
surface, The copper plate tics horizontally under it, 
separated, if need be, ot a pleco of smuslin, and con. 
neetion fa made by a wito as usnal, ‘Cho vertical part 
of tho copper plate, from a little abovo the liquid to 
the bend, whould be varnished; otherwise solution 
principally tnkes place there, which canses tho hori. 
zontal part of tho plate to drop off, Holes nro mado 
in tho wilver tray with tho view of shortening the com- 
munication betweon the nir-surfaco and tho coppor 

plate, and of facilitating tho movements of tho salt 
hh solution, ‘Cho solution itsclf may bo contained jn 
a shallow trough or saucer, 

That dissolved oxygen is absolutely necossary for 
this chomical chango hns been already stiown; but it 
was Intoresting {o measure by a galvanometer the 
Aiffercnes of tho currenta obtained by means of an 
ordinary, that is agrated, solution of copper nitrate, 
ant one from which tho air liad Leen separated to the 
greatest possible oxtent, A Thomson's galvanoucter 
was omployed, which hind a reaistance of 2631°5 units 
at 183° GO Two cella wero prepared with vertical 
plates ‘nud ntike in all reapcets, oxcopt that tho ono 

* "Prue, Hay, Boe; April, 1872, vols 220 J's 290. 


contained an ordinary 6 per cent solution of copper 
nitrate, and the other a. sitntlar solution which had 
dean deoxygenised by the meana described in our 
former paper, Another experiment was mado,with s 
different pair of cclls and an tt per cont solution, It 

was necessary to tse tho 1-99 alunt; and tho follow. 
ing wero the amounts of deilection:— 
Expt. 1. Expt. IL, 
‘Timo after ——., 
diumenton, Oxygen Deorygen> Osygens  Deorygen= 
hack, hol rev, Ive. 
1 ininute. 7. oy 130 ww 
4 niustes, 73 9 go 8 
n i 68 6 75 6 
49 oo = =< 53 35 

‘Che contrast is evident, That the dvoxygenised 
solution does give a deflection at all ix due partly to 
tha diftonlty of excluding air, and partly, perhaps, at 
first to the oxygen condensed on tho surface of the 
silver plate. ‘ho effect due to the water itself is Ine 

From tho natura of the reaction it might bo ox- 
pected that the current would gradually diminish on 
account of the using up of the dissolved oxygen in 
the neighbourhood of tho silver; auch n diminution 
always does tnke place, at lonst after tho first few 
vibrations of tho needle, 

It might be expeeted, too, that when the amount of 
action has run down considerably, tho mero moving 
of the liquid so ag to bring fresh parts of the solution 
against tho silver would nugment the currenty., It 
does Bo, 

The same might bo predicted from stirring up the 
eryatala of silver in tho tray so nx to expose now 
surfaces. ‘Chis nlso was found to be the ease. 

And, agahz,it might bo anticipated that if the wire 
were disconnected for a time so a8 to allow the oxygen 

to diffuse itself from other parta of tho solution, and 
tho conneetion were mado, the current would bo found 
ne steongs or nearly go, a8 before. ‘That also is truo 
in fact. 

A cell with tho plates connected by a wire was 
placed under a beltar full of air over mncreury, ‘The 
mercury gradually roso inside, na might Lo expected 
from the absorption of the oxygen in the air, 

‘Tho necessity of oxygen and tho avidity with which 
itis taken up aro both Mustrated by the following 
experiment:—Two cells with horizontal plates were 
prepared ntiko in overy regpect, except that tho first 
was filled with s solution simply deprived of oxygen, 
the second with o solution through which a stream of 
earbonie acid yas had been passed for some time, The 
firat was placed in tho air, tho second in a vessol from 
which ¢ho air had been expelled by allowing carbonic 
acid yas to tlow into it for an hour or two. 

‘Tho dutlections obtained wero as follows, tho 1-999 
ahtmnt being used and the temperature being 13'7° 0. :— 

Time after ttomerslon. Inalr, In CO, 
rminute. 165 ze 
5 minutes, 135 2, 
10 ” 135 58 

As the celt in nn alinosphero of carbonto acid gas 
showed considerablo action, in fact nearly hnif aa much 
as that iu tho air, each coll was short circulted for 
twenty-three hours, with tho expectation that an: 
oxygen in tho closed voasel would bo used up; and, 
indeed, the mont prominent crystals of silver in tho 
Fecll in carbonis acid gas became reddened, whilo a 
cuprous deposit extended over tho whole of the 
crystals iu the other cell, When, howover, tho short 
wires wero romoyed and the galranomoter interposed, 
tho coll Iu the ofr gave a deflection of 136, practically 
the same as before, but that in carbonic acit gas, 
inatead of showing a great decrenso, rove to 80. It 
was then fond that the vessel containing the latter 
slowly admitted air; so that tho contents wero awopt 


Exectrao-motive’: Force ‘oy Liguin Gatv. 
Sentes.—It is known that the electro-motive force 
generated by the contact of liquid solutions is ine : 
" fluenced by the degree of concentration of the soluticns, 

* Dr, James Moser, of Helmholtz’ laboratory, has investi. | 

gated the nature:of this-influence, Two- glasses con: : 

taining different solutions of the same salt were cone © 

“nected by a’ siphon which allowed the solutions to.’ 
touch each other, An external circuit was formed by 
clectrodes of the metal contained in the salt, in order 
to climinate any chemical action, In all cases, a 
current was found to proceed: across the siphon from 
the more dilute to the more concentrated solution, 

. This current appeared in solutions of sulphate, nitrate, ; 
chloride, and acetate of zinc, sulphate and nitrate of 
copper, chloride of iron, acetate. and nitrate of ° 

» silver, &e, ‘The electromotive forces of these currents, 

: were observed by Poggendorf's method of compensae. 

thon as modified by Du Bois-Reymond, and varied in! 

~ strength froma few thousandths to one-fifth of a, 

: Dantell cell, the latter result being got from very dilute | 

‘and highly concentrated solutions of zincchloride, The: 

series of clectrosmotive forces obtained from solutions | 

of sulphate of zine were as follows; -- i 

. Between solutions of 15 per cent, of the salt, and go 

per cent, the electro-motive force was ‘oos of a 
Daniell cell, 0s ee oop ‘ . : 

, Between go-and 60 per cent, solutions, the electro. ; 

motive force was ‘or7 of a Daniell cell, 

Between 1§ and Go per cent, solutions, the clectro- 

motive force was ‘oat of a Daniell cell, ‘ 

_ By these currents proceeding from the weaker to te ” 

stronger solution, metal is dissolved in the weaker and - 

separated from the stronger solution, Only when the 
solutions are of equal strength docs the current cease. 

Dr, Moser is of opinion that the equivalent of the 

work done by the current is to be sought inthe force : 

of attraction between the salt and the water, which is ; 
perceptible in the heat generated on mixing different: | 
solutions of the same salt; and that the current itself is : 
oa reaction current against. the migration of ions, just 
asthe polarisation current {s one of reaction against 

“the decomposing current. , When a salt is clectrolysed 

ithe solution becomes more concentrated at the anode,. ‘ 
and more dilute at the cathode, Dr. Moser's experi- «! 


Poner’s Bartery.—-This new cell, the Invention of | 
‘an Italian professor, consists of a glass jar and porous 

pot, the former containing a solution of ferric chloride,’ | 1 
, in which is ‘immersed a carbon plate, and the latter |; 

containing @ solution of ferrous chloride in which is 
: immersed an fron plate, Both solutions should be made 
| toa strangth of 35 degrees bi Baumé's scale, ‘The 
t ro-motive force of an cl out 8, ofa | 
pam e lement is about % of-a j 

i My Grav Gonimunicated % 
. Dated February's, 1878.'2d. 
jd: the ‘useless ‘combustton: of carbon in electric 
ich takes plice in tear of tho luminous: arc, it 
is proposed to plate“them with ‘some’ refractory metal, 
such as nickel or Iron, by electrotyping, ‘Nickel has the 
Cheap,’ easy’ ‘ofapplication, ‘a 
h melting: point, and little." tendency to ‘oxidise. 
ie carbons ‘are first smoothed with’ emery,’ cleaned, 
steeped ‘in A lye of carbonate of soda or caustic potash, 
yped and dried ata temperature 

471." Carban electrodes; 

iA ‘new ifealure,ty 


manufacture ‘of Batterits hence! 
been introduced * by! 

tho' French! Telegray 
consists in: forming tho'dé 
conglomerate, a! for 

advantages of: being 

well-kriown ; and 
Deen made to get 
merit has suggested . 
de method of remedying: the 

shlAdministration; Pari 
polarising salt into ‘a’ soli 
ins ‘many advantaged 
cleanliness, and ‘economy 
his-idea of conglomerate 
sulphate mercury’ 
s perior and very lasting 
which cannot faill to be of gr 
»and domestic as well as civ 
y is battery are in 
use on the French Telegraph service, and ive, we 
believe, given very ~good—results, : 
He smaller types, . 
poses: It consists ‘of a! 

pt, so far as’ know, 

rid of it. The follow! 
itself ‘to mo‘as 
inconvenience :—" 
‘Each battery cell 

_ tinsed in water, clectrotype 
of over 100°. F. Not proceeded with, 

; Gast Meum Ces t- he 

Sent Peroxide uf Manganese Battery. : By M. Lee 

M. -Beaufils: has -anplic 
depolariscrs to the 
battery, and the result fs a su 

is divided into two,chambers, 4 
airnsigtit at the top, 
lo Waltery plates, to 
¢'—— and + are attached, 
h to the bottom of the cell, 
to the relative sizes 
if a‘and pare made’ 

cach only. halfway. down 5; 
p, the, ‘plates: would when, 
t, is: the air-tube through, 
bellows, is blown when the; 
‘is the ordinary, perfo, 

the latter is open, and contains 
which ‘the leading wire 
lites do‘not reach ¢ 
 put'to'a distance ‘proportionate 

of the chambers ‘a-and'n : thus, 

represents in full! size, ore of th 
designed for meiiealy mur 

lof peroxide of manganese 
to considerable pressure 
—several thousand kilogrammes per square centi- 
metre—it is made much more conductive, and so 
gives much more electricity in unit time, Some 
matter being added that will solder the parts to- 
gether, a solid, homogeneous, resistant mass is 
had, of true metallic conductivity. 
gets the best results with a mixture containing yo 
par cent, peroxide of manganese, 55 per cent. of 
retort carbon, and § per cent. gum fac resin, It 
is put inva steel mould, heated to roo degrees, and 
aubjected to hydraulic pressure. 
more than 30,000 elem 
now in use on the railways, 
4.per_cent. of bisul 
of the agglomerate 
its resistance considerably 

Ip the depolarising mass 

would: 1 7 
equal, the plates and carbon), be submitte 

if a dis.twice as: large as, 
reach: two-thirds: down. 

whichi the :air, from tho. 
battery. is to be put inaction ; ¢ 
rated (ube inthe usual form of the batter, 
is connected to. the chamber, a, as shown 
ured into; the; cells so, 
sheight of. the. plates, a 

M. Leclanché 


The! solution :is 
them -nearly to the 
being: kept: open so as; to: all 
liquids in'the two‘chambers to, 

be normally equal 

ents made thus, 
‘The addition of 3 or , 
f potash in the interior 
mass contributes to diminish 
by dissolving the oxy- 
hich, in course of time, ‘are deposited ” 
‘The farce of the new’ battery is 
| about 1°5, compared with a Daniell taken as unity. © 

ue No."366. at PH he og 
The Hagtes Battery.—-'The cell itself, iustead of, as i 
in most other batteries for telegraphic purposea, Leing 
of glaen, i nindo of lead, and nt tho samo tine forms ; 
‘|tho negative polo of the battery, In’ setting up or ;” 
ng this battery it is only necessary to put into |: 
il cells a quantity of sulpkinto of copper (five 
to encli cell ia found in practice to bo | 
Over tha sulphate of copper a layer , 
of enwidust about an ‘inch thick should bo placed, 
the zinc ret npon tho sawdust, thon a suficient quan. : 
cover tha whole is poured into the cell. 
lose cireuit for n foyt houre the 
0 Ita Blrength, and is’ 





: The action of the apparatus is almost obviow 
| blowing through tube 4,the-alr. forces out the liquid ' 
:from a,:through ¢,, into n,:ard fills the latter s.when 
call the liquid is drawn out ofa, thea 
Supplied through 4 bubbles up. through: 
excites the battery in, the ordinary manner. 
:. When the use of the battery 
; the valve, », is. opened for an instant, and the liqu 
again retreats‘into a, and uncovers the plates, 


is to be disconti 

| pounds of which 

Tie emma AR etc ane 

tity of water to 
‘) After standing in el 
jj battery will dowel 

4 of sulphate ofszinc ston 

To provent or rotard cvnpornt! out any ‘atten 

that of tho Mati 7 
Vo'may Add that ttho: mike 
attery, ‘recogriisin: 
‘Blomerate’: pri 

fon oll may bo poured | 
faco of tho fluid, Coll. propared in this . 

tintto in action for six months or moro 
without renowal or any attention whatever. 
rimental coll of this battery was in constant use for a - 
larga part of tho time on sh 
montha, without re-charging, aud at the end of that 
‘| time waa still fn good effective condition, About tive 
sulplinte of copper was originally placed in 

q ‘Tho size is six inches in diameter and cight 
{Inches high, or nearly tho same as tho ordinary © 
1] Daniel's locat, ‘The internal resistance may bo varicd 
ito sult circumstances, from below onc-olim up to five 
obs or more, by varying tho thicknoss of the sawdust 

er from ono to five inches. From onoto two inches 
lly about right for n local ao : 

‘tho. importanéo:of the con- 

ort Jocal clrouita for uine f the latest Leclanche cell 

! Arges’! BATTERY:<I18 x:chloride of ‘silver 
'sglement designed! for’.medital purposes: © Fig.’ 2 


cently called the attention of the physical section of the: 
French Academy to a new form of. battery invented by. 
him, - It consists of a carbon cylinder, pierced with 
holes parallel to the axis, the holes being filled with 
binoxide of manganese, for the positive pole; and a zine 
rod for the negative pole, The solution is formed of 
20 parts of chloride of zinc, free from lead, and as 
neutral as possible, dissolved in 100 parts of water, 
The clectro-motive force, resistance, and constancy of 
the cell, are said to be unimpaired by this substitution 
of zinc chloride for ammonium chloride, Oxide of 
zinc is formed, and falls in a state of powder on the 
‘| .bottom of the vessel, It is claimed for this cell that it 
does not produce double chlorides of zinc and of am- 
montum, which, in certain cells, incrust the porous pots, 
and stop their action, It is further held that the 
affinity of chloride of zinc for. water checks the evapo. 

j, very unlikely, 

| A Constant Bicnrowate Cett—ln the Philosos 

\ phical Magasine for March, Mr, H. C, Russell, ‘of | 

| Sydney Observatory, describes a form of bichromate | 

‘ cell which he states to be perfectly constant in its action, , 

It consists of a bichromate cell with the zine ‘plate . 

; standing in mercury, and the peculiar feature is that | 
| fresh bichromate solution is constantly fed into the top 
{ of the cell, drop by drop, while the waste solution is 
* drawn off from the bottom, drop by drop. This is 
effected by a syphon arrangement which draws off the 
~ waste liquor from the bottom, drop by drop, as the level 
of the liquid -in the cell is raised by the indropping 

* solution: thus a constant level is maintained, ' 

” 919." Galvanic Cells. or. Batteries? .: 

consists in forming. cells of three compartments, the 
faner one containing the positive pole carbon, the mid 
one containing nitrate of soda, binoxide of manganese, 
&c., and ‘the outer. containing the negative clement, 

; liquid, ‘Lumps of chalk are also placed in the outer 
; compartment, mee ae a 

eo erator] Leyden Tara—Mr,’ Gray will (Gif 
a fo Anawer avery puryose 
1] paato will always tako Tous t me feed ee 
‘Jdry, Hut this is of no. cousequenco, It will soon 
i) dry sufclently to Koop tho dinfoil in.placo. . Mr, 
Gray will find its good plan to hurnish the tinfoil 
‘J with n smooth paper-kulfo or bottle ne: he goes 
| putting it round the jar, Jt makes it smooth, and 
0 KUperflaoul jnute. Ia.p, 970'T neo 
la puezled. Well, I suppose lio knows - 

| how tho tinfoil should { jr 
= green. glass must not hee ay atte J - 
i: bottle will dos but ono withatraight sides is 

: boat, with a chnin Sipping into (t from. the condi 
B iio ra Scorn It takes a higher eburgo.—Epw 

“A new MANoagese® Evement-M. A. Gallfe ree 4 

ration’sufficiently to render the drying up of the cell _ 

; oWinuas | 
: Sparkes. Witson, Dated February. at; '. 6d, This * 

zinc.’ A solution of sulphuric acid is employed as the 

oe saigeetanten, 

A Canar Ganvamio BartEny—Me WV. M. Symons 
proposes -avehoap but cunvenient galyanio. battery ; 
cach of the xino plates wns two Inchos square; ‘and 
covered with fistian or other fabric, ontslda which 
thick copper wiro was wound to form the other plate; 
the exciting liquid was weak chloride of zine, Pain of 
plates thas made could be arranged in aories to fon a 
iattery to give out wenk currenta fora geoat longth of 

tne. : 

“Tho celobrated juventor, Hprsos." (1) Oh! \ 
23006,]--Battory for Working Bleciric Cells, 
ee ie ee atte will bea Baniel, a Bunsen, 

“sor any othor form of cell, acconling to tha chemicals 
\y you use'therein, From your expressions I gather 
ain the lajn divisions aro porous; if so, you 
7 fan Sanke a E avenlcat a Ubattery of ie by 

ternal ry 10 tions: ono lon 
witha LO re sodium Chlodde, and 
another with 1 sulphate of copper solution. At tho 

Haquid o small mado of ,wite gaure. these 
hage with sulphate of copper crystals,? Tho xine 
plates must be in tha chloride of sodium partitions, 
and should: not bo amalgamated ;° tho copper 
plates in tho aulphate of copper partilions, yal 
plates should bo connected in seta of two-—a copper 
and a xino togethor—care beiug takea that betrrcen 
tho plates of each ect you have the glase partitions, 

» At ono end of the battery you will have unconnected 
“a eing, aud at the other enil a copperplatethese aro 
» » the terminals of the battery.—J, L, Leacounvien, 
+ Birschote, Belvinm, - oi 3 f 

: 12. Les préparations chimiques pour le télégrap 
par George Little. (Lelegrapher, vol. XI, pages 138 

' et 189)... : 

. Une solution chimique, qui par sa décomposition 
: Sous Vaction du courant produit uné matidre coloriée 
. Sur Jo papier: doit. avoir les. qualités, suivantes: 
{ In préparation doit: etre’ bon’ marché’ ct facile. A” 

obtenir; °° ae sah” ane 
clle doit retonir Phumidité de Pair;.: 


, D'aprés, Pauteur, Ie ferro-cyanure de ‘potassium ré- * 

; Pond, bien: d “cos différentes demandes. ‘On ‘ajoute, un q 
¢ Pew de sel de cuisine Pour, rendre ‘Ie. papier. hygroseo- 

Pique. Quand:Ia pointe en for glisso sur aunpapier ainsi i 

préparg; il-rend encore, un’ équivalent; de, fer eb sous: : 

Vaction du. courant électrique il so forme ‘nn ifirécipité. 

i blanc. (non: visible) Aut. en s’oxydant ‘trés-rapidement se: 

. fransforme. en bleu ‘prussique.’. 

tap of each sulphin partition you can hang, in the} 
hit @ Fé 

aucun acide sulfurique-ne doit entrer. dans 8a eoin- 



Re eee neers ee eR 



Ny Joun Byrne, ML 

ie accompanying figure will serve to givea correct 
notion of the general appearance of the battery. 

A A, conducting cords; c, suspension rod and 
set screw combined, to connect between second 
and third cells in series ; «2 a, poles of battery ; 4 4, 
two set screws to couple for quantity ; 4, an extra 
hinding post, not essential, but convenient when 
two cells only of the battery are required ; ¢ ¢, air 
tubes, ‘ 

The composition of the fluid is‘one measure o| 
commercial sulphtric acid to five of water, and to 
each pint of such dilution two ounces of bichromate 
of potash, though chromate of calcium, if substituted 
for the potash salt, will give a much higher clectro- 

motive force, and, consequently, 1 much greater 
thermal power. : ‘ 

In order to guard against splashing, the quantity 
of fluid put into cach cell should not excced seven 
and a half Auid ounces, but, when the zincs become 
thin from use, cight ounces may be accommodated, 

‘To connect tho battery for intensity, turn down 
c firmly and raise 34; and for auantity, rovers 
the opcration by turning down 4 4 firmly and re- 
leasing c from its contact with the lower metallic 
connection, “ts 


In galvano-cautery, the main purpose for which, 
this little battery was first devised, and is now being 
extensively used, and more’ particularly during 
certain difficult and complicated surgical operations, 

- this simple means of changing the entire character 

of the current to meet emergencies is of the utmost 

for obvious reasons, the pneumatic agitator 
should be worked by quick and short impulses, and 
not w slow or prolonged compression of the bulb, 
and the battery should not be kept immersed except 
when in action, 

Finally, and in order that the aim contemplated 
in devising this voltaic organization, the lessening 
of internal resistance, may be correctly understood, 
1 shall indicate, in a few words, the manner of 
preparing my patent negative plates, the distinctive 
feature of the battery, and the smain source of its 
great power, 

Each negative clement consists of a plato of 

copper, to one surface of which, as well as to its 
edges, a shect of platinum foil, compact, and free 

from pin holes, is soldered, and to the opposite * 

surface or back a shect of lead, the three metals 
being so united that the copper shall be effectual 
protected from the action of acids. ~The lead back 
and edges are then coated with asphaltum varnish, 
acid-proof cement, or any other like substance 
and, lastly, the platinum ‘face, being first rubbed 
over gently with emery paper, is to be thoroughly 
platinized in the usual manner. 



THE TELEGRAPHIC Ji OURNAL. "papell ay, 16756 : 

THE. VOLTAIC BATTERY, In exhibiting tho frog we shall throw the oxy- 

THE . outa B hydrogen li Tew an thy 60 ree it ey to visible to 

AX’ Counst: op Six Lecrunss, you all, and wo shall cast the shadow on to screen; 

1 3 go that thoso who may not bo inn position to sea 

By Da. JOHN HALL GLADSTONE, F.RS.1 in, legs will seo tho ahadow of then T havo here 
"© Fultertan Professor of Chemistry, Nogat Iustitutlon, tho means of making contact between tho copper 
Detavenen at rie Rovat Instirotion oF Gxeat| support and tho iron railing through tho frog. 
Binraws.—Cuntsrstas, 1874-5. Upon joining theao we shall sea the convulsion 

—— 7 taking place. Seo how it kicks in various direc. 

Lrerong 1V.—'Tin History ov run Barteay ix. |tions, ‘hat is just what Galvani saw, and whint 
irs Vautous Fonts, surprised him #0, much; But now wo wil dale a 

‘ian history an inventions is lost in n| piece of zinc, and sco whether wo cannot produce 
mi Ll ie a ot is not Ko with tho voltaic | to same convulsions; fur Galvani tried his expe- 
battery. ‘Cho fret is there aro many friends still] riment in various ways. Wo will make our frog 
among Ws who aro older than it, We Inow all {sit up, if we can, on the zine, When tho copper 
about its origin, aud my purpose here to day is to wiro touches tho zinc let us sco what will happen. 
endeavour to iraco not merely its birth, but its Tho nerves of tha poor dend fro havo st such 
youth, and how it grow up to its presont strong activity about them that the legs kick directly tho 
maturity, : copper and zino are brought into contact with ono 
Vewnrds tho close of the Inst century thero was} another. In 1781 Galvani published theso experi- 

n physician at Bologna of tho nnne of Luigi] ments at length in n Latin treatise. ‘hoy at once 
Galvani, 0 man celobrated for original experiments j drew agreat dent of attention to the aulject, and 
in Anatomy and in Electricity, It so happened they were discussed and crititised by very many, 
“that his wife was an invalid, and on one occnaton | Volta—another Italian, 0 professor of natural phi- 
shu wished to make some broth of frogs. Now, in} losophy at Vavin—made experimenta pon the 
preparing frogs for foot, you know, they cut off tho subject, ant he considered tnt tho explanation of 
hind legs of the frog, aud somo of these hind legs Galvani was ungntisfactory, and that the convul- 
happened to be upon the table, nnd electrical nppa- | sions had nothing to do with animal electricity, 
ratua was near them, Signore Galvani observed, | Ife thought that the sceret lay in thero having been 
much to her astonishment, that on bringing a lciifo | two metals concerned. 5 You see, thera were iron 
near to one of tho legs of a frog thoy wero con:| railings and copper wire; and) Galvani always 
yulsed. Sho drow her husbaud’s attention to this,|fuund that, to produce the eflecta well, ho lind to 
and ho investigated the matter more fully, Tio | take two metals and join them together. Now Volta 
found that it was only when tho knife touched the] said, very rightly, Why theae two metals? ‘There 
great nerve. of the le connected with tho backboue| must be something myatcrious about the junetion of 
=the crural nerves—that this convulaion took placo,| the two;,aud Fabroni—a professor at Elurenco— 
ant he fowid algo that it only occurred when there | suggested that chemical action might lave some- 
was tho spark‘from tho machine, But ho mage! thing to do with tho matter, Volta worked at tho 
other obstrvations beyond that: Ho thought thot] subject very diligently, and, to prove the importance 
if tho clectrical machino did this, atmosplicric} of tho junction of two metals, le produced hia 
electricity ought to do the same. And soho hung| celebrated pile, ‘Chat was tho firat battery over 
up some frogs’ legs upon an iron railing near his| formed. Wo hinve the pile here. It consists of 
house, by means o! copper wire passing Uhrough or {copper and zing plates soldered together, aud be- 
behind the nerve; and then, to his astonishment, | tween tho pairs there aro pieces of Hannel or cloth 
ho found that it was not necessary to wait for light-| steeped in sult, Acid wns sometimes used after- 
nin for oven when tha wind blew, and tho feet| wards, but not, I believe, by Volta. Ifo made a 
of the frog kicked against the iron rniling, the con: | pilo of these piccea of metal, We have hero fifty. 
vulsion took place, Now I wish to show you that} six piled one on top of another, with dis salt 
experiment, I think it is worth while that you] Minnet between them, By. taking tho two ends—or 
should all sco it, and seo it well. Of courgo I do|rnther by toking tho wires attached to the two enda 

not wish you to repent tho experiment, beenuga it}—we can produce, [ dare say, various eflects, Wo ° 

killa tho frog; Lut T suppose that not any of us| can get a spark ag you sce, and we ought to got n 
* who are in the habit of eating animals in our tally shock very ensily by menns of this arrangement. 
food will seruplo to kill an animal for mental food, | I do not know ‘whether we shall be ably to make 
in this way, and for tho purpose of illustrating one | our frog move. (‘Lhe wires of tho voltaic pile were 
of tho most important avents in tho history of| brought into contact with tho frog's legs, and pro- 
Science, Seeing it once, Sou will not need to com. duced a sudden convulsion] ‘Thus you sce, at 
cat 7 amit fy cruelty in repeating it, I mny tell you,| once, tho effect produced by means of n pile, which 
{while the frog is being prepared, that {he explana. | consists of the junction of two metals, Volta, in 
_ fon of Galvani was crroncous in tho matter, Ho} this way, got Galvani’s effects, ‘This pilo may be 
H thonghit that this frog was something like n Leyden | easily imitated by yourselves by putting togethor 
Jar. Thoso of you who havo studied frictlonal} almost any pate of inetnls, You join the two onda, 
electricity will know that instrument. Ife thought, | and then you got the effect—an effect much moro 
further, that tho fox was a very delicate electro | powerful when you have n great number of plates, 
.Acope, and had the-power of charging itself and] Lhis pilo was built up by Volta first in 1799, and 
discharging. itself by jnenns of the metals, Lhis| ho wrote’ an necount of it, and sent it to Inglond 
Was at erroncous opinion, of. Galvani, ond, lika}to Sir Joseph Bunks, the president of the Royal 
moat crroncous opinions, it provented him from | Society, in the beginning of the year.1800. ‘hid 
getting fe much good from his: experiment ns ho] drow tho attention of English oxperimenters tu this 
i mig) it otherwise hayo done, subject, aud they wero soon very fruitful in resulta; 
i ; 

: . 

iit a ott Rezornar teats aeenRE ot 


For inatanco, there wore two mon—of tho name of} means of a wiro, and then you put them into tho 
Nicholson and Carliste—who mado hastily a pile off cups, or glasses, or jnra, in such a way that tho 
zinc plates, copper, penny pieces, and picces of | picco of copper goes into ono jarani the piece of 
pasteboard damped with a solution of salts and |zine into the next. ‘Chis is what we calla “ couple.” 
with this very rough pilo thoy. perccived, on| ‘Iho copper of ono couple and tho zinc of the next 
bringing tho two ends.togathor, that thero waa an|couple nro in the same jar. You aco thera is no 
odour about tho poles, and this odour thoy recog: | action hetweon this zinc and copper at all, at pre- 
nised ag ono which genorally accompanied hydrogon | gent; but if I take tho wires at tho ends, directly 
gas, and therefore they thought that thoro wag aI join the two, you will sco that thore is an action 
decomposition of water, ‘This led to other expori- | taking placo in all the jara, Itis just as if I had 
menta on decompositions, and xo they found ont, jjoincd tho plates in each jar, There is now hydro- 
for tho first timo, that clectrolyais of which I spoke | gen being given off in ench case. ‘This shows how 
in tho Inst locturo, Theso wore, in fact, the first] wo can combina many plates together, and in this 
experiments in clectrolysis. I must give you the/ way wo get a much grentor intensity of force than 
date of them, It was on tho 30th of April, 1800,] Wo can from any single couplo-moro than wo 
that these experimonts word made with tho voltaic { could, in fact, from tho very largo couple which I 
pile. . had in tho middlo of tho room at the first lecture. 
Wo havo traced voltaic olectricity to Lagland;] "Lhon thero was another way of arranging the 
but let mo go back to Italy for a moment. We find] batteries, which was considered a very great im- 
that there woro two persons concerned in this| provement. ‘Lhe plates wero soldered togothor, and 
branch of knowledge,—Dr, Galvani and Volta,—| put inn trough liko this, You had to pour sul- . 
and somotimes the name of ona is applied to this|pluric acid upon tho fplates, and thon the whola 
force, ani somatimes tho name of tho other. Soma. | thing was ready for action, ‘hero is 1 wire con- 
timos we speak of Gnivaniam, and at othor times] nected with ench ond, ‘Chis is part of the “ trough 
of Voltaic Electricity. ‘Cho apparels is enlled) battery” which Davy used. Ifo employed fivo 
vithor the gulvanic battery or the voltaic battery, | batterics like that for tho decomposition of potas- 
and I did not know at first which term to employ | sium—tho experiment I spoko of in the Inst lecture, 
a8 tho title of my lectures; but I chioso * Tho Voltaic | These aro enlled Cruikshauk's batteries, 
Battery” in.plnce of “'Lho Galvanic Battery,"—| But Davy was not content, even, with his five 
not that Galvani ling not tho priority in obseryn-| batterics, which had won for him so many Janrols, 
tion, but that the battery belonga rather. to Volta,|in tho decomposition of tho alkulics and alkaline 
Galvani nover made a battery, and ho so misunder-|carths, Ifo wanted a larger battery still, and a 
stool the force which lo had yot hold of tlnt he| subscription was set on foot in this Institution, 
would rover liavo made one, But Volta ld a] monoy was collected, and n battery was formed of 
more scientific mind, and ho saw that thero was|two thousand double plates. Mack plate hat 
something remarkable in tho contact of the metals, | 32 square inches of surface, so that altogether thera 
and that it was not simply an animal phenomenon, | wore 128,000 square inches of active surface. Whiat 

‘Aud therefore ho built up this pile, whieh is the a prodigions ainount of power he had here! It is 

infant,—the buby,—tho very commencement of|said that it gave a spark, between charcoal points, 
these various piles which aro so powerful, and|of 4 inches inlongth, It was charged with dilute 
which we can now oxhibit beforo you. nitric acid, With this very eclobrated powerful 
It go happened that in tho sao year in which | battery he was ablo to perform various work in this 
iho voltaic pile was known aul experimented npon | building, and ho thought ho could ‘locompose almost 
in Enghund—tho year 1800, the first year of this | everything, but thero wero some things that resisted 
century—Davy was nppointed Professor of Che-}even Davy. Of course overything that is simple, 
inistry in this Institution, Mo had paid some {and not compound, would resist decomposition ; but 
nttontion to this matter before he camo up from tho| then ho did not know what was simplo and what 
west of England, and when lio camo to London ho | was compound wutil experiments were made, Te, 
throw his heart and soul into the investigation of | therefore, had x hopo of decomposing nitrogen, and 
this voltaia force. ‘Ihe first courso of lectures that | le wrote to Mr, Jordan in this.wayi— LP hopo to 
he over delivered in this Inatituiion was upon tho} show you nitrogen a complete wreek, torn to pieces 
voltnic pile and its results, ‘They were lectures | in many ways.” Phy 
delivered in the ovening, aud thoy eatablished, fon} But Finust hasten on, Dr. Wollaston, who was 
certain oxtent, the fame of this young lvetttrer— | well known us 0 scientific man in those days, made 
Davy, Later on in tho year ho dutivered another [an improvement, by putting tho copper on cach side 
courso of lectures, which, being in the morning, [of the zinc, ‘Then ho could take his cclt and put 
wero attended by the fashionable dite, as well us |it into dilute sulphuric acid, and, of course, it was 
tho thoughtful people of tho day, nnd they inercased |acted upon on both sides, You seo tho. great 
yreally tho fame .of the philosopher. Davy, in| effurvesconce therois—the great number of bubbles, 
setting to work, appeared to forma sort of deter. {and this piece of connecting Platinum wire Jias bo- 
mination to tear {o. pieces ovorything ho could by|como red: hot, Ifore,.then, with a singlo cell of 
means of the voltuic power. Of course ho was not | Dr. Wollaston’s, we aro whlo to make a picco, of 
content with this original slrneturo, In fret, Volta | tolorably stout platinum . wire incandescent.» But 
himeelf improved upon it considerably, and formed | Wollustori was not content always with a big thing 
an arrangement which I have hore, which is called |liko this, Ie had an idea of muling very amall 
tho Crown of cups.” ‘Chis is an. improvement, | batteries, and hig celebrated battery was in a silver 
nud ig much. moro convenicut than tho pile, In]thimble, Ilo toul a silver thimbto, flattened it cons 
fact, tho pilo ia a vory inconvenient arrangement, siderably, and cut off the end.—that part whidh is 
In tho improved form yout tako, coppor and zine, jat tho’ end of tle finger,—then ho put between the 

_ oid solder them together, connecting ‘them by|two sided a tittle picee of ‘zitie which was ¢ of on” 


rere tro A ating ab -Chavenal inRatlaviac.. 

(Crosaya nde eorge .L.’,Leclanch ( Gatéanie> jes—eHoward: P.- Dechert, | . heute a rd 2 yw ok ee 
jParis, anon assignorto- I. Ly Roosevelt, . Filed i "3643270. Gatonnie Batteries or local adtion Copper Hy oe et Adlion of: Charcoal in Balleries. 167 
{December 16, 1874.—Incorporates the depolarising’ sub New York,- Interpo! sof a-suiphate of copper battery, ‘e a alecishcassitatsQtal | ME Vik iniiddnie GP can a : 
istance with the negative clement in the manner specified pole between the rk in order to prevent Ae ‘accumula. : molecules, which yield ‘to: the .influence of the - Inversions, 
iin claims, thus dispensing with the use of a porous’ cup: | ; and near the zinc bart zinc pole when the sulphate of 4 ele@rode) are neutralised by the positive polafitics which : 
ut, A galvanic battery in which the use of a porous cup ie i 4 tion’of copper upon the high, A. secondary or. local are provoked | uport this ‘electrode, by cfectro-chemical & go é 4 
‘dispensed with, and in which an insoluble or: slightly YP copper solution rises 100 from the primary pole, olarisation ; that ix to say by the Sppeait of hydropen Ho nk ef nes fae 
‘soluble depolarising substance, as above defined, rendered © _chrouit pole, separate and , rimary pole, substantially } : ubbles upon the negative eledirog + the same gort of e€ 5° 23 ag gh é 
‘solid (with or without cement, by pressure), is combined, | applied in connedion wit i" a adion snay ke said of the other cléarode, This is pre (J.  B&. <g *e ge : * : 
cwith a condudor and negative pole, substantially as and ‘aw and for the nurpose set forth... i i cisely what.takes. place with china red onyx, gun flint, |f No. 2 o No, ¥ ° 
for the purposes set forth. 2, A depolarising body for 7 . ‘ . i : serpentine, &c., &c. . Let us sfippose, now, any portion r go 7i* Gy 2 * 64 
connedion with the negative pole of a galvanic battery, oO ~ 3 4 7 of the-stone positive with regard to another portion in 2 FA ri oa 6s 3 4 
consisting, in whole or in part, of an insoluble or slightly EGat iter Se a. : + consequence of its non-hosiogencous texture, or becaus 3 Py 6s 6 é 7 7 
soluble depolarising substance, rendered solid, with or it will less readily absorb shoisture; we immediately coi 3 6 2 8 gs 49 37 
without cement, by pressure ina mould, substantially as’ prehend.the accidental Jffferences which may be broug¥t 3 és ; 10 oa a 35 . 
and for the purposes set forth, 3. A galvanic battery in | hte about: regarding the :gonditions of condudtivity of fie} 11 85 3 Hd 13 Hs a az 
which the usc of a porous cup or diaphragm, or its equivas }. "4 -p06,012,, Galvaiite: Batteries, je Kidder, New. York, transmitted current agtording as they are sent in ony’ or 13, 80 x 37 14 #8 30 19 
lent, is dispensed with, and in which the negative element’ ‘| | N.Y." Filed April 24, 1875.1. A cell-casing for galvanic ‘ the other dircdtion, ms 15 75 44 «938 1G 830 27)” 
iconsists of a mixture of an insoluble or slightly soluble | | batteries having Interior cell forming partition walls, made As to the readiohs produced on currents by th’per-} 15 93 4331 18 78 35017. 
depalatising substance, as hetcinbefore defined, and acon- | . | atleas helght than outer walls, for enabling rapld filling sistent polarisatiod of the dielectric motecutes, they are) 39 pa gr 2074 3410 t 
ductor, with or without cement, rendered solid by pressure, | and, emptying of cells, substantially as and for the pure easily understood! as far as homogeneous minephils are . 7 
substantially ag and for the purposes set forth. 4A negas | ose-specificd. . 2. A cell-casing-for, galvanic batteries concerned; and they are with case accounted/ for, a9 | remanent polaritics, and to maintain its deviation for 
itive clement for a galvanic battery, consisting, in whole or | vo videdl with outer walls af treater heieht than the in« ahown by the tale already given. Molecular pofarivation | some moments. I have refound these snail currents:a |: 
in part, of a mixture of insoluble or slightly soluble de- . ; eer atiition walla: and haw get ti reservoir with 4 being persistent! the charge current from eagh current | long while after electrification of the stoncs; but aheating iY 
polarising substance, as above defined, and a condu@or, | lien ay atters wad ut pad iB pity y id cinntvlng closure (in the fame dircétion) should be Icés and less | process caused them to instantly disperse. a ee 7 
i with or jivithous cement, eb solid by pressure in a : and filling of the melleewith the fluid, substantially pie ie cnergeti¢, une in he sae and the diffessnces of the . . i 
: mould, substantially as and for the purposes set eactatel H A : potentials between the electric source the stone 
: .Purno forthe sod for the purpose set forth. 3, The subdivided guide-frame particles most didealy influenced by thé cledrostatic i 

Ah ig valle sealed fn fraln cell-esss, and ronnened witl i vertically 
a7 — — moving -element. carrying | to; ate, ae shown and: 
NMensr be My. $ described, thus admittngot ke Pteral removal of cells! 

, and insuring the. insertion of cach clement in its proper 

| cell when depressed, substantially as ect forth. 4. ‘The 
cee nme eweeeey diagonal pivoted straps Ef E,.to command the parallel im- ; 

adion, is Icss and less considerable, whilgt on. the other 
side clero.chemical polarisation tends tf oppose itself to 
cach charge, Hencevresults the succefsive drop of the 
transmitted’ current ‘when several ‘Yclosings” ‘of the 
current in one dire@ionvare effedted/and that, too, after. 

the disappearance of the resulting pofarisation current. 
When, after these successive clogings, we reverse the 
direion of the current,the , remahent- polarities neces- 
“gacily. oppose a certain resistance fo ‘the inverse electro: 
‘static adion, and ought to; provdke at the beginning a 
; lowering in ithe strength of: the/current-provided, haw- 
cog a VCH, that eledtro-chemical polatfuation is not predominant. 
ower But this inverse’ polarity succgssively continuing to grow 
i less, fresh electrostatic effectafacquire more and mote a 
Greater power, and furnish gelatively an increase in the 
Current's strength until they Are themselves diminished by 
new developed polarities. /Chis may be noticed from the 
figures in my last table reffrring to Heronville flint. . Yet 
when eledra-chemical prebails over electrostatic. polarisa- 
tion, the contrary must take place, for then the polarisation 
current which has a tengency to be created will be found 
in the direRion of the Mew transmitted current. It will 
stilt be remarked that this effect is not generally produced, 
and that only when Ahe circuit remains closed fora 
certain while‘in the Aame diredtion, or is at least closed 
. twice in succession, /:After 2 single closure the polarising 
chemical: adion is frot sufficiently developed, especially 
when the closure ig of short duration: A rather curious 
_ effect’ is produced th this latter case after a certain number 
of experiments,» The deflections which are manifested. at 
the beginning (fof the direction of the current correspond- 
“. the weakést deflections) become weak much less 
quickly than cofresponding defedtions from the reversed 
current." Thig shows that: the initlal deflections. are 
especially impfessed by ‘electrostatic polarisation, ‘This 
may be Judged of from the following list of experiments 
made ‘upon fle Caen-stone sample, and with. current 
closures of fo minutes” only—the «inversions of the 

"current succteding’one another without interruption. 

“As may pe seen, all—even the ‘most’ contradictory— 
effects readfly explain’ themselves with the theory I have 
: Just expougded, without admitting any hypothesis. It ts 
a theory edtirely based ‘upon: facts, and f could. even say 
that the persistence of. molecular potarisation -alter the 
disappearance of the galvanometer defleAlons—persistence 
upon which ‘ suppotted,.and from which we 
may dedute. effeds: Yoduced. ulterforly—may be: even 
diredtly stiown.’: To do‘so it suffices: to break the circuit 
which unites the atone diredly to the galvanometer, and 
to after. te-establich it. anit. was before, .-The necdlc is 
then observed ‘to ‘aw “under the influence: of the 

ee aes y 0.) By H, SAUVAGE, ce: 

Grove, : in 1839, first constructed his batteries with 
graphite for. Interior negative: clearodes. . Bunsen, in 
1843, proposing this electrode ‘as an economical im- 
provement,” surrounded the porous pot and the zinc with 
coke-dust and oily coal calcined in moulds. Archereau,’ 
in 1849, returning to Grove's arrangement, obtained with 
charcoal a higher potential than from Bunsen's clement: 
of greater surface; and Liais and Fleury (reviving in 1852 
the Bunsen arrangement), by substituting for the agglo- 
merated carbon a carbon sufficiently porous to allow the 
acid to percolate, maintained the high potential of - 
Archereau’s clements with a less surface of-zinc though 
a larger one of the carbon. These facts scem to firmly © 
demonstrate that the employment of charcoal as a nega+ 
tive electrode is advantageous from the twofold view of 
economy and condudivity, and that it Is advisable to 
Increase its surface. 

Ie does not secm as though we should assign any very 
special action to the carbon. . Like’ copper, platinum, or 
any other cledtro-negative body, it plays no other part in 
the voltaic economy than that of a simple conductor, to 
share the ele@tric condition of the quid and communicate 
it to the exterior, circuit... -Ae with. all other negative 
cledtrodes, we aim at developing its surface, and pre-e 
serving it from the hydrogen bubbles which cover it with 
an injurious insulating layer, whereby an adverse and 
weakening current is set up. ; oe > 

Now, in the numerous systems with which itis proposed: . 
to chemically absorb the hydrogen before its ‘arrival at 
the negative ele@trode—whether by a second Nquid, bya 
damp ‘Toughy mixture, by a solid oxide, by a: layer of 
eand, or by pulverised carbon—it. ia worthy of remark 
that the carbon plate is always found confined in: the 
liquid, the sand, paste, or in‘a pot more or less hermeti- 
cally closed. Leclanché himself, in hia battery (manga- 
nese and pounded charcoal), docs not indicate any other 
use for the orifice which he makes in the wax stopper o 
his porous pots than to allaw the passage of the alr when 
the pot is immersed into the battery Hquid. ‘i 

‘rhe carbon has nearly always been placed under very 
disadvantageous conditions for manifesting and preserving 
its adion, if any such it has. That it has such an action : 
is maintained by certain savants, among whom is the: 
Count Du Moncel, who says—"' Even charcoal will deve. 
Jop an electromotive force acting in concert with tha 

roduced from the oxidation of the zinc." Tf, therefore, it;, 
fas afavourable adion towards the development of the: 
cleatromotive force of the couple of which it forms a part, 

1 e0em eeneg ay = 

—— ‘ 

(°"'167,173. Galvanié Batteries,  Udward A, tit, lon of the elements Into the solution of the: cell 

iChicago, Il. Filed .July-20, 1875.—rief—"" Prevents | Fe oid eee Toe hie eeitene enecifcde one 
| the flow of the sulphate of copper i the zine by. means of \ batantially as and for the, purpote specified... + 
a tube and plate of lead suspended above the sulphate of | 


copper. While furnishing A plate upon which the copper 
will be. deposited ‘if the sulphate of copper solution rises 
too high, the tube and plate present also a convenient 
means for the Introdu@ion of the fresh sulphate of 
copper.” Claim.—'t1, The device B, constructed of lead 
or other incorrodible metal, when supported above the | 
bottom of the containing cell, substantially as and for the 4 
purpose herein specified. 2. The combination of the 

_ | device B with the-copper or — plate, having supports 
wo : fixed or resting ‘thereon, substantially as ‘and: for the 
purpose specified.” ? b : : 

Lar tuae dof 2 x 

[* 165,312, Poles’ for Galvanié Batter IL. P, Dee! 
: New York, N.Y. Filed June. 26, 1874.~—A battery pole, E 
: consisting of a conducting skeleton or perforated frame or . 
Jacket, containing broken catbon or a.carbon:plate, sub- 
stantially as and forthe purpose described. 

Ab ot- Mewo bred ye 

365,210. Galvanic. Batterles. Joseph Ci Clamond and 

L, A. Gaiffe, Paris, France. «Filed November & pele 
An artificial carbon is produced by calcining a mixture of 

. ; praphite, tar, and sugar. ‘The carbon thus prepared is |: 
: Immersed in a solution of perchloride of ron or of anether f 

»{ salt of sesquioxide of fron, and then in ammonia. The |! 
sesquioxide of iron is precipitated and incorporated fn the 
pores of the carbon. - By this means the porous vessel is 
dispensed with, and the depolarising agent’ fs chemically 
produced inthe pores of the carbon itsclf.’ x. The ime |! 
proved sesquioxide of iron battery, containing sesquioxide |: 

of iron in combination with zinc and an ammoniacal salt,-|) 
..{is° specified,"'2, The method herein described: ‘of pre: : 
paring a sesquioxide of iron battery by mixin; sesquioxido 

of iron with coke, ‘or fixing it in the pores of -caibon, sub- 
stantially,ne.t fo nonmetal 


Pak pas pena tienS ET sas : 



{41019,}--Battory for Dells,—I think a chlo. 
it elde of zina battery would autt . 
Fcollone, which works n bell ona clock, a telegraphic’ 
cireuit, threo bells, ansla repeater, ant £ charge it . 
{about four to five months at a vors «mall cost, 
t| havo tied many so-called constant batterios, but 
i}nothing equals this, A Lectanche, or Bichromate, 
‘Jor Anderson's is casfiy tranaformed.—Revinary 

‘] [41010,]—Battery for Bolts,—Tho [éclanché is 

ono of tho worst batteries for continuous work—[n 
‘a fow woeks thoy get polariacd. T think n geavity> 
battery would suit 
is that the sawdust is dona away 
Tho sulphate of copper, being of lower 
denaity, sinks, ant tho aulphato of zinc rises. ‘The 
Vquids do not mlx, if not disturbod,—-Wanten H. 

44010,.J—Battory for Bolla— Will give 
experience with Lectanché colts, x 
all my own apparatus, anil o} 
find as inuch ploasure in the minktoy 
_ | Two years ago [ mado threo amall 
my house with electric bella, and {no 
0 bolls ceanesd to ring. I th 
large lozenge jer holding about threo quarts, | 
turned a mahogany cover for { 
‘| carbon and zinc plate to it, half-filled the Jar with 
water, put in eomo lumps of sal-ammonino, 
rang our bella for nino mouths, 
coll ringing them stil, with a new zinc 
Whon iitting up ctoctria bolls, use a thick wire, as | 
,{amall wires require a grost deat mora battery- 

ous the differences 

[44019.]~Battory for Bella,—"Wichi"' wants 
’) what most olectricians havo almed at for years, 
which tho “Loclanché" {s'not: it 
worked continuously, What Is far 
botter than a Menottils a cell or series of Danielle, 
arranged o8 ‘Sigma’ mentions on pa: 
book, that fa fu tho usual way, but witht! 
: | of another porous coll outstde the ono contain 
zino rod, tho apace betweon the two beln; 
solution of sulphate of zinc, and : 
tings to decompose nny coppor salt 
fanaged as above, this 
advantages, its only disadvantage 
ternal resistance fs 

increased s but of course the . 
alze or number of cells mutt bo arranged to aorve 

‘or my own part, cannot sec 
Cella should be required to iy 
attention, aa it would bo ensy 
sot to start working whilat the oth 
bo seen to nt your liberty.—M.M.LSeS. ax 

_ | Your purposo beat, 

k Ebotuceit: aor20,98 

La nouvelle pile au poroxyde de. mangantse, do 
M. Leclanché, que nous avons, décrite dans. notre 
dernior numéro est, depuis plusiourg semaines, 
dans le commerce, sous trois dimonsions dillé- 

1° Potit élément compict Xune Plaque agglomé- 
rée, 3 francs 7b; - 
2° Grand élément 4 deux plaques, agglomérées, 

‘3° Elément disque & trois plaques agglomérées, 

August 18; 1675.0 00 one 



Hehy aa ars yt 

A Course or Srx-Lucrunes, : 


Fullerian Professor of Chemlstry, Royal Institution, 

 Brrraiw.—Onnrsrscas, 1874-3 
“(Concluded from pega it.) 7" 
» Lrorunn::VIL—Praorican, APPLICATIONS 
s Gatvantes, 
ut ee ee bed vo dee aS yat Fee's, 
1 Witt proceed to:another application of. galvanic 
clectricity—the olectrio light... Chavo already shown 
you,,in, Various ways, that sparks can. ba producad. 
{wo mako tho torminala of our, consist 
of charconl, thon.wa got the apark most beautifully. 
oxhibited. Tho light is intonsely, bright.. If. wo 
havo, copper and silyor, and ¢o,.on, for tho tor-, 
minals, thoy givo thoir own particular colouraito 
tho sparka; but whon wa omploy. charcoal wo got 
a, bottor Hight than wo do from auything. claa—a 
light, which, in fact, rivals tho isun. . You'.sco 
whorevor tho two picces of, charcoal touch wo got 
this intonacly bright Tight, ‘Chia has nothing todo 
with the combustion of tho charcoal; tho charcon) 



is not burning, for the light will take placo in wator. 

juet as woll as in tho air, . [Tho carbon terminals 
wero immorsed in a glass bowl.of water, and a 
brilliant light was produced beneath the surface of 
tho liquid... ‘Tho uso of this light undor the wator 
has bean suggeated for catching fiah,.but not 
know with what success ;;porhaps .tho fish aro 
onabled , by it to sao, tho not, or nro lod to guapect 
gomo misohiof,, Mr. -Ladd.will show you this.light 
on tho seroon, Tho curront of electricity goos,from 
ono point, to, tho othor;. wo supposo that it passes 
from tho positive polo, to. tho nogativo polo ;.wo 
havo reason for supposing that, Locauso.wo find an 
actual transforonco of particles from tho positiva to 
tho nogativo. This is tha ‘posilive polo magnifiod 
on tho scroon, and yout’ sea tho molted globules 
which are passing. from it.. It is necessary to bring 
tho polos togothor at firat, in ordor to ignite thom, 
and thon thocarbon points may be removod to somo 
distance from‘ono anothor, and still. this: luminous 
vapour from tho carbon flows across from ono to 
auothor. You sco what a boautiful band thero is 
of this bluo light starting from tho whito oude; wo 
ehould find that tho carbon would gradually woar 
away from ono polo, and thnt it would bo doposited 
upon tho other, Watch theeo brilliant globules which 
are falling upon this polo; I think thoro is scarcoly 
anything poasiblotoboconcoived moro beautifulthan 
that intonso light, and you may imngino what force 
in eting thero whon it is-capable of molting tho 
. oke, Wo will show you tho heat of this olectrio 
light; 1t fa, I beliove, tho preateat torrestrial heat 
wo can produco; wo shall bo ablo to sco upon tho 
screen immediately tho melting of motals by moans 
of it, This olectric light, as you aro aware, has 
been suggested for -various purposes ; wo huvo 
employed it sovoral times during the courso of these 

ty eh 


Detivenp at tite Royar Institution or GREAT 

! groan light; thoro it is, pouring o! 

leoturog, ‘and wo havo beon able to magnify objects 
aril to show you phonomena which you: could not 
othorwiso havo avon. « But tho olectrio light doos 
not succeed very woll for lighting:up buildings, 
Thia is duo to the unsteadiness of tho light, :espo- 
cially when produced from a galvanio battory, 
Wo: havo: now silver: molting in the oleotrio light; 
and this beautiful coiour on tho sorcon: is causod 
by tho vapour of silver which is passing acrosa tho 
interval. You-sco how far tho vapour:of silver 
goos; it is this greon band. Now think of tho hoat 
ueceasary to yaporiso silyor; it is so boautiful that 
wo must hayo anothor motal.. : 

Twas saying that this is nots very pood light 
for tho practical purposes of lighting buildings, for 
tlio‘gulvanio battory is'not a very conatant: thing, 
and thoso charcoal points havo always to bo.kopt 
at about tho samo distance, but tho positive polo 
woara ‘away moro rapidly than tho, nogativo, and 
tho polos are always’ changing thoir distanco, This 
last ciroumstanco can bo overcome protty woll by’ 
machinery, ‘but tho irrogularitics of the galyanio 
battery “cannot bo’ overcome. An attompt was 
made to introduce this for lighthouse. purposes, and 
Profossor' Faraday worked long and lovingly in 
ordor to introduce this bright light forthe benefit 
of tho anilors about’ our shores, But the oloctrio, 
tight can bo"producod in othor ways than by tho 
galyanio’ “battory ;- wo can got itiby rotating. 
magnots, and by that moana, originally discoverod 
by Faraday,-wo aro ablo'to produco, tho brilliant,. 
steady. cloctrie lights now sonding thoir rays across 
‘tho ‘sod ‘at’ Dungonoss, ‘and’ at two or throo.other’ 
placog in England and Franco, 1 

‘Toro is the light duo to-lithium; it ig’caused by. 
‘tho magnificont vapour of that motal, :, Afr. Ladd 
is ablo to separato these points far from ono anothor,: 
sbooauiso’ tho lithium vapour. conducts. tho voltaic 
Hforeo. I supposo wo must look at anothor motal in 
this way. |. a nen arth gine an Pill it 
i * Horo is thallium.. This vapour givos o peculiar 
i ff from tho.motul. 
‘ou soo how it,is being eont out. from.tho ono 
‘charcoal, ‘aud tho’ vapour is boing condetised' and 
doposited on the other polo. Pn hn dali et tagiO 

am yory sorry that tho hour is going rma 80 
fast, but I must say o word or two an: anol her 
application’ of tho voltaic force, You’ know. vory 
wall that wo can carry it to any distanco wo please, 
‘Woll, thon, wo may omploy it to set firo to gun- 
powder,:or gun-cotton, or anything olso of tho 
sort, ata distance. And it has Leon so omployed 
for removing obstructions in mining oporutions, 
blasting rocks,and so on., I-romombar ono of. tho 
finest sights I _evor saw was tho blowiag down 
of some of tho buildings of tho Great Exhibition, 
opposite Quocn’s Gate. I was thon considorably 
interested in gun-cotton, Tho gun-cotton was 
ignited by means of tho voltaio force, and tho 
masses of building elowly scttled duwn boforo us, 
being undormined by tho blast, I havo put in my 
pocket somo string gun-cotton, You know tho 
Austrians triod to introduce it for tho purposes of 
war, Hero is somo of tho Austrian match-ling, 
and 1 havo had o piece of it wound round thore. 
[A picco of match-line was ignited by a battory~ 
spark.) By just simply putting the wires upon tho 
compound, wo can sct off tho gun-cotton, and 
instead of gun-cotton wo might tako anything clea 
of tho samo character, such as thoso little fusos. 
do not want to blow up a largo quantity of gun. 


v| A SEW Galvanic BATTERY, ae ee en ee ean ee ae 
a ; i lo thero fs reason to doubt the possibility of devising’ a 

eH 4 motor capable of doiag heavy work as economi | 
he atenm an, hore can be no queation that, for ' 
electric engine is one of the moat 

’ The gaivanic. battery is now. so exten- 
sively employed in all branches of buat- 
ness—by the broker for telegraphing the oe 
prices of gold and stocks,by tho merchant ci 
for ordering goods,. by clockmakers aa 4 
substitute for welghts and springs, by 
electro-platers and gilders for depostting 
nickel and the precious metals, by en- : ; 
dese for exploding blasts, hy physicians jo. ae en - , . : : | : ie 
fre dvr yn ie are) go ey as mee : eo ithout- material wante, yet abla,to of |: 
elr houses—lhat. wo cane. te a : = il oe 
not pass by any Improvement, however oo | an : fuera : | 
min rat iM re paall and cheaply Kept jn working order, tata ee Hl 
yentent, yet fitful, little slave capable of St ae 7 : 
more generat use in the arts. s | va : : 
} plications w 

pllt'itecontenta underordinary cir. 

To an Austrian journal we. find’a de- {, 
scription of a battery made by Fein, in : E 
Stuttgart, which is said to combine great 1 sien A tein La, tt 
eleclo-motive force with great constaacy. i already in ure, onouyh bn been eecomiay b olectric ! 
Tt conatsis, In the first placo, of a three and Labor nt Inst Secured, moore i douche the aupurlority off forlight £ 
necked bottle, like a Woulfe's bottle, 1 THE BA vork, Everything that steam can do In suc! 3 if 
cd | . In 1 a itcan do; i 
Bie et dhe ldo Reiks le wieaiton vod Gad > GLES METALLIC BATTERY, \ nad Were are many occasions, domeaticand otherwiso, where : | 
In tho other is an atanlgamated lnc rod, PATENT APPLIED FoR, : 1 Rover eanant oe conveniently employed, where a small 
1} provided with a cetton cover as substisute’ ‘Vy The unsernigoet baring secured the exctiadvo Ay 1 sarees ongine mnlght do the required work qulckly, neatly, 
j}fora porous cell, ‘Tha bottle is filled een suite stat ats oF the ieneraice || without eat or risk of explosion, and without enlling for 
\ through the middlo neck to two-thirds ix i FAGLES METALLIC BATTERY, ist tasigiiaciad skill or knowledge, the 
1 capactty with by Lf uw atter thea to the putt unt . hich must ever act ad a bar to the Ei yar, 
sian at pee abi oa of ac a pn el senin, ne Yet Maltory lor Tetegraphic ateam for household service, And thé Pi 
{bo remalning third Is filled he nL] battery. Sulphate of cunpor fe dre oak cneniteste hale of the tained may bo, in itself, many tlmes 
centrated solution of sal ammont: ik ‘Thea Hattertes have bean fully te Tek eagent , : an onaivalent amon’ of ateam power, ths; ; 
‘neck ts then closed by means of nd sea cal recent afer ier sler went gage teat year, Li OF yn : ing the use of electrlelty aro so pronounced ates 
il verted clarsftas an in- Iillty. When gues et an the eee Pon aad Bt Dep 1 O 10) KWOOD BATTERY. saving of tme and trouble so grent, that, with 
: B k Glted with concentrated fon Pb they reaqnt dura. f) grent, that, with « generator t 
‘Veatution of ‘sal ammoctac, and to. taget Tenslecnsenteesce Wo thapersicw eequinet at tee : PATENTED APnth 8, 1873, such as we have described, there would be no hesitation in A 
Uhnt the mouth of The fot dipa beneath, | ln Motor Sinaeorgrs ta oer wen bp pra, ©, G. TILLOTSON & 00., Sole Agents, . |/St706 {tthe preference ts thoursnds of canoe where a littld y 
the surface af the solution in the bottle; | sxe Iatcales ane Nut Celt hoe Wasa local Gr tar yoo. No, 8 Duy Sroger, N.Y.  |ipowor fa wanted for continuous work, or whore there 18 f| 
If at wer ouougt ttle; saving ‘of nearly ouetalineoste 12 Pe Mf ee Dantelte, at a This Dattery line beon in extended practical ueo for more than occasional need of « small-but instant effect, : q 
a igh ovoporates to bring the Xo. tn m rou evthy dentuted & ayear, and ie now acknowledged by feadlng Blecteteiaus Tnke, for example, th: ‘ li 
Hijeface of the sotutlon below the mouth og | tonto ITs ctreware aud vriew ir tata te, Mrten, £2, dic?) 1a, Wa Uhls country and Kurope to bo. : plo, that almost universal household noces- H 
\ pala aT eee i OF i forwatsied pain appticas “PAR SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS — nity, the eowing machine. :How immonsely would ite useful, H 
_—_————s mie ~-L. POPE & CO. A for Aelepraybi Pucpoaes, oF closnd clrenits of any description ip Bers be Incrensed by an acceptable means of running It: a} £ 
? the flask, fomealr will enter the flask, and a », O. Box 8603.) 38 VARSEY NREMT, Ny ‘This Battery Froctyol Whe FINE, PITEAUTUS ‘over j ae use pe Yipee a no winding up, which would not ‘ “i 
enough rolution’ yand |. 1M x : ; easily got out of order, which would be always safe, alw i 
SALE Se eee x POWER, DURABILITY AND ECONQ™™ v5. * —i Meroe sri rae ¥ 
attached to (he ae copper'cantuctor is" | eae AT THE VE + ery bit : ° : sean a . 
lat r carbon tod by i ; : q . 7 7 a , 
tine trim iintee THE TELEGRAPHER | ete neta dng tone eet sees AUaUST 29) 17 
| allt in tne earbon and depositing a tim | «Becht capper ne el tia iets 
| of copper’ by clectsulysls, Wee : si LS LISS RESERY f ts clrctilta of average tonglh for s der control! A man w a 
: Pressing the platinum strip Into etd of B PSERVOIR BATTERY, : : tt ! ey to Ml t this demand alone woul : an 
| are coloring it with in, ‘This battery fs] “| | Thia batts haw Junt isa ae iad’ NO.LOCAL ACTION, : lean nut - 
; Bald to require eteaning about . Mpat—ron Foner, at taken tho Fiast Parwiut—a Site snd tho ‘clreult fe"ansonuteLy wntronst at alt Uimes, It 1a : ’ 
year, when the zine rod; once a wart Inpuatntan Dane Econoy and Dunatttry, at the C: "t equally woll adapted for a rf be put, ! i : iF 
Bamated anow Is must he ama). 1 HAL Exvonttton, tHcane fie LOCAL, MATTERY, | Hd home, there le water to “pump; + i 
. pur wi. <e4 . ‘ 3 i 
Er oa whe ded cade nae SA as f Fae et requiring a uniform, powerful and constant | wauhing machines erate, wood to aaw, coal to lift, and i HW 
; (BB oaes atte tirayaseitoan nail woo ow reeds for ette, Other a multitude of other labara, all of which might be done ad. A 
“Send Jor Circular, * : | vantageously by simply elactric imotors, provided the requl- 
: L. G. TILLOT . alte battery were forthcoming, Bevldes, there fe light to far- 
r\ . i , “8 
Re 8 Dry Stuer, Naw Your, ninb, doore and windows to guard against burglars, errands 
Son AGUNTS. [to ran, and accidental fires to report. not impossible © 
4 oT ey . {that the common dwelling house of ‘the futire will rival 
 Wehare annotated stesare 1.0. re ees Seis Wieate | {Houdan’s in the diveratty and completeness of its electrical 
0 eale of tho Lockwood lattery. appliances; yet, without entering the reglon of apeaulation 

LOCKWOOD BATTERY CO. or looking beyond tho sim 

ty ple dally neods of ordinary hourw- | 

W. HL Sawrxn, Secretary, $j holda, there Is a presont call for the servicer of thia tleatest, K : 
: ‘neateat, and most tractable of servants, suffictent!to ensure | - 

; wealth and’ renown to whoever shall capture and harnens \ 

him satisfactorily, 
-, For light manufacturing purposes, the call ts equally uré 
hers eteam fs not used, there; 

- : gent, In every workshop w t 
fires - . 4 . ALO pragsea, RAWE, Inthes, drills, and numberloes other pre- 
‘Vsent or possible machines, to which electro.motors migut be 
profitably applied. For amateur workmen, nothing could 
be more desirable or more likely to meot with imniadiate 
acceptance, Then what ao-adimirable contrivance itAvould 
be for drisiog light wagons or propelliog pleasure boatal 
'fharo would ba no fuel to carry. 20 fire to watch, no poralble 
oxplosion to fear: there would be no stabllng or grooming to 
pay for, and no food to buy for the hours of tdlenose. © Mr. 
Bergh ought to offer a premiutn for the Invention, siinply for 
the sake of.the animals ho loves, ‘ : ; 
Whore the range of application ts‘so great, it {6 need. 
leas to multiply examples, Our purpose Is to sugiest, 
not to demonstrate, the qultitudinous uses to which a patis- 
factory electro motor may ve put, and to call the attention of 
Inventors to the certaln reward that will come te ~*- 

shall overcome the Inst remaining nhatesle 

Prive por ae 
It wilt ron oe eee BRy 
Hon, and as Ses local battery for atx month a 
| tmoalo battery for atouger peri © without atten: |) 

GEO. EH. Br, ‘ 
‘ 1s : 
41 THIRD Peitrtiche 

At u recent mevting of the Physteal Socivts 
ming showed his new battery, in whiel the 
mictalligcontact of dissimilar metals is entirely avoided, 
Tho arrangement consists of thirty-xix test tubes of 
dilute nitric acid®and the same nuntber of tuber of fo. 
dium: pentasulphide, all well instilated, alteronting with 
onoanotber, But strips of alternate lead and copper. 
connect the neighboring tubes, by whieh means the; 
terminals are of rimilar metal, and a current of sulli-i 
{clout Intensity to violently affect a quantity: galvane! 
omoter ohtained, The ntint increases, us in the’ 
ordinary galvanic arran, with the number of 
calls employed, util sixty cells showed an clectro. 
{motive furce exceeding that of thy same inunber of 
» Daniella cloments. Tn this now battery the acd Jead 
fs positive to capper, white in the sulptinte it is nega. 
clive, Mr, Meming further showed how, by using the 
‘singlo fluid nitric avid, and tho single metal iron, a 
sinitar battery could be constracted, provided ane ball’ 
‘of each iron ‘Htrip wus rendered que This ia an 
foportant disvovery, for it seumns to revive the theory 
that chenteal action Is no Hecessary ina galvanic 
-Amaratus to produce electricity. At all events, it ix? 
(YF suflicient interest to merit the xound inquiry into fs 
{principles whieh physicists seem likely to make, : 

| TERY, 
| Poggendorf's Annalen describes some In 
(teresting experiments made at Kanizs 
‘berg with a chloride of silver battery, 
, The experimenter, named Monvig, hod 
construcied uw stnple Wittle battery of 
<twenty small glass tumblers, 1 inch Tn’ 
diameter and 23 Inches high, all of which! 
could be placed on a sinall sheet of telter 
‘paper. ‘The deviatlon of the galvanom-! 
cter necdle by this current was 76°, while, 
forty Meldinger cella in use there only, 
jeaused a deviation of 499 With these) 
twenty colle telegrams were sent in perfect 
salety to Bromberg, and tho spring of the 
relay at that tation required strengthens 
Ing because the current attracted it too 
strongly. After shutting out the battery 
at Bromberg and making direct connec. 
tlon with Berlin, dispatches were sent! 
i there by the use of only ten of (hese litle 
{eells, while dispatches were sent to Brom: + 
‘berg with four cups, Further expeilmente: 
‘showed thut six cells would moro than | 
Fovercome the reslatance of 800 milrs of | 
wire from Kornigeberg to Bromberg, and 
twelve cells overcame (he 670 tiles to Ber- 
In, Including the resistance of relay and 
galvanometer. By employing such tmenna,: 
every man connected with tho rallway/ 
postal or telegraph service could carty al 
effictent hattery In his pocket, 

{yithe fitiie pentleman-also-made comd remarks Ua Me Use vy 

j Potassium Dickromate in Groves and Hunsen's Batteries to | 

antity of that substance dissolved In the nitric acid, and had i 
found that the battery remained constant so Jong as any chrome 
acid remained to he reduced, and that no red fuiues appeared, 

‘Ten athar nanare ware alen anniensontent 

ensure constancy, in which he stated that he had used a small | 
\ gu 


i ea SSS ee 

tio Vou. IIL.—No. 53. 


Tur battle of the guages in tho milway world has 
i its parallel in the battle of tho theories in the 
i electrical world, Volta conceived tho generntion 
“of the current in his pile to bo due to the contact 

sca at dissimilar metals, Fabroni suggested that it 

af wos due to chemical affinity. Tho German phy- 
af Sng whom wo may name Hitter, Pfaff, 
( mae im—were runged on the one side, and the 
| Enghs Hand French physicists—amongst whom wo 
‘may uno Faraday, Davy, and Do Ja Rive—were 
! sangel Gn the other side. The first phalanx was 
supported) by the undoubted fact tliat the contact 
1 of two amiftals, such as zino and copper, docs 
produca opkposite electrical conditions; and the 
} second phal wnx was supported by tho equally 
) undoubted filet tlint it was possibla to produce 
currents without tho contact of dissimilar motats, 
1. Volta determined that in every caso tho more 
1 oxidisable matal was positive, and that tho relative 
order of poaitiva clectrification followed exactly the 
samo ordof as Uhot of oxidability, which lcd 
+ Do la Rive to attribute tho result to oxidation due 
1 to the moisture of tho air upon tho positive plate; 
but Inter obscrvers—especinlly Sir William ‘hom. 
son—havo shown that this result is indepondent of 
moisture, or aven of the air, nnd that it is posi- 
tively stopped if actual wator be present. 
Do In Rive went so fir as to any that no effect 
occurred when ono disc was well conted with 
‘ yarnish and a platinum wiro is soldered on to it, 
i but Peclet showed that ho waa wrong, Belirons, 
: in 1805, netuntly constructed a dry pile of So pairs, 
and Do Tue, in 1810, mado ono of Soo pnira, of 
-tinned iron and gilt paper; and Zamboni, in 1812, 
inade one of 2ooo puirs, using paper tinned on ono} 
“aide and pasted with peroxide of manganeso on the: 
other, Mora recently, Sir Wm, Thomson ina! 


i Aetually measured tho difference of potential bo-: 

: tween zine and coppor in contact, 

{ Davy, though supporting ‘the chemical theory, 
‘found metals to Le positive when in contact with 
idry acidg, nnd negativo when in contact with 
‘alkalica; and snany other observers liavo noticed 
Ahat contact difference of potontiat is not duo alone 

tential between them,” Now: Faraday and his 

followers, in supporting tho chemical theory, roly 
on the fact that currents are produced without tho 
contact of divaimilar metwte; but it is ovident that, 
to destroy the contact theory, wo inust produce 
galvanic currents without the contact of dissimilar 
hodies,—and this is simply impossible, On the 
other hand, it ia very easy fo prodtce many 
instances whero currents nro produced without 
chemical action, The ordinary form of Daniel's 
battery in such general use throughout England is 
a caso in point, Thera is no chemical aliinity 
between. zinc and sulphata of zine, or between 
copper and sulphate of copper, and yet arrange 
these materints {na cell and we havo tho electro 
motive furce of a perfect Danicll's battery. Thera 
is no chemical afiinity between zine and chloride of 
ammontum, but put them ina Leclanché’s cell and 
we linvo a powerful current. ‘There aro many 
other insurmountable dificulties in accepting the 
chemical theory, but the chiof objection to it is tho 
anawer to tho simple question—What is chemicat 
aftinity ? If we accept tho contact theory, we not 
only nccept a feasible theory based on an irrefragable 
fact, but wa answer the question—Whiat is chemical 
aflinily? or, accept tho fact that the contact of 
isaimilar Lodics determines a difference of poten- 
tinl between them, wa can soy at once this is the 
cause of that action called chemical affinity. 

It fs said thut Volta’s theory is opposed to tho 
scienco of energy. So it was in its original form, 
but in its modified form—whero contact is (ho 
prime caugo cud chemism the effect, sustaining the 
supply of cnergy—tho dificulty ceases, If wa 
admit that chemical afinity and contact electricity: 
aro the samo thing, all dificuttics cease, and both 
partied to tho contest can retire from the field with 
tho conviction that their battles Jinve been fought, 
liko so many other fiereo battles, over a mero 
differenco in words, 

‘to different metals, but to metala and liquids, |! 
iinetals and gases, aud, in fret, to tho contact of | 

Misaitnilar bodies, So that we mny say that in tho 
iwholo rango of physical sctonco there is no fact 
mora thoroughly substantinted than thit the contact 
of ‘dissimilar bodies determines a sess of po- 

mane Uuicaly-uoeiess It tne IMbOrAtory,- | arrangement’ by which’ the plates*can* be” 



[Sept 9, 1875 ° 


‘treatise, the 
{he first. de- | 
dparatus, by H 
{be obtained | 
Ame spectra, 
ut clay cells, , 
te of potash ¢ 
litres of, this , 
tructions :— , 
per cent. of 
auric acid in 
atly stirred ; 
potash and 
ethe stirring: 
fom a spout 
v already is 
1 eventually, 
‘quid ares a 
3m. thick,. 
trolled plate 
arsed to the 
irely coated: 
hot), excepti 
and which is’ 
and zinc is 
il researches : 
fcumstances | 
‘ith this bat. | 
Ah regard to 
I containing 
nd shape as 
attery. The 
that in’ the 
hore oxygen 
tion, than in 
“that there. 
the latter is 
aromic oe 
try, requires 
acity, The 
h cylinders, 
sa diameter 
high in the 
\ The zinc. 
ght into the 
se of about : 


ic acid bat- | 
tes in clec- 
is hitherto 
ch is about 
oal-zinc or 
sistance is 
‘e's battery 
the econo. 
tking place 
Grove bat- 
only when 
smotic cx- 
ng liquids, 
on of zine 
hat which 
sit indis- 
tin sucha 
jon of the 
Ntact with : 
tand lever; 

dipped into or; 

“ Lately Prof, Bunsen, of Heidelberg, has tried to remove | raised out of the liquid. It is of particular interest, not 


Por bit nd Se FE 

: hey F 

te Euxernterry wirnour Crimean ae 
recent teeting of the Physical Suciets 
Mr. Floming showed his now battery, in whiell tht 
MUEbAl][- esr tee net ler ee ME 
Tho ar, 

dilute 1 

atone att 


actions,” it may possibly be the author's intention to 
Append them to a future communication to the Royal 
Society, in continuation of other important papers already 
published in the “Transactions,”—~a place whichthe Tables 

[Sepd. 9, 1873 

all these difficulties, In a very: {mportant treatise, the ° 
first part of which has just been published, he first de- 
scribes a new battery and a new spark apparatus, ‘by 
means of which spark spectra can at any time be obtained 
with the same ease and facility as ordinary flame spectra, 
The battery is the charcoal-zigc battery without clay cells, 1% 
The exciting liquid is a mixture of bichromate of potash q. 
and sulphuric acid, In order to prepare to litres of this : 3 
liquid, Prot Wunsca gives the following instructions :— 4 
0°765 kil ogrammes of commercial powdered bichromate’ : 
of potash, which as a rule contains about 3 per cent. of f 
impurities, are mixed with 0'832 litres of sulphuric acid in 

a stone jar while the mass is being constantly stirred ; F 
when the salt is changed to sulphate of potash and 

chromic acid, 9°2 litres of water arc added, the stirriny. 

being kept y and the water allowed to flow from a spout 

about 4 inch wide; the crystal meal, which already is 

very warm, thus gets warmer and warmer and eventually, 

dissolves completely, The excitcrs for: this liquid are: a 

rod of the densest gas coal, 4 cm, broad, 1°3 cm, thick, 

and immersed 12 cm, deep into the liquid, and a rolled plate 

of zinc 4,.cm, broad, o's cm. thick, and immersed to the” 

same depth as the coal ; the zinc plate is entirely coated ‘ 
with a layer of wax (which is put on whilst hot’ except : 

that plane which fs turned towards the coal and which is : 
amalgamated, The distance between coal and zinc is . : 
entirely optional ; in the spectral and analytical researches a 
of Prof, Bunsen it varied according to circumstances | 

between 3 and 10 millimetres. The results with this bate | ‘ 
tery arc, however, not very satisfactory with regard to 
duration and constancy of current, if the cell containing : 
the exciting liquid is made of the same size and shape as; J 
those in the’ ordinary Grove or Bunsen battery, The 

reason of this lies in the circumstance that in the 
nitric acid of those batteries there is far more oxygen 
contained, which is employed for depolarisation, than in 
an equal weight of the chromate liquid, and that there. 
fore a comparatively much larger quantity of the latter is 
used up to obtain the same effect, The chromic acid 
battery therefore, compared to Grove’s battery, requires 
cells of at least three to four times more capacity, ‘The 
best shape for these cells is that of narrow, high oytinders, 
The column of liquid, of about 1'6 litres, has a diameter 
of about 0'088 metres, and stands 0°28 metres high in the 
cylinder, which bears a mark at that height, The zinc- 
coal pair is only immersed up to half its height into the 


.f cloutsh —— g 
i Tun: season of “ Specinl Telography " lias se | 5 
oni st a vengemtico: ‘suring tharpast Yortnight iY) : will advantageously occupy, They give with sun’s longi- 
calle of have been no fewer than front. three R oe Ah fe as ument, the inclination of the solar axis to the 
6 Mectings throughout the United Kingdom, for wh ‘ Circ! oo eclination, reckoned positive when the axis is 
special telegraphic arrangemants of somo kin Tee ete, orth, point of the sun’s disc, and assuming 
other have had to be mado; ont in connection mene tention 7 is equator to the ecliptic to be 7 15"0, 
thesa ncetings upwards of 20,000 telegrams | and the longitu eo its ascending node 74°; and with 
Deen forwarded and ree: Northampton, wl preumnent, Suns Dpaltads 9) the Heliographical fati- 
‘of cach as suddenly revived, ond bids fair to reg tude of the carth” and “Reduction of longitude.” The 
hoporta ent prestige, heads the list of import 
thut eb meetings. Here, as many @ iGo0 telegrams 
spbaratt forwariled and received during the two day: isamtacy nes ni 
ov uit if ng a very Inrge increnge on the nun Picmentary table is provided. . 
{Principle : Her ER ovat of Inst year, Worw! : 7 ae Fables have been calculated by Mr, Marth, and it 
an old established stronghold of racing, comes 1 : ent be oH ons i} enyons tiated in such work, that 
with a total of 4344 messages in threo do: ; ate rath fh rouble has been taken to ensure their accu. 
then follow Pontefract, Durham, Windsor, we production, 

ham, Croydon, Catlterick, Irvine, Packington, A! of MIRA CeTL—A minimum of this variable star is set 
gavenny, and Croxton Park, ith totals vary : down in Schinfeld’s ephemeris ‘for September 30, The 
from 1500 down (0 450 messager, ‘Tho meron minima have not been properly observed nearly so often 
tion of theso names ix sullicient to show as the maxima, though equally important in. the inves 
i universal character of tho sport in England tigation of the laws which regulate the fluctuations of 
= tho all-pervading nature of aur telegraplito aya light, and which, according to Argelander’s researches, 
: In ovory one of tho cases we havo mentioned involve a mare complicated formula than has yet been 
grmphic business is carried on nt tho raco-cou deduced for any other variable. | The circumstances of 

and, unlike the system of the Inte Telegmph C the approaching minimum are very favourable for obser. 
panies, by which an extra charge waa lovied o1 ; vation, 

messages forwarded from or received at the G 
Stand, only the“ unifurm shilling rato" fs exo 

by tha Post-Oflico for ractng na for other messa| SCIENCE IN GERMANY @. nik 
“Daring he present week the meing season haste! 

° (From a German Correspondent) (Better 
inaugurated at Nowmarket, which, na it ta : ? 

feat “quarters of tho sport in ‘England, is also OLY fore small Leathas a elements and thelr com: 
Heal qunrtors of racing telegraphy, Last year! : pounds js the relatively low temperature of the non- 
ware of 75,000 telegrams wera forwarded \ luminous pas a enniclent 2 produce Bpecten ic 
recoived in connection with the seven Race Mect ines nisaber Gish: ine tian ‘ toseare! i $ y ar she 
held nt Newmarket, being an averago of moro {| = aae btai : ely by th frcas of tei 4 
10,000 meseanges for cach meeting, Of these, n Wore Therefore con facie ely by | 7 decttte: Spat 
than 12,000 messuges, containing 625,000 wo 1 bodies which ilo mot miv waalathe; ee cl 
were forwarded on behalf of the press, and 1 : ; i souk spectra tt i ‘it spec he lie nd these 
ie ‘hoe. eat ie aeinatgel ionic . * those cases where new clements are sought for, or where 
at Newmarket would hardly suffer by comparg a. -it is a question of proving beyond all doubt the presence 


obliquity of the ccliptic is taken, 23° 27"5, but to correct 
the angle between the circle of declination and _ the sun’s 
axis, for difference of true and assumed obliquity, a sup- 

Ra reer tg ROPE E 

a. of certain bodies, which in their chemical propertics arc | liquid column, and has an. active zine surface of about j 
with Meas of oll ot pur Inckeat provincial fey a so much alike that ordinary reagents do not suffice for | forty-cight square cm, i ee i 
when it is in full ew te ‘a Theasant cuimens “8 their discovery or, separation, With regard to the constants of this chromic acid bat- 

ng that in which tho 
‘ithe « Cambridgeshire " is celebrated, On tho If 
‘ava ora no fewer Ulinn threo # i 

* But there are difficulties in the way of practically using 
spark spectra, which have been the reason why these 
important means of reaction have not yet found their 
entry into all chemical laboratories, First of all, a 
simple method has been wanting by which spark 
spectra can be obtained at any time, Whoever’ has 
been obliged to use currents of great intensity with tem- 
porary interruptions of days, weeks, or months, knows 
how much unpleasantness is caused by fitting, taking 
a to pieces, and cleaning the ordinary constant batteries 
theory. used hitherto, Another difficulty Ifes in the fact that 
et with i spectrum tables are still wanting which wauld be of sufti- 

, Cc 

tery without clay cells, it considerably surpasses in clece 
tromotive force all other apparatus with clay cells hitherto 
used, It possesses an electromotive force which is about 
13 per cent. larger than the ordinary charcoal-zinc or 
Grove battery. Its essential conduction resistance is 
about t2 per cent, smaller than that of Grove’s battery 
with clay cells, . In order to be able to judge the econo- 
mical effect of the chromic acid battery, we will consider 
a little more in detail the chemical processes taking place 
in this battery. In unconnected freshly fillecl Grove bat- 
teries the consumption of zinc is very small, only when 
‘after prolonged use an electrolytic and endosmotic ex- 

i, t with : ent service for all practical purposes, It is true that a | change has taken place between the two exciting liquids, 
if noticed | : large quantity of mieasurcments have been published, and } a consumption of zinc, independent of the generation 
the alone ‘doubtless some of them are extremely accurate, but with | of the current, becomes apparent, In the unconnected 

_ the greatest part of them the purity of the substances | chromic acid battery, however, the consumption of zinc 

f E liquids, |: experimented with is not in the least guaranteed, and at the very beginning is entirely the same as that which 
ig \ Pot ; iinet of i -very often it can be proved not to have been attended to is observed in connected batteries during the Bauer: 
ensith tht iu tho at all. If it is attempted to reduce to a universal scale | tion of the current. This circumstance makes it fais : 
wan all the spectrum drawings at hand which have been ob- | pensable to arrange the chromic acid battery in sucha 
found Wat Ue Dattery rematmed: consis ay sayy we sosay wccerevee no fuct 

manner as to make it easy, at every interruption of the 
current, to bring the exciting plates out of contact with 
the liquid. This is attained by a simple hand lever, i 
arrangement by which the plates. can be dipped into or! 
raised out of the liquid. It is of particular interest, not 

acid remained to be reduced, and that no red fumes appeared, imere thoroughly substantiated thnrtiavte contact 

ST pther nanaee wiara nen annimecn { 

tained: by different observers, with different refractive 
jor di imilar bodies delermition.a di rence of po- 

media, with different widths of the slit, some at a higher, 
and some at a lower temperature, tables are obtained 
which are completely and utterly useless in the laboratory, 
Lately Prof, Bunsen, of Heidelberg, has tried to remove 


Pept sere oe 

Aieammeneeartncommanniioverien vac BL ie, 

LADSTONE read ii op ane 
e ' Prefar Zhi 3 »B, Coasks: ft 
0 Preparation of ip Caeeeerte of Léelancht? A, Lehelanehud. 
12 Please oxplaln why the zine of a battery Is the 
positive polo or element (as atated on p. 107, vol. 
33} when tho flow of clecteielty Is from tho other j 
pole to thezine? A. There seems, at Mest right, 
to be sone lneonilstenoy In using the terms posts 
Uveand negativein connection with the zing place 
of n battery; but asuny part of n cireult consld- 
ered by irolf must preaent both nv povitive acd a 
negutlye pole, and as thy outside poles alone we 
of pricticul Importance, Mees urethe once Wluded ’ 
ating st Dene to when any aco montloned: the negative poltt bo. \y 
Hoaide.: For dry cou h : Hing that ono townrds which tho etirrent Is directed, 
eercniatale ds anda When thn eta ee referee ea Tp 
ead n cp s vo whic ut 7 HT 
the current in the connected battery, and that on! ly © part | sealed firmly upon them, can be moved upwards or down. eadions, one depo oe veel vein ich te mnennied cael ta tho | 
of the metal dissolved in the disconnected battery without | wards by the corks 4, and this allows of a quick and . found to be most effe ca poyaltorlat itt Pa ters i tn the | t 
the candencration is used up in the connected onc.for | exact fixing of the carbon points before the slit of the Is from the meta} on whch the netfun tnkes place. j 
vita oie int the slit fl zine | PiThe carbon % Which of the following Cour methods Is best ap, 
sponds with the view that the dissolution of the zine The carbon points destined to receive the little quanti- 
must not be looked upon as the cause of the current, but | ties of liquids under’examination are best prepared from 
PeBh ap ehat d condition of the same, Investigation | the ordinary and. not too light drawing charcoal, which 
: further showed that while in the chromic acid battery | is easily procurable, In order first’ to impart con- 
; ‘above described, on the Average only 22 per cent, of | ducting power to the charcoal, a great number of the 


Sept. 9, 1875 | 399 
only for practical purposes, but also from a theorctic point | rent induced in the same is conducted to the spark appa- 
of view, to compare the consumption of zinc during the | ratus standing in front, of the slit of the spectroscope : 
generation of the current with that in the unconnected bat- | a, a hottle with three necks, serves as a stand for the 
tery, as theory alone gives no basis on which to decide spark apparatus. The induced current goes from the 
the question whether the zinc disssolved in the uncon- | mercu cup 4, through the fine wire ¢ to the carbon point 

‘s nected battery is entirely, partly, or not at all used in the d@, which is fastened ona pointed platinum wire; thence | 
connected battery for the generation of the current, In- | it passes as a spark to the other carbon point ¢, and from 
vestigation showed that the quantity of zinc dissolved in | thts it reaches the second mereury cup /, which is con- 
the disconnected battery is alittle under half of the con- | nected with the other end of the induction coil. The 

sumption of zine necessary acording to theory to gencrate platinum wires, which are surrounded by glass tubes 

Safa RO eT I 

. phed to Ughtuing urresters for telegraph ofllves? 

ae i sac _ Points, connected with (he ling wire preeented to yt 
: - ; : : | polnta connected with tho ground, Hig polots prem { 
ronted between gronnd polcts, ne polnts pree 
sonted to n plain ground surface, or growed 

| [Buxcrntcat Ni 
i July aa, 1875, 

| tine was lost, the loss in the nitric acid battery expe- | sticks are exposed to the most intenee chile hen ee 2 [Of a-eybmaring eablo.from:tnqceonUneNs MipLOreetello | TU OLE iad re ET 
rimented with was 48 per cent. on the average, The | some time in a covered porcelain crucible, which stands +] to eed Sardyita, ae ae oon tee: Uttte lie UFSEStGTR AO WIOKt . 
chromic acid battery without clay cells is the least | in a larger clay crucible, and {s on all sides ‘surrounded \ ego ee : - aatinly which combine, in ony aystemy appar cd 
Fae art one Amongst the ordinary constant batteries. | by charcoal powder, Then the sticks are cut to points at Mr, Geo. F.'Milliken, manager of the Boston office of Patats nmtopposed plates scparntest by very thin 
But if used in‘a’ proper manner it may serve for a} one end, and the little charcoal cone thus obtained is : the Weatern Union Telegraph Company, writes as follows |‘ ' 

Vhiye k that the 

feces of inten 4. Why do you thi 
Destane? A By theirdlfuslyo property, points 
toud to prevent na nceumulation or charge; somes 
tinea, however, the sudden presence of wpecal 

very long. time, Prof. Bunsen possesses a battery of | cut off with a fine watchmakers saw. Jn order to re- 
tl is. an , of forty pairs, with an active zinc surface on move the silica, magnesia, manganese, iron, potash, soda, 
cach plate of only forty square cm. For the last cight | and Jithia which the charcoal contains about a thous and of 

In reference to battery covers :—"" Lhave now in the bat. 
"| tery room a few cells without oil, with wooden covers— 
one with zine, one tin, ‘The metallic covers are made, | 

lecture-terms it has served for nl il i stad 3 . i i : ty of elcctrlelty exceeds this power of ¢ 
fts having been necessary during oS bor iuine tan hed Lae hated perth et ier rou ae ope ‘ with a rim 2 inch wide, fitting the cell, but not too : aoe tsa cases, the plates neck Ike coutleney 
the zinc plates, or their coatings of wax, or the original | with concentraled nitric acid : and tall with h dros : closely. The openings for the wires aad the apace round | ors, in which tho potential becomncaeo Ml AN 
exciting Hquid, nor to clean the conducting connection | chloric acid, repeating cach process several times, hile : the sim are filled with parafin and tallow, They were | dlachure: tubes plnee bait euatltiitee: 
parts ; it has been merely necessary to renew now and | between each manipulation cach of the acids is removed ; set up May th for usc in local circuits, and -now } TE eae ‘th Is tho eillelenoy of 
then the amalgamation of the zinc plates {an operation | by washing and boiling with water. Afler this treatment. : (June ath), without a drop of water added to them, there Hoo eater increased by Incrensing the munber 
which only takes a few minutes of time) and to replace | the carhor points are ready for usc.. A carbon cone of 7: ' tho arrose a 

; that part of the liquid which'was lost by evaporation in | this description w 

the air, by simply filling the cylinders with water up to} absorb more than 

p is no sign of diminution, and all are,clean and neat as at” : inf pointe? Ay Vee. pits Sia iy tenets ie : 
eighs about o'o1s grammes, and can ue : 

cs first. ‘The wooden coverings were put on May rgth, and”" ° 

i x its own weight of liquid,..'T' i : setae Rts fis s f i 
4 ae marks on their sides. ‘The apparatus to this day | spectra obtained by aid of them are of veyliep on os id lie cells look well, These covers, ean be made for leat, “Te et4e. Galvanic batteries."—S, W, M. De Sussex, \ 
gives. an electric arc between carbon points which | We will report on the second art of Prof Bunsen's ‘BE 3 [than the cost of off, and are permanent.” “} and LA, Brasseun, Brussels, Dated September 8th, 
amply suffices for the phato-chemical lecture experiments, treatise as soon as it has been published W. erg eae Ree @ :) 1877, 18, ad, This consists ina method of constructing i 
{ The currents obtained by this battery, which has now: : ae i : 2 i : galvanic batteries ona large seale which may be actuat 1s hy 
i Foren ees aed more than four years, are still i cae a A fs we gg ean mange t “ —. an © seme, 
| spectra, decomposition ar ue be inauenes ee i At the athena at ca les sclliaears ae nas by fresh or salt water, A portable battery described is 
»  &e, and will doubtless continue to suffi fe Tht vee . : if GA [rae nibout 500 gramunes of chloride of lead. On this formed of a wooden trough partitioned off as in’ Muir. 
{purposes for some time to come. But a ana these, ‘ : plato of tend, with a wiro of the samo matal, the wire head’s:battery ; but it has a special feature in n double 
{repeat that effects of such ma; nitude can ome ee in a . a %y 3 passing through tho liquid being insulated by varulal.: a bottom, © The upper or false bottom is pierced with a 
: pected if the precaution is used ‘an ditisy ery ehey tode AUY, Gatvanie Marrenits, A. Hemet, Loreiwéreroait, = Datel stot CBP det 7 ‘Then a pinto of zine anralganiated, gad wrapped in a+ row of holes, 50 i at a fut a a fila the separate 
; 5 d a : March, 1876. ae * 1 OW y ; , cells, -but'a gutter en th 
one moment ane Pais Jn contact ith the, Hiquid for| otlng la ttt ee iB ‘ fies eee the guirent is canstnat sind ie °T bottoms,:, The solutions of all hs fells in this way 
h ne duration of the current ft if : " : ead aes st unicate, This gutter has also an opening to 
Necessary for the experiments requires it, $4 Hetronpietid ‘ctherwiaa, torte ‘oottes! with pEattnttne pet ates, | OM het arate ear Ey over ta Henan of the cell, fitted with a stopper, whereby 
nickel, or culnlt jcked te ‘ : A i “1 the trough can be filled by.simply immersing it in the 
ralsture of arty of teas with or athe ; . solution, or emptied by tapping. In the same way 
the bottom of the poroun cell or dlaphraytn watnall quantity of nitrate of: Fees Sol ceed acme alent eee provision is made for constructing foating atteries, 
w ponte STaRAlle Rel, prrogallatot pital, or pytmygillaty of bola Aa ' ALEAD AND ZINC BATTERY. ; | permanently immersed in the sea, of sufficlent size to 
© Lapel, at electrode uf sate (hich hnay ins atndtyareated with tact : ight buoys and beacons by means of a Rhumkorff coll 
* : or protoald ot cana te mall portions vf palin ‘eiurnte.: [oe er new, forats of, galvanid Uattery ine aal-vacun tube, or otherwise. The plates of such a 
| also bo piled tu the Hemntlve portion of the an Dnt ndenee | ' ‘vented by Plerlot fe thus nee ig ad battery are formed by enclosing a zine slab Delica re 
powerful Inve tntertaitent tow nged dt Jems la hehe Complar Renduss- Tu, a suitable gloss or lates or slabs of graphite, the zine and graphite being 

H cumbtnation inay beadeantayoounly tieod. .\ sbegutive electreda! |_¢artbenwgre vessel is placed about a pound nsutated from each ather, but very close, 

, ‘ 
i mua, KOK. allvcr, nickel, or cobalt, ur any miltable aul : ad |! ‘221g. “Galvanic batteries" A, pe WATTEVILLE 
coats Pate oy ofhernio oma with Fin pe er, Se : of chloride of lead, into which ix insertzd | | and i Maver. Dated June 7th, 1877. fi an 
| or chiatcual silxed with petuxiiant ving tee “haa pootivoan ected! a plate of fend with o varnished lead wire |: | consists of a single fluid battery, in which the positive 

Hhercury) itt a solution of any; attached, In the other part of the vessel ole is formed of zinc in mass or fragments, immersed 

wrefereiice tho chturidy, 4 portion of the solution as! 

vessel i ted . he 
4 f ij nercury, on which the exciting fluid floats, Th 
4 ‘uaa ay alee ada to tho tegatlea, “Accunliog to another fart of | Jeindorlodanatnnlgninatedzine platenbeuey | negative pale may be carbon ; asdepolarisers, chloride 
MH {electroplated or utherwisa canted with eet eee einemalis aeeatse nine millimeters thick, covered with a bay | | of silver, bichromate of potash, or oxide of iron may be 
se (Olt aall of acl wa tha ulteate fr muiphate or uf cobalt oF ay sultable - ‘of parchment paper, Every two ort employed. (Not proceeded with)e oo. wax 
Or otherwise cated with that metal fnimersed ter fs added. The curren B ‘ eee BH ee ‘ ee 
fan solution of a ealt uf cobal months water fs added. 
al Culalt as the nitrate or sulphate, Tho positive 
portlan of the cetl coustatn of als 
ty if 

ee . : Ae the earential fart of the betters fe r |gald to be strong and constant. 
The battery used for the production of sparke spectra | 1 jvarledt without detriment! the wolution ted with the xine nay bo greatly : t Serna 

Consists of four of the pairs above describe Th : Z D " i 
; . @ pole | da : F 5 
_ Wires conduct, the primary’ current, R : : : 2 : she car es cet foe 
i puts the current interruptos into all i tee Rue i t (0868) Maxixo Cannons ron A Batre tis tmporsihte: + ‘ i 
' “apparatus, the induction coil of which fas: diameter of an . for us to declde upon the cause of tho eracllny ek soir, : # 
i nearly o: g int + [ing anything about your whole manner of proceeding. You do : i 
! pala ea. length of oS metres, The cur. ct nal tel ‘mentlon the shape of your carbons, and-that may be 3 é a 
“mine npmscnness fan Seth i wie ieee fain : ori aaa ‘ ! “ S the cause, A crack iu the carbons docs not make much dif Piet A 
ss “ ference In thelr uso In the battery, provided thoy aro not at ; ; 4 

cracked po much gstufalltopleces, a 


~omedl, ‘ 

ee ns 

pee yee le 

The Copper-Zine Cotiple and its ‘Effects. 

Vou, I. No. 4. 

Ecectaicat. News, 

a + 
erezine couple, On one of the papers handed to you — 
ott e door, I have given what lias been done at different 
dates—the chief results and the chemistry of the opera- 
intelligible to the chemists - 
perceive a note explaining 
that the copper and zine arc not in any definite chemical 
relationship or quantity, in the formula given, * 

Let me first take the substance which I have spoken of 
most fully, that is to say, water. ex 
ment that I should fike to show you, because it’ is so 
Zinc alone put into water does not decom. 
Zine and copper, as I hope to show you, 
We can, however, take a 
metat which does decompose water even at the ordinasy 
you some of the work that has been donc by means of the { temperature. It is very much like zinc, but more power- 

tion, which will be 
who are present. 


. 1H. GLADSTONE, Ph.D,, E.R. 
feasor of Chemistry in the Koya! 

{Concluded from page 4.) 

do decompose the water. 

I writ occupy the remaining half hour in bringing before 

Work pong py Means Ye ULAn:vaae AND Trine's Correr-zinc Courte, 
. . Chemistry of Operation, 

1872, Decomposition of water, and preparation of zacutaH,OmCu+-Zn2HO+H, 
‘ r, 

an {Call 
‘41873. Direét formation of zinc ethiodide, and ZaCut+CHslaCu+Zn {f alts 

Af Calls oe (Cally y 
Preparation of zinc ethyl, vant TP? Smzn{ Gee zols 
‘ “yg. (C250, (Call an {CallsO, {Cally 
Ethyl hydride, and zine fodovethylate oo 4. , Zain {FPO 4 {Pal Secu a.cen{ Cally + {Ff 
* sar an $CsEl Clon’. : 
1873. Preparation of di-amyl, .. +s mncu-p2{ 75 tecug {Est b Zany 
pea {Cstl ; 
Zinceamyl, and... 4. ee ee aznCu+a {ys taCrpZn{ 
zncut {S304 (Ostltccug zn fCallsOy (Colas 
; zacus. TyleCuyzo {SO cn,. 
Preparation of methyl hydride oe = AnCusCleO+-CHylaaCu+Zn pot I. 

. : on {Cally gy 
“1873. Preparation of sine tsopropyt, a%nCu+2 {fsllr, CutZn lent tnly 

Zine prop-iodide, sine propyl,-and prop: 

hydride 4. 4s oe ae ee we vit zncuy {Faye cugzn {Ps 

4 perenatsnes tect eee mn ars ma ae 
ceteenyet ers 

azn {FN azatatZn (C3? 
sacs (lrg {GHP mean N04 | 
1874. ‘Isolation of di-allyt, and «= ZnCupal Calls #Cu+ (Gug+ Zar, “4 
Preparation of pure propylene ae Anup {gt Is5. {2ts0ncutzn { Falls0 ostts 

+IB74 Breparation of pure olefiant gas and is} ZnCu+ {Crtlan cu Zn Brat CxHan 
>t ‘ oe fe 7] cae 

ecto eee ee 

: C. 
“1874. Preparation of xine ethylobromide, and =... ZnCuse {Sis .cu+zn (fils 

. 4 1 
Zine bromethylate oo ae se ve les zacut { G2is4. {Fels acu szn | gitlsO4 (Calls . 

paration of sine chlorethylate, and diredt 
hydrogenisation of cthylidene .. 

1875. Complete hydtogenisation of chloroform, 


NY aac {SH {MeO a cupazn (SPHOy {Gets 
} sencuscrtcises {Fes ncurszn{StsO yor, 

J preparation of Aeatye) 3%nCu-aCHlyaCu4-3Znla-Cylly. . 

(Investigated by Prof, Thorpe.) 
1873. Conversion of nitrates Into ammonia .. 42nCu+6H,0-+KNOseCu 
‘The new substances discovered during these investigations are in Italics, 
Cu aignifies simply the metal copper, and not an atomic proportion. © 

* © Verbatim report of a Lecuce delivered at the Royal Toutitution, 


The Copper-Zinc Couple and-its Effects. {Beterntcat, Naws, 

July 23, 2875, 

find that the jodide of zinc is gradually decomposed— 
thata solid substance first is formed in the Teadtion, and 
that this zine cthiodide, as it is called, and a gaa, are 
roduced aa Frankland found. If this zinc sthiodide be 
heated, it is resolved into fodide of zinc and the spon. 
tancously inflammable liquid, zinceethyl,. We can pro- 
duce this in larger quantity, and very quickly indeed, by 
the use of the new copper-zinc couple. However, it ix 
too slow a process for me ta show you just now. I wilt 
show you simply some ethiodide oF zinc which has been 
produced, and ‘some of the zinc-ethyl which has been 
Prepared in this way. T will take a little up in this tube, 
and you see as I allow it to pour down from the end of 
the tube it catches fire the moment it is brought into 
contag with the Atmosphere, 

But this couple will decompose a number of other 
substances of a similar character—iodides and bromides, 
It will decompose them much more easily than the zinc 
itself will, and much more quietly, and we can produce 
substances which we cannot produce without the couple, 

T will next shaw you zinc-propyl—an analogous body 
which has never been prepared before; but it has been 
Prepared by this means. It is like the zinc-ethyl in some 
of its properties, and I will Fepeat the same experiment 
to you, and show you that {t also fs bpontancously com. 
bustible, Here we have this liquid. As I allow it to 
rtitn out It catches fire in the air at once, and from the 
blazing stream rises oxide of zinc, which floats awa’ in > 
the atmosphere. This, then, ig one of the children of the 
Copper-zine couple, and a fiery child it is; as you see, 

ue we have some more fiery children. The zinc 
isopropyl is still more adive than that. . Tmust not dwell 
too long upon these things. We can produce the ethylo. 
haloid compounds themsctves ‘by bringing. their con. 
stituents together, We can take this zinc-ethyl, for 
instance, and warm it with fodide of eine, when it forms 
Frankland's ethiodide. By using bromide of ethyl 
instead of iodide, I can produce a perfealy analogous 
aubstance. This cthylobromide of zine we prepared some 
time ago. This is a substance which was never Prepared 
before, but which was first ‘obtained by means of the 
copper-zinc couple, and by heating it we can produce 
our inflammable zinc-ethy! just as from the fodide. 

There is no reason why we should not have a chlorine 
zen, : compound like the iodine and the bromine compounds. 

otha just Ulustrates the effe& of temperature, Well, { This has been prepared by means of the copper-zinc 

here the ation is going on with the wai Waters i) dare } fouple. My rat iden was to Prepare i before you inm: 
drogen gas is coming off more ; leCure to-day; but one docs not like to make an: experi. 

ey ye shall see that the hydrogen g J ment forth ft time in a ledlure-room, especially when 
vi attention to this piece of apparatus. | dealing with such an inflamma le substance as zinc-ethyl. 
nite Pi eae set up during the Christmas lectures, One does not know what its habits may be when brought 
It was put aside in the laboratory, and € believe has not | into contact with what it has never been in contact with 
been touched since, It has been working on during all before, This, therefore, was prepared on Saturday, and 
th time in the cold, and it has been doing its business this is the first and the only fpeciaen of the substance 

‘etl without stopping. It is still working. Here, | which has ever been prepared nthe world. Here, then, 
ih this tube isan amount of gas which has been colleded | is a new body, which has never been seen before except 

ince esterday. We have collected these 25 centimetres by ourselves, "Well, we must give it a name, of course, 
et) 4 out thie time yesterday, when the apparatus was} and what name shall we give i?) We-can only name it 
Placed on the table, and we shall, no doubt, find that this | according to the family to which it belongs, and you per- 
Biy drogen pas. You will observe another result. We | ceive its brothers upon the printed table. Againat the 
i i eantily of white oxide of zinc formed, The zinc; date * 1873" we have the diredt formation of zinc 
has in jact, turned almost entirely into oxide. We were | cthiodide, That was Dr. Frankland’s substance, We 

ack nin, just now that it must have given off 4ooo cc. | produced afterwards the zinc cthylo-bromide, and you 
ork oaroech if it went on at the rate that it Is going on | will perceive that it is put in italics in the table because 
° id bor certainly it has been ading more encrgeticaily | it isa new substance. It is this pearly, crystalline body, 
dug the earlier part of these four of five months, This last we must call by the same name, putting 
“one of Dr, Frankland’s greatest discoveries was the | chloride" in the place of bromide.” -So it stands as 
ali avi ry of ethyl and of a number of other substances, | the "zinc ethytu-chloride.” ‘That must be the name of 
Pading upon lodide of ethyl by means of zine at avery | this new crystalline substance which we have just 
hgh temperature, and at high pressure. In this way | produced. 

ful in most of its chemical chara¢ters, and-it:has the 
‘power of taking the oxygen away from the hydrogen even 
under ordinary conditions.» We will endeavour to show 
that ‘by throwing the image on the screen, Here is a 
veaset of water, and here is a little twisted coil of wire 
made of the metal magnesium, You will perceive that 
there are bubbles forming upon the metal, Now the 
water has got warmer, I dare say, by means of that 
owerlul light behind it; still though certain bubbles are 
Formed, you will perceive that the decomposition of water 
is going on but slowly, I will ask Mr. Williams just to 
put ina little of the blue solution of sulphate of copper 
which I have here; then you will perceive at once that 
copper is being deposited upon the magnesium, for the 
magnesium is growing thicker, and becoming rough with 
the deposition of metal upon it. Now the bubbles are 
forming in large quantity. You perceive that the copper 
and magnesium together are acting energetically upon 
the water, and the bubbles are forming very rapidly and 
rising to the surface of the liquid, This little experiment 
then, I think, will illustrate to you very clearly that the 
two metals in function are more powerful than one alone, 
in decomposing water. , . ’ 
Now we will try this by means of zinc. Here is a 
good large copper-zinc couple which has been a@ing for 
some time, and here is some of the hydrogen gas which 
has been collected. You see it is working away slowly at 
the ordinary temperature. I will ask Mr. Williams to 
change the water—to pour away this water and take 
some warm water instead. I have put upon the board 
the amounts produced at different temperatures, in 
experiments which were performed carefully, At a 
temperature of 2° C,, that is to says only just above the 
temperature of ice, we got during ‘twenty-four hours 
rr cc, of hydrogen gas. - But when we operated at 2a" C,, 
that js to say, a linne above the temperature of this room, 
we got 5°5, five times as much. When it was made 
warmer (34° C,) then we had 13'9, and so on. Yott may 
see how very rapidly these numbers increase with the 
temperature. The quantity of gas increased at a very 
much more rapid ratio than the increase of temperature; 
so that when we get to pretty nearly the temperature of 
boiling water, 93° C., we get about 500 times as much 
ag produced as we have when the water was nearly 

H : jammable zinc-ethyl and m a fi 
abinined: es : ater etre the action which he | upon this investigation, If, instead of taking the iodide 
other ed with difficulty, our zinc-couple would, perhaps, } of ethyl and ading upon it hy means of the copper zinc 
bring about much moro readily, and we tried it, and found | couple, we mix it with some alcohol, or wats afore 
hat neh was the case. We have merely to take some | hand, we get a different kind of reaction, We Ret fy ie 
othe couple and pour upon it the fodide of ainc, and wa * hydrogen of the water, or the hydrogen of tho alcohol, 

Tt must be remembered that we are only just launching 


pba er ieniscdioen 

a ttre ne ner et epee 

or water by pourin; 
aw I 

Bhactarcat NaWs,} 
oo July 22, 1873, 

ing into the matters That has been going on in 
ine exgeriment which was stated this morning, an I 
“believe that the adion has filled this vessel with gas twa 
or three times, In this case the gas is what is calle 
ydride of ethyl. In this other vessel we have 3 similar 
ubstance—hydride of methyl, or marah gas—the ‘nflamn, 
mable gas of coal mines, or the inflammable gas whic! 
“s,comes off from marshes. It will burn, - (The marsh gas 
‘was caused to Issue fron the Jar in which it had been 
colleged, and was ignited]. : 

This is the easiest way, by far, of producing these hy- 
drides; but, at the same time, we are producing somethin; 
else in the liquid. You who are well acquainted with 
chemical symbols will observe the chemical equation, and 
sea that it involves the formation of some other body. 

There is a combination of the zinc and iodine and CzH3O. 
: This is a new substance, which we have termed zinc iodo. 
ethylate, “It dissolves in alcohol very freely, but not in 
ater. Here i Iwill show you that itis decomposed 
alittle into the water in this vessel. 
hat we get is a thick precipitate of oxide of zine and an 
< alcoholic residuum. . By similarly treating a bromide, we 
somay get a similar bromine compound, ‘and by similarly 
treating a. chloride, we may get a corresponding chlorine 
compound, In fact, these are various ways in which theae 
may be produced, 1 will ask you to look, after the lecture, 
at this beautiful gelatinous oxide of zinc which is floating 
about in the liquid. 
One hardly knows how to tefer to all the various sub- 
ttances that are here. We will take substances which are 
erfeAly analogous one to the other, as far as cor 
‘is concerned, This copper-zinc couple is a quiet means |. 
by which we can split them asunder, er, rather, graduatly 
take one element away from the other element; and in|, 
“this way we can see how they are built up—what we may 
call their strudture, In chloride of ethylene and chloride of 
. Cthylidene we have two such bodice, and they’ are acted 
“upon differently by the couple, oe 
We.can produce other bodies by this agency. For In- 
Stance, here if. a specimen of di-allyl. Suppose we take 
chloroform, or. bromoform, or jodoform ; we find it easily 
-adted upon, If I were to take lodoform dissolved In alco | 
ol, and put some copper-zinc couple into the vessel, we 
: Should see an adion taking place, with the produdion of 
‘mixed hydride of methy! and acetylen, ‘This takes a few 
moments to commence, and then it becomes very enere 
gle in its adion. ‘These reactions give about the best 
‘Mtusteation that know of theinfluence of time. It is very 
_ Singular that many of them’ will remain quiescent for a 
quarter of an‘ hour, or Perhaps an hour, without ‘any 
+ Change being apparent, and then they begin to a@, and 
rthe adion becomes rapid and soon ceases,’ itis important 
to be very careful in bringing these substances together 
in the first instance, because we do not know whether a 
tong time. will. elapse before the agion commences, or 
whether, as in the case of bromoform, the whole contents 
of the vessel may be violently thrown out upon the sub. 
stances being brought together, arse 
‘Sometimes we are asked the question, "What is the 
god of these enquiries?" Well, the good is very various, 
hat is generally the last question that we ask in experi. 
menting... It ought to be the t question ; but atill it is 
interesting, at least to the public generally, to find that 
there are some pradical results owing ‘rom such investiga. 
+ Hons, The .main results may be of.a theoretical order, 
Our. theories, views, or fypor eses, diagrams or illustra. 
- Wons, are all very imperfeét. ‘They represent but poorly 
what takes place .in nature. But, by increasing our ex+ 
+ Periments, and getting. more and more to the truth of 
nature, we advance our theories and improve our know. 
“ledge of natural things. It is the same asin higher things, 
where, 1 suppose, our first imperfeét conceptions radually 
+ become more and more perfect, and we arrive at the know. 
ledge of that which fs useful to us, body, soul; and spirit, 
hat may be the usefulness of the copper-zinc couple, 
far as theory Is Concerned but, as far as practical purpos 


it has already. cnabled us, as you eee, to 
Se ie alfedoren, new substances, which we 
have now at our disposal, It has also afforded us an casy 
means of preparing a great number of other tances, 
such as these hydrides, “It has been employed in one wa: 
in analysis, ‘One of the most difficult problems in all 
analysis, but one which is very important too, is the eati- 
mation of nitric acid of nitrogenous substances in potable 
water—forinatance, in river water. A great deal has been 
written on’ that subject, and Professor Thorpe has em- 
ployed our copper-zinc couple for turning the nitric acid into 
ammonia. We have performed the experiment here, 
This is some of the nitrate of potash which was employed, 
and here ig some ammonia which has been distilled from 
it after being adted upon; and here is some of whatis called 
the Neasler's test solution, I will show you that this 
nitrate of potash will not affect the colour of the test in 
any way; foe iT take a little ammonia, we shall find a 
very greatchange, I have not tried whether I have really 
got any ammonia in this veasel. Yes, we have a quantily 
of ammonia, formed by the eomipouition of that nitre by 
jeans of the copper-zinc couple. . P 
mv hope that Mave been able in this short time to give 
you some idea of the principle of this copper-zinc couple, 
and of the work that ia being effected in your laboratory 
by means of it. I teust that the work will go on, and that 
we may be able to illustrate more fully in this way several 
rinciples which I have had so much pleasure in bringin 
Petore you during this course of le@ures On Chemica’ 
Force." : : 

rd ou indicator, 

and druggist 

ee Lonpow. Boo tet 

- Royal: Society, Noy, 25.—" On the Replacement of Elec: 
tro-positive: by Electro-ne tive Metals ing Voliaie Cat ie 
J: Gladstone, PhD, ¥.RS,, Fullerian Professor of Che. 
misty. in the Royal Institution, and Mr, Alfred Tribe, Lecturer 
on Chemistry in Dulwich College. 
Tt Is well known that: one metal 
*; force than another, and 

binations, “Among thos 

+ barium, strontium, 
lated by its agency, 
that any other metal 


phearance Q 

supposes that it ori- 

the opposite electrical 
thelr contact, if the 

Ie, on the pure chemical 
be any action at all: | 
4 however, does take place if we substitute the 
C potassium for the hydrochturic ald 5 the zine com: 
# bines with the chlorine, and the potassiuny is’ set free in some 
© form against the platinum, manifesting itself by the presence of 
free atkali and hydrogen gas, ‘The same holds good with chlo. 
ride of sodium, or ammonium, or barium, strontitn, calcium, or 
f Magnesium. a } 
‘This action Is slow ; but if magnestum be used instead’of zinc, 
it takes place sufficiently rapidly to’ be easily observed, and we 
have therefore studied the action of platinum and magnesium in 
connection, uy 
| after an account of the experiments, 
follows :— 

Iecompose a mag- 
of magnesium being 
sition of zinc 

ina solution + 

g the galvanic {, 
xclude all oxygen, and the |: 
inated. in an experlinent |” 
Society, that mercury and 

pose mercutic: chloride, with 
fe): but also of metallic mere H 

nat has long been |. 
rt of: enory. } | 
would give‘onlyé 
i t fut since va loss of 
ade up by absorption from sur. 
the, action would be continuous. : ‘ 

iu galvanic. batteries, Edward Tyer, ° 
Old Street, Finsbury, Middicsex. "Februbay’ a 
No, 449. This invention Felates to.cells of galvanic 
batteries, a single cell being a jar or vessel with grooves 
or Jugs in its interior or notches In its sides, into which is 
slid & perferated slab of hon-condWting material to sepa. 
rate the two elements, and compound cells being formed” | 
in 2 box divided by permanen titions int umber of. | 

cells, into cach of which is slid a like perforated al; 

some cases the slab is clothed with jt 
The chief ‘objec cf the inventio : qe simpllenty 

atrudion in a form which gives 

on is simplicity of con. 
facility for cleansing all 

*" Iniprovenients in the apptication o electro-dynamie | 
machines for obtaining meld trom thie falls, ercies “ 
| rating galvanic batteries, and oblaining other chemical 
reactions, William Clark, patent agent, 53, Chancery 
Lane, M ddtesex, (A communication from Dieudonné ° 

ontin, Paris.) February 8, 1875, No."473.— 

} Wpeention consists, first, in the dtilisat jon of the whole 
of thie’ ectricity produced by an ele@ro dynamic machine 
for decomposing metallic salts from whieh it is desired to 4 
obtain the metal, Second. ‘In obtaining. most of “the 
metallokts by ‘dynamo-chemical ‘decomposition,’ ‘Third, | 
“In pri red Grsanic and other chemical prodads by like; 

+ In Fegenerating spent palvani : 
rent from ap ele€tro-dyna te ir ig vant 

4706. “Voltaic medicated plaster,’—Wannan Batuey 
Porran, Boston, Mass, U.S, Dated December tt, 1877. 
Gd, ‘This consists in. forming, these plasters so that the 

} Plaster shall le between-the skin and the strips of zinc and 
Copper forming the voltaic arrangement. oles are 

punched through the plasterexposing portions of the plates, 
which are connected h series ly stip, of cloth. | 4 

{| , [27121,] — Battorios,—'To GAnvanisrs axp 
‘| Cttustists~The bichromate of potash gives. n: 
higher electromotive forco that nitric ach, about | 
‘ { two volts ngainat 1°8; but the earhous dro moro; 
{ rapidly polarised owing to there heing no formation | 
} of gus to keop théSmyel in motion, Constanoy ia! 
‘1 groater tho larger Miycolls nud pintes, butdength of ; 
‘Jiworking which to ist, like many otters, con. 
fuses with constancy, tlepentds npon the quantity of c 
iiaterin] in tho solution, amd tho smount of work 
tukon out of it, Rulo-of-thumb talk shout how 
many hours n cell will work is mere rubbish, ‘The 
reaction which takes placo, Ignoring tho various 
stages of the operntion,ns tho autting freoof chromic : 
nei, consists tn the formation of chrome nium and 
mniphate of zine, If tho netion [+ alloived to goon 
slowly after all tho salt ty reduced to nti, this will; 
undergo a further roditction, aud moro cot icatod 
reatilts will he obtnined, very ungatisfactorily. ‘I'he ), 
_{ diagram of tho reaction is best given as : 
/ | KCr,07 +4 1.80,28 KCr.80;+ 4110-430 2 ., H 
“Bn +9 11,80, 232080, +3, 5 HHO 
{—Stasta, a 


Rage er rt re 

> ‘in: Tn your interesting. deseription of - Professor Hughcs'a |." ~ 

i i ory, ench cleuent 
hone you ceacribe 2 simple form of battery, each clement 
cousinting 0 atumbler with a plate of copper at the bottom 

upon whieh is placed some sulphute, of copper. This is again |. 

vered with clay, in whieh the zine ia placed, It will probably 
fee heatty % to. your readers to know that thia battery waa used 
largely by tliv kite. Electric tind’ Inteauational Telegraph Com. 
pany, ancLwas called, “the Mud battery.” A full dereription of 
I will be fornd in the patent No. 2,555, of 1854,- taken-out by) 

Bar. Cromwell Varley, chict-¢lectricinu. 

i : sulphate of merenry hat. 
+In the ame patent will be found the sulphat ¢ 
tery which has recently: been. brought into nalige by oat 

Wardun aa o standard of electric potential. 


Sanutary 455 18745] 



and most beautiful exporiments; and though the 

"}flighta of his genits have sepia et him to 
proplictic and scer-like viows, boyond tho compra. 
eae fea of tho tyro, the descriptions and explana: 
tions aro generally so me and exhaustive that 
y ¥ by carry conviction with them, 
oe ye wrote of him:—" Tho fairest traits < n 
u's Tectures at tho Royal Iustitution | character sketched by St. Pant found in him perfect 
ect e kell into fiahicind that “great | illustration ; for ho was ‘blameless, ly a 
and good man,” Faraday. Lecturing from the/of good behaviour, apt to tench, not ulvon sh iy 
ble that ho Sectured from, using the samo Incre.' Ho had not 2 trace of worldly nn bition ; 
anim aie that ho used, illustrating the very dis-| he declared his duty to hia soverehn hy yoing to 
ple that ho made in tliat very plnce, it was] tho levéo once a year, but goat te = se 
impossible for the lecturer to avoid frequent refer- | sought contact with tho great. ‘Iho ne tis 
enco to that illustrious philosopher, Every mention | spirit and of his intellect was 80 eta : 10 lens 
of his name was grected with a round of applause] which men most strive after wero nl ey ine 
from tho demonstrative juveniles present, showing { different to him, *Giva ane henltl ant . any. “i 
that tho knowledge of the good he had done} tho bravo Emerson, ‘and Twill make tho pines 
was well known to those who never could have emperors ridiculous.’ In an eminent degree ca 
heard him, while from those that lind heard hin, day contd say the same. What to hin was h ho 
and had listened to hia clear and lucid descriptions, | splendour of n palace compared with a thin a 
a grateful cheer testified to their appreciation of | storm on Brighton Downs? W hat amongst al 
tho just tributes paid by the lecturer to his] tho appliance of royalty to compara with the Betting 
memory. suu? I refer ton Uitinderatoria and a sunset be- 
Faraday’s wholo character is a pattern to all] enuso these things excited a kind of ceatacy in his 
young aspirants to scientific fame. ‘Ihe son of a mind, and ton mind open tosuch ecatacy the pomps 
poor blacksmith, tho apprentice to 2 bookbinder, aud pleasures of the world aro usually of ameall 
roue, by stenily persevernnee, determined applica: j recount, Nature, not education, rendered Faraday 
tion, and sterling worth, to bo one of England's! strong amt refined. A favourite oxporiment of his 
Breatost sclentific worthies. Ilis motto waa " ex-fown was representative of htinself, Io loved to 
Periment.” He interrogated Naturo in every con- | show that water in orystallising excluted all foreign 
ceivablo form. Experiment was to him the great ingredionts, however intimately thoy might bo mixed 
test of truth. and ho accopted no fact untit it was| with i, Out of acits, alkalies, or satine solutions, 
confirmed by observation aut experience. ‘Thus, | the crystal camo sweet and pure, By some such 
in tho sovera cross-oxamination he yave Nature, | natural process in the formation of this man beanty 
ho discavored thoso various forms of clectricity and and nollencss contesced to the oxcluston of every: 
propertics of anatter which ave made his name thing vulgar and low, Ifo did not learn hig gentle. 
immortal, Foreigners, more domanstrativa than ness in the world, for he withdrew himself from ite 
his own countrymen, havo named his great dis- culture; and atill this Ind of England contained 
covory—magnoto-clectricity—/uradaism ¢oand ind no truer gentlomnn than lie, Not half his greatness 
medical phraseology tho term firadisation is creep: | wag incorporate in his soience, for scienco contd 
ing into uso in contradistinction to galvantsation— | not rovenl the bravery and delicacy of his hort, 
tho ono being tho effect produced Dy the intor- “Hut it ix time that I should end these wenk 
mniltent currents of mingneto-electria induction, and words, and Iny my poor garlant on the grave of 
the other the constant influence of voltnic currents, this 
His viows on the nature of cleetricity, and the way “sat am faithful knight of God.” 
in which electrical action is propagated by mole = 
tate aren thong Unica Seema sabato, aman ang oer the bn 
tance nbrond, though indications exist that his mouth of December, 874, way Zorn eatineted ne 
idong aro gradually porcotating tho scientific schools produce nbout £2300, aa ngalnat 726 messages, pro- 
of the Continent, 

dueing £742 fn Decombor, 1873. 
His researches aren model of method, system, 


Tur traMo rocciptn of tho Western and Beagilian 
Tolegraph Company (Limtted) from the aoth November 
« andorder, They aro out of print, and Very Bence. tty tho agi Decomber (ive weeka) word £12,764 
No olectric library should bo without them, No{ 178. 4d, “ 
studont should bo satistiod until ho has read them, |, THE receipts of tho Submarino Tolegraph Compan 

: for the month of Decombor, 1874, were ©: 895 t08, 4d", 
It is atrange that some enterprising publisher docs | those for’ the correspouding month uf io preceding’ 
not republish thom, They are full of tho simplest | year amounted to £7933 198, 8d, 

January 43, 1875.) 

collected over water, nud 

; quite differont in it 
Appenraneo, like the fine specimen on 
We thus have seen what tak 

Mper ; I putitinto the ach. a 
to not know whether muy 

happening; I ¢ (amet ‘ J 
igliter thon nie. Tunennt| things are pons: ke fet is that if t 

hydrogen was put into tho balloon 
_, Ve tind, therefore, that if wo | 
it info sulphuric neid an effery. 
there are a great number of bubl 
theso bubbles are not bubblea 

i{thus got together the three 
T get the copper, tho sulphu 

el; but at Present, as they stand, 

0 zine is dissolving away through tho netion of 
that not only hag gas! tho acid, and the coppe: H ' 
been produced, but something 

i elgo has been formed | But if I cause them to 
at tho samo time, : 

L omitted to apeal oi 
has, and in which it ditt 
ficult to got copper on fire, 
chemists cannot do it, for wi 
stratiga things; but we can y 
fire, I do not say that it wit burn a 

seo the bubbles 
copper in yreat quantities, Sup- 
r way, and that, 
‘o metals to touch together 
@ to make them toneh by 
or any other piece of metal, above 
tho water, Here is 4 pencil-easo; and if I eange 
-Jit-to toneh the tivo metals, I stilt find that the 
’ bubbles will come upon tho copper just as mich as 
nt cateh more easily, We will when the copper anit the zine wero tonching together 
Ret light to tho wood shavings, below tho surfiee of the water, But the copper is 
tho mixturo ; we shall (hus make the zine burn, Ifnot dissolved at all, It is the zine that is dige 
draw your attention to these w ¢[ solving. although the bubbles coma Upon the capper. 
rising from tho burning zine, sone zine which 
lift colour of the flame. 
smoke which are rising in tl 

You can easily 
mole A cover the zine with mercury, ‘ake a little ner. 
bination of zine with the 

-OxyeeN of the air, Che cury. rad rb it over the zine, and that will causa 
compound thus formed j Tt is} the zine to last much longer, and to bo much more 
falling down ag n kind a 

a 5 If wo put this zine which has heen 
like the Snow that is ont but af covered with mercury into sulphurie acid, it does 
snow which will not dissolve, T dro say that it is {not iissolva; but if I touch it with copper wa 
falling down pon You in various parts of the room. [shill find streams of bubbles coming from the 
ou sell ben in mand, then, that this is white oxide | copper, 

of zine, : 

zine shavings | purpose of the esperiment, Look at it cnrofully, 
Were burat upon'the table, Hero I pour in some}us it is passed round the room, OF course you 
potash in onder to take away the acid, ant You per- | must take eare, as 7 juve tolt yon, not to get tho’ 
ceive scme white stil’ Honting about § sulphuric acid upon your clothes, or upon your 
that is oxide of zine, ‘The liquid has now beeome gloves, I want to show you this cell ons lnrger 
quite thick, with this white oxide xeale, so thot you ray ull have the advantage of 

If T dnd taken some of this Vi uid ned poured it off! seving it towether. Mera F lnve a largo vessel 
into n basin, and put it over a Tamp ane 

evnporated | containing dilute sulphuric acid, T will first place 
off the water, we should have obtained a crystallised | init n pleco of common zine, and, inatead of your 
salt called sulphate of zine, When you Took at it secing it by means of the ordinary daylight, wo 
from n distance it is somethin tiko common salt, | will tro on ite beam from the eleatric Inmp, and 
. bute when you coma to look at sf maro closely yout | thot you will sce the effect very clearly, | We must 


Anstend of being’ able to hang only n soven-pound 
weight upon it, I could Jiang almost any weight I 
pleased upon tho large magnet. . I could hang my- 
self upon it quite easily, I will, first of all, tnke 
somo of these little filings, such as I had just now, 
and spread them on this sheet of paper iy means 
of a pepper-box, I will scatter them aver the 
surface of the paper which rests on the ends of the 
magnet, If the power is sent through the magnet 
} we shall sco certain effects, I shake the paper, and 
you perceive how the filings burst into broad lines, 
and form themselves into ridges, and wander about 
in various directions. We see tat they are nr 
ranging themselves, not only on the poles, but are 
alanding up and bending over in various directions. 
IfT turn the magnet down, you seo that they do 
not full off, although the paper is pretty newly 
vertien), They ave standing up like a brush, Sup- 
pose that, instead of fuking litle things like Glings, 
take some of these nails; you will seo that the 
do the samo thing, Tean pilu them up in this way’, 
and make a bridge of them, It is very hard in- 
deed to pull them away. When look at these 
things T think of Varaday, of whom T was speaking 
just now, and I think of his enthusiasm, and how 
he used to attract little boya and girls, and infuse 
his own enthusiasm into them, and ‘make them 
magnets tov, ‘These nails become magucts, but 
after breaking the conneetion they ceaso to ho #0, 
and fall off; but I hope dint in the cage of a good 
jan Jiko Faraday the influenco remains after ho 

ig removed, and that many who have been attrneted | waa seenred, 
hy him do continue to ntirict others in their own | det, whea he wi 

little way. Hf these nails wi 

broken, Kyvenso t} 
puntiont Magnets, 
I will now take a cor 

¢ shall 

power ix 
_ Af the conta 

you the oh 
‘ ra Thi 

} prougell fay experiment ly 
0 spark ng it goes throuel 
mirefied gases :~-Tn the glass tubes befive ron tlher 
ure certain gaucs and certain Hquids 



(January 45, 2875. 

peculiar opticn! property, and which tnke up the 
electric light and send it forth again, We will now 
cause the current to pass, (Various brillinut effects 
were produced by means of vacuum tubes.] ‘Chis 
light is not only a beantifil lambeut, coloured lieht, 
flowing in masses and clouda throtgh theae tubes, 
but itis broken up into varions bands and strie, 
Ant it pours from one vessel to to other; but you 
must seo it near at hand in order to catimate its ful! 

We have now obtained from the single cell with 
which wo started various extraordinary. effects, 
Wo find substances appearing: where we should not 
expeet them to appear; we find that we can pro. 

Which luve a! Method of Conves ing 

duce heat, or sparks, or shocks to aur nerves; tint 
wo enti make magnets, and twist magnets round; 
and that we can produce a thousand chemical de: 
compositions, if we like, by means of this foree. 
What a wonderful force this ist! I dare say many 
of you boys are well acquainted with the old classic 
myth of Proteus, and you know tint Proteus wns 
anid to havo many secrets ; but if any mortal caught 
holt of him he would try to elude his grasp, wal 
escape from him na a flash of lightning, or asa 
tiger, or as’ running water, or ng wind, Now this 
voltaic power ix something liko Proteus. We find 
it changing into these various forms, Sometimes 
it appears ns chemical action, sometimes as lent, 

sometimes ag ‘light, sumetines ag a feeling in our 

nerves, sometimes ns mognetian:. and what we 
have to do is to try and get hold of him as Proteus 
‘They had to cateh Proteus in his 
‘as asleop, and put a chain around 

ore wade of steel thoy | him, and then they could minke hin 
" * i » tell his secrets, 
woitht remain magnets, and would retain a good | And so we, : Haieoerets 

deal of their inaguetism when the contact was to trace this furee to h 

in our next lectures, will cruteavour 
is den, and so enchain him 

hope many of you may be per fas to wutke him reveal his origin aud all his 

— Woke ate 

ww things in our day lave experienced wich rapid 

dovelopment ns the electric telegraph. It ia truo thnt 

wi [nearly 2000 years ago the koot.xty 8 
Yon | Greeks Bo tho koon-sighted, inquisitive 

suct, | marvellons power which wo catl el 

Ka had act about to Inquire into the source of that 

Fonmary 355 1875+) THE TELEGRAPHIC JOURNAL, 19 
ST ee mene nD sonal ghee nay tn AE age 
od tho germ of that} of absonco thogo dilatory tormentors, pens, ink, paper, 

vere ey bo sald to Perret ip itt “oxpe-|and posts? Let us lave electrical converaasione oflices, 
ditions,” that it required a separate wiro for cach | communicating with each other all over the Kingdom, 
letter of tho alphabet, and practically n aoparate ap-|if wo enn.” it would hardly bo possible at the presen 
paratus for each wire, Morrison'a plan was repro-| day to deseriba mora aceurately the progress of elec! ue 
duced some twenty yeara Inter—in 1774—by one Lo] telogeaphy than in theso characteristic kentonces o} 

Sago, a Frenchman, who submitted it to Frederick of Mr. Monulds, Wo have “electrical conversasione 

y vi hich 
Presul iginnl mothod of clectrio telegraphy. | oficcs" all over tho kingdom, The wires wi 
Danie dropped out of notice, both in this country | practically connect Balmoral, W indsor, a Osborne 
ant abroad; and, as is well known, the first really | with Downing Street, onablo ler Mojeaty ‘0 * hol 
practical telegraphs belong to the year 1837, when councils MIM lice atinlaters in Dane a me 
. i it; nit tho extensive ays A 
mea Roataant: Silpeitens. Bok Sane Ot War. Ofliea {elograph, et tho Aloyernmanat, in 
‘ if jen 
wT bs t history of the elestric telegraph |“ govern at Portsmouth (and many ncea beaid 
nent at he aioatt will here, except so far ag it derivea| as promptly ag in Downing Birocks Gh of the 
ndditional interest from tho perusal of n somowhat| very frat neta of tho very carliest telogra! et ne 
curlona work published nbout fifteen yenrs prior in me Sapinre ee denen th an the 
inventions of Messra, Cooke and Whoatstone, which | cirio! 1 pra iy Londen 
y i t the tine, and has}if not at absolute protcotion against our Bey 
eee a a crmatiene at 1B23-—just fifty years} mato,” is at least a terror to those who might other. 

- ngo—Francis Ronald, of Mamineramith, whose labours wise elude the grasp of tha law. As for our * piteous 

i, vn that thoy, use 
7 clegraphy were ns ardent and| Gutamorati,” i¢ is perfectly well known t oy 
peer at eteste ena Midheartentng amd une} tho wirea as {reoly na ost people, pul ins ae 
profitable, published for private sireitlation a i tolegrarns are gradually taking tho pla 
k jel ** Descriptions of an Electric Lelegraph," | le! a ; 
wort entil at Doser and Jnatruative to aah in a fol Mosidos foreshadowing many of “tig nes bed me 
light of what has been achioved in regard to telographic a 1 ae, FEE Ee TTT 
communication during tho past half-century. Mz. |homoly treatise many p : ae te 
R tion and maintenance which are notually rm" 
Nonnlds appears to have heen the frat to make tho] constrne i mance mare natianlly Bune 
ont | folloved—unconsciously, perhaps, for his 1 
experitnent, on any great scalo, of rouling a current followed titeonsciousty. een day. His hack 
of electricity through an adrial wire, which ho erected | baok of th ‘i LR ee eA 
“Tawi a ia ronidence at Ham-| garden at Hamumecamith appear : 
oe arena vot inne hie renin to ercet any | sceno not only of one ot the enrltest nerial telegroylisy 
yrent longth of singlo continnota wire in euch n situa. | but also of tho first Teme oli: poe dug ue the 
tions but Mr. Nonalds very ingeniously surmounted this| line, Ile tells ug tliat ni ie Pear ear 
diftonlty by erecting two wooden frames, placed nt a| garden 525 fect fu engtli, and lw es a aeas wall 
distance of twenty yards from cach othor, cack frame | was laid ny trough of wool wa, ae square, be 
being traversed by nineteon horizontal bars, and each lined inside, and ont, with y alt Mean ite 
har having thirty-saven hooks, from which doponded trough thick glass tubes ware ui cai hrough wit 
vilken cords, supporting and ‘also Insulating a sinall| tho wire ran, ‘Tho frougu ne Baad eS 
fron wire, ‘his wire, which mindo its inflections at pisees of wool, serewed upon Rare eC 
eo of no met ae het ay the ee 
my athor moro than cight rites; . E : 
etic we lia sed from n Leyden jan and the} Mr. Ronalds gous on to sloncelio ha mothed of siguals 
shock passed throngh two Tnmutated inflammable air {ling through this expor mentally perfec cota at 
sistole, tho reatlt was, fu Mr, Ronalda's own expressive | also gives the outlines 0 Cy leg ME ee ccntoaet 
Mi ol describing it, that “threo of tho senses--viz.,| by means of which aon, oF aE chareon Aa nes 
night feeling, nd hearlag--seemad to recuive nbroluto gould be conveyed by only three diel angen ott a sly 
conviletion of the iInstautancous transmilesion of cleetric} ina mean space of + seco art Les wad 
signa.’ Wo need not follow Mr, Ronatds through his} stago of telegraph e evote EE ee ae 
dotatied aeconnt of the experiment; but tho impres- | by no meank insensiblo o " Wed ‘te iis oplaion 
dion which ft seems to have made on bia min fect telegraphic system ; for ho a See aoa bucled 
tl gl recorded in somewhat ernto and homely lane; that a signal might be traneny fA also st Brighten 
he ee da romarkublo av foreshadowing very closely | wire from Carlton Mouse tot ie War i 9 time occu. 
fadeed what hing como to pasa inco then, He say in ono imintte 5 and he mld — ‘ iin chjeetton Bites 
“Tho result seetned to Lo that that most extraordinary { pied tive minutes, [should count te SE oo ae aatter'et 
fluid, or ngeney, electricity, nny actually be employed | serious, but © not ra Mode atten Ca ats 
for n mre practically useful purposo than the gratif. | fact telegraphic signals can aula cpaee vf (Unio; 
pation of tho philosopher's inynisitive research, the tinuows wire {nan almost impereet A er being 
rel oolboy’s fle nmusement, or the physician's tool ;{ tho tine ocoupied in Lea talks eens lttode 
th ‘t it may be compelled to travel an inany hundred | regulated by Ay acter 8 fi Fe antiga wad 
i r beneath our fect av tho aubtorraneau ghost which | But Mr, Hounlds's flen o! irae ce Whig nae end 
ni ily haunts our metropolis, our provincial towns, | rather in advance of Mia Se ir agit hileeend 
aid. oFenh our high roads; and that in pich an en. of the means placed at iis Roe apachien coat 
Hghlened country and obscure climate ns this its travels tolograph was, hniyovers Ne He Fee eaetheniware 
te 1d bo productive of, at the toast, as much public] exists in tho prosentd ny Se nk wa. are Tot 
and iv {0 benefit.” Why, ho oxky, “fas no| pipes in liew of his woo on ro} i Fe ee coke 
norlous (rial yot heon mado of the qualifications of go | very far In advance here, ae Miietions aT Na 
ail ontncourier? And if ho shotkd be proved com. | by way of anticipating pom 1 Soret ad“ tigut-as 
; tent to the task, why should not our kings lotd | that cast-iron. tronghs m i oa Fler le to cruploy 
Lhe nels t Brighton with thelr ministers in London ?| gas-pipes,” should It 4 Besa whhiols he lel 
why, i o Kt not our Government govern at Ports. | thom, ‘Tho thick glass un is ntacotl b » that useful 
Hi mith almost aa promptly ag in Downing Street? his conducting wire have hot fel nee yy pees 
Why shoutd our defaultora cron by ea ee Bibeln ute - nok: beol moa te 
y ? piteaua fanari alr, t 
se Alplel ai vauould thee aad to the torments | tensively ag an insulating substquee in all operations 


ry : 
: ‘ : oz peer pre 

ay: Ree ee hes : : o AUTIN.OAN DATTERY, | 
] VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. . A Ts Peet LAST tho following dexeription of a 
DY PROFESSOR TYNDALL, D.C. ‘Li ; ‘ : a corres ap Clements from 

oe : ‘ : ; : -* rte ed 24017, —-Amalgamating Zino.—tnka th 
: sy tho Jeltos- of ir correspdnilent: of | the Scientijie 2 ate tery.—T wontor when! |. offsine pout. to be unalgntaated aud tie ett ry 

\ - eae ie ena an should like to: hear “Sigma's o farm of cell will bo auiticiontly oxplained ! . weak sulphuric acid and water, about tive parta of 
Luerunn V. tel ‘ tj pinion of it. It appears to me to offer ono ada é ' to the “uninitiated,” The bichromate cell, if. pro. ! water to ono of acid, then fay it flat on'n tnblo, |” 
H nV. « / ee 3 . ‘ es { pour somo mercury on tho zine and rah pithy a piece 

Wats we examine the-distribution of-heat inthe] 1| tage, and that fs it sill enable itis ‘ of cotton wool until a bright poliah is abtalned 
Neruat 7 us to s Proceed with Vt — 
circuit, we find ourselves in the presence of that 1] pas whet idly becoming. mioanecs feces a. ; SE Dagers ne OOP ARIE hn ean aaaas i 
great principle of constancy as regards” the : : i Vtho containing vewel fsa tin ‘ j {23617.]—Amalgamating Zino.—Tho castest | 
energies of Nature which is the crowning achieve- z { i method for you to adopt. is the following :—Mix 
ment of otir times. Ifwe burn a piece of wood upon ‘ “ : i pe eet medont eaten en eee fae 
a is the «liberated + : ‘ 7 i mn 0 fill call which contains tho 
a hearth the heat is then and there liberated ; and t e cella aro charged witha nee Ae \ : ; i zine plate or cylinder, then dip plates Into tho soli 
if we burn zine in dilute sulphuric acid, the heat. i - tion and taka ont quickly, immedintely rabbing 
is then and there liberated. But. the com. i 13 Dern. a vy a oe them well with somo olf mg; redip if any portion 
mingling of that mysterious thing which we call: {2° 4 : &: : | a f , Torininag tlrty. nee the ‘hale aunanee clan, ; 
a 1 of i : } t ni} 
an electric current’ w ith the phenomena changes ‘5 ¢ ! i of mercury. tub inte the plato well, thon redip, d 
their aspect. If the zine and the dilute sulphuric a, pour on toro mercury, again rub, and repent the: 
acid form part of a voltaic battery, then the heat a bidies ; : y proceas until the whofa surfaco iy quite bright, Bu? 
produced by the combustion of the zinc may be |“ ; an very ali plate hy careful to tunitlaamate every hole: 
or may not be liberated on the hearth where ‘it ig - * perly constructed, will work effectivoly for nn hour. tif nruah ie tofu to cleo cat areal ea . “Afters 
burnt. A battery here in London may heat a i . q i have need tho solution the second Hinig after tho ithe plates are well amalgamated swill in water auc. 
Wire in Edinburgh; the heat.imparted fo such a . * atue of secon ey DT operas t Mit ‘put hy to dey. -W. J, LAncasten, 3} 
Wire is transported by the electric current. The | i : 3 z a i (uni) Amalgamating Zin ~The process of | 
current is the carrier, not the creator of heat. - . 4 = am : j Pinee the aineia mdi ipeenry fs rimplo cnough, 
the Hl ‘ trl i tnd 7 : t ing. whi ‘ ‘Daca tho zinc ina dish and cover it with water, then 
Phe quantity of heat developed by the combusti i y “ : citetent sooty hich wil bo found clean, ant ‘add n Little common sulphuri¢ acid so an to form in. 
: : . i i jearbons (ono remurer in sketch) ton picco of Hiluta solution : one part acid to twonty-four waterds | 
per teear al Sidi, wes ib alvaels Cadendiee . : . ae iNarniahed wood, along tho sides of which » copper escrs well. Pour over tho zing, while om thobath,* : 
s ie i : iallp conducts tho electricity to tho positive binding 7 ‘alittle metallic morcury, ani by tho rid of a aml 
vseruw; the wire from the zine pnasing through the pleco of tow tied to & small picco of wood,"tho | 
centra to tho other, “This nrrangemont is easily: ‘mercury may ba led to diffusn itself avenly over tho 4 
“sot up” or removed without any ruteuel, nnd not; . uirfnee of the zinc, Caro should bo taken if tho 
shal€ so cumbersome, Fused 216, white Hipata, janrinee of the Fine ba rough by brovions ure that ine 
i Hy . ¥ linereury cuter into every crovice, SO W 
which may ba but for 88, Od. per dozen, ‘The power jmareney, tho battery clincuinne “solution will ho to 

of a battory mainly depend: t ti i { 
lor: zine eniploseity- the rier icp lis atl A rece reab avwny of tltssolye Hat | portion whieh toca, fiat 
[th Vattor their conducting power, 13-cella with Lhecome ann ienmatod el fe ‘ion i me yo . 
zines lintf size of your searbons, if joined. up. for. iadopted by a friend of mine whois constantly using 
intonaity, would certaluly produco the electric Hirht |: i Bunsen's cells, Ho allows somo morcury to remain 
Iwith finely potato carbons Jncoutnct; however; try (in, the outer Cee ee athe and ene eh 
tyoaes a mention. therefore the Oe eee eal, {nminlgamated + tho. — {te hp ses the cell we 
Fintction cea ae aay on whee mike oe ' jot ty the habit of ain Uunseu’s, but L fhink L 
i Hi ag ry 7 a a } ral to ki 
ado in hot water. i ierous to. its insulation; try four or sixcells atymost, |/ Hauching tho mercury at tho bottom of tho outer 
1 ne al { ages -" Same abies : . a fool, I nat fald tata corlain targa electro-pinting 
t proce: 
pu in wince, be placed : at (fem ther-tlits Jens ie to think that: sulphuric 
pat Aone ‘ <i, , ‘ Pern wifor charging, ‘Tho bichromnte ian 
ik i ; ate i neid is not usc Q 
; : * “B.A. FT, saya: Ehave constructed a gal. 7 j Yory favourite bathers ek tna for eo itn ML puree 
asieuy treo {i DA piece of : Yo yante battery as follows: One cup af coppers desu s ined i oy oyna ofa certain tale gl mercury 
if ; s r “ ‘bla and 6 Inches in diameter. fe made of very thic! z ‘in’ ng Auid, which, hy 
wy obont . i , ‘ ? sheet copper, Thie vessel {charge with 1 part sulphuric . in the lie ng mercury on the zing (the two metals 
seed to 10 parte of water, Thon I (neert a gises cylin ssess great affinity for onv another), prints the 
connect the A der (Hinches fa dlamater), closed at the lower end wilh . Teel of amalgamating, fio hot a present 
ncharyli th thlotting paper, to thief insert @ cylinder of rolled ap what salt this is, but Lintend mal ng ow 
fluid of one cele celts aown in 0 ‘sheet atne, 1} Inches dtemeter, and charge tt with 1 part : nts, and if I moot with success it 
tin of eect an ie como in : jof murtatic actd and 10 parte water. ‘The battery worke i u th I have never reall any 
would only be th tof £0, the cloctrumative force . a very well for allver plattoms would ft aluo do for nickel 4 laters swhero zines 
concentrated by plaving ty ci, The fluid ta kent; : iptating? A, Boveral cells of thts description may be ¢ 
ecll & quantit: Bad on the zinc plate. of each | ‘ ‘used for nickel ae well as allver plating on m emadl scale 
shown ta Fig? Bt Potash, A dattery of tho culls ¢ my { How should nickel ealts be prepared for 
in constructh tid seem to offer little dificulty : " . jYou will dad @ recipa on p, 51, yo!. 0, 
Prva” kool or equal to tier eae me fitainabte bor pane eee m aes 
“BE qua, the hi cs Of the sam, i : ‘ wine 
BY Yontsodwoaap Wet"? saying ay readera MY POOF to to wauy of your chet | oe ; ts .o cousumpt 

Py JO wy Mt *pauy a oh B. 3, 608) trength of you ay 
4 1 4) ty Sysvy yt Puy nan? ua , ae: tee Ee Aad in hh | not increase the © os It, agoy! t sage 
} ast 15 

RIG Pits IN Sesquroxipe or TRoX.—Thiy apparatus, is conta in ry 
ile is composed of a prism of charcoal which contains sesquioxide of iron ;in. ils pores,’ 
+ and a small rod of amalgamated zine, The latter passes through the stopper, fo the under surlace, 
at which is fixed the charcoal, A solution of ammonium chloride ts. used as ‘the exciting Muld,’ 
‘The reactions are the same as in Léclanché’s couple, in which oxide of manganese is used. When 
the circuit is I, the chloride of ammonium attacks the zine, forininga double chloride of zine 
ant ammonium. The latter, on being set at liberty slecomposes the sesquioxide of iron, ing 
or nearly twi : Ma part of its oxygen and forming ammonia which disappears by evaporatioti, 
as to di y twice ¢ ! . a ook ees E : : ceases to act so long as the circuit remains open, {ty durability and force. are large, | I 
Wspose of. ‘To perform an amou' } [f2%7.)—Loctancha “fou lew 24 : otive power is as 12 to 10 of the sulphate of copper batt i thus well a 
number 3. 1460, by a j{ tallic ino docs not net upon anf tuistaken : mo. [ POR ASS Hindustrial purposes, The inventors are MM. Clamond: and ‘Gaile, and it is inanufact: 
ewer ‘represented by ‘the numb 1] Unter infinence of rhltnin eleetrieiten ete ety RE {Tater genticman, “I 
be tantamount toa creation of powe ; fern beeauss th zine chloride forned co a Hiatal : ts | —_ ev. (go 7 i 
.at variance, with the ime [On'rentiog Trile-chtoriite ffom acting on the zine, ; : . { SOR a 
sical science, 4 jFQites next the sine,—losrernanun, , 
latinum electrodest AED aes we fowl : ; : er . ope Met 
her of platinum! ; : % ee eet Gites, 0 4808 eas 16. an A Now Electric Battery. ‘Soin: Barwin. 

with manganoso dloxid tg eet M, Cerpaux proposes a battery made of a certain num- 

sin directi i hi é : : us ment in the Loclanohd battery. ab od 
; ¢ " : why ‘ . 0,, Sargent horn charcoal, ber of plates of copper and of zinc separated -by » wooden 
the volta ee h : al mares: : nd G ge er cot eet gchar Ly ‘ lath, The plates are plunged Jn sand or molst earth, and 
| ee ca Be a Proasure of SOY itingspletés, ha nella ho’. [an electric current 1s at once preduced, If on tho earth 
Ee aan ry current anc : i : 4 Bto4 por cont, of potaaste bisulphate dhialn chloride of sodium be poured, a very Intense current ts 

they € which form, 
nt are opposed to each other f * os oo . ‘ roslatance by dissolving the oxychlorides, syhets 0 i ; | gonerated. awe-T Te ; 

«lutions diffusc, nnd AmCl again! “” ahi is a : 
A & 


it ‘Qu JomiNe UP cELLa ERIE! ard =” Rappers ; 
[March 25,'t84 

The little instrament, of which tho following ia s leserip- 

tion, may be ugoful to somo of our amatour electricians, It f : y sgh . aN ia ee i : : sone fants, eine — zs 
beast a isaawltch for joining-up cells : at pay tereet ty 7 : cere oer eae * 
A ‘ for quantity or intensity. by one Paborts Invention 7 - x sie : s E CT Rl 6 Ni A N UF ACTU R IN 

‘movement,’ Tho engraving 
slows one for two cells, but ‘ neccnt , . ‘ otek 
{t could bo mado for any limited { ged on eg ni ie eeiaed” ‘ ¢ ys erp 26 : as eee e : 
number. pe { Li] co] F Ing; Jar, was uscd, 2 a 4. : — Sie ake ea : : : 
To the four binding scrows m Of: ti eu Sectonitens See ‘ eos > pe : : j220 Kinzie Street, 

are attached the wires from the nil over: : of; flag, saw: a as r : , 
colls, the Ino wires boing fas- : : x ; fi oe OCEFLIOCAGO, TLL: 


tened to tho outer scrows, The att ety. : iat a, ‘ ‘ ) a ees ae aa 5 i . 
nee : | V ; \r ee J PRIVATE LINE OUTFIT.) 

connections on the switch aro 
marked insinglo dotted lines: p ; ! : 
« ae p i sea SL foul +4 [ad THE BEST IN THE WORLD, 


peer aca ana 

tho double lines represent those 
under tho wooden slabon which 
the switch turns, When it is moved to tho right, it Joins tho 
cells for Intensity, and rice ceraé. Sho sma) circles aro brass 
-knobs (tipped with platinum, if proforred), The restexplains 
itself, It may bo of uso on tho lecturo table, A. Trotter. 
z Se heme comming —— 
a Choap Galvante Battory. 
To the Entitor of the Seientifie American : 
Tam using a battery much cheaper and (I bellove) more : i 
permanent than the one described In your paper of January : : 2 Rag : a f 
80. Iv was'’sct up by an Englishman in my employ, of the : ey : b th : 3 ren - Ears ee 
namo of Baron,:two years ago, and T have used. this kind of Sree . i epee Hn ; . 
battory over since: «It consists of a cylindrical glass vensel, Bat ire i « pa oo ts EE fy SKIN’S 
elglt laches deop and about the same in diumeter, On the Bet Ire be ey seat ¢ £ ae 4 . 
bottom of this vessel, a circular sheet fron plate ix placed, ‘ iia ws Oy ! lars : 4 
with an ingulated wire uptonelng fron the plate over tho top , state i} . . p RIV. 
of tho jar, This plate is covered to tho depth of one or two} eS PoE a se auiats iG ia é 
Inches, with sulphate of copper, Another iron plate 1s sus- ‘ . ‘ This improved form“ of Gravity Battery is mecting witha raph sate, Tagless ces hi an from base and. dnaly 
" , . + poten 2 i ind. . 
De a a es Waracictise pee : Ces “a , adopted by the North Western Telegraph Co, and by several railroads. Tb iaohte fi teat toten tiles fa length. se 0: ok 00/6 line 
in until the upper plate is covered, to tho depth of one or two “Gh Bat biact? ake , io: OA at raat 
inches: Thus made up and the circuit completed, the bat. Coy : ; a Reservoir Battery, gives strong, constant current, requires litule attention, 
tery will come up to fts power in two or three days; Int if], uate ae ot the : 7 economical, Se : Fp alte ‘ 
needed to work at onco, an elghth of an otince of sulphuric F M : \ Wi tay Mt ‘tet I; ONPG ¢ 
i actd should bo ndded, ‘Tho plates must bo arranged hori- Boe tenet cle 5 : . ‘ester ht A E eet 1¢ } anufactur Ing UU 
{ , | vontally ono above another, and both must beof Iron, If the} Me ge et : a : Ra Siege Neh cahe aie i jee 
upper plate is a quarter of an Inch’ thick, it will Inst year, n ¢ ; ] resista 4 5 820 Ft Alusle sient Gk foago, { 
ED) These tron plates work just as well as zine and copper, and y el ts, rat ! : Ba . ae i bijou 
can be had overywhure at a trifling oxponse, Ws. i ect q z i ao ie _ az _ 
Philadelnhta, Pa. z ’ | ! g (eew0.)—a : 
“(89 hae 2 ASN Syn ‘ aris . 22520, nlvanio Action of 
te) FBS) says: 1. Dhavensmall battery ~ My n oon : : i Prasa.— The furenan was strictly Teh ees find: 
jnado on the Daniell principle, using zine and pul H bh watt rather straining a point. Tron and copper We: 
plinto of copper but It isnot constant. What em t : Popo? & Ce ck Bunnell“ 4 frou at the Fee re eo lend to consume the 
cep It'more uniform?’ A. Probably " 5 ‘ 3 4 bros ina J outuct ; but then so dova tho: 
water necds changing in the porouscups, Yew x it i no diferenee, andes tho conte, metals woul n ar 

it Becomes sipersaturated wit! * it 
h sulphate ; H Mt r f ent weensed by tho lubricant, ft i 
‘J crvetala form on thozine nnd stop thenetion, ou i i 3 i. would ba any appreciable effect, AY it ant: 
can uso nitmte;of me ‘You l : BR to learn that nny one d . , it is pleasant 
you web hae Tipo instead of sulphiato if j . work.—Stasta.” a 7g ta. niwu at perfection in bis 
Bois H Is cheaper nnd better. 2, r : ve ‘ . : 
4'Howean I cre oe 29999 Ja . eA \ : 
ton coll aimndedy wae can pean induc i i cola the motion Coll The weaker shock 7 B ed se 
Flo copper wire, and airronsiaing Hyer i i wire of fhe range is fart of ‘the, a BLISS RESERVOIR BATT ERY, : 
ne Insulated . ' : 0 current [a from one binding. i * 
| noted with fons les The battery is con. i ho magnet, then fo the pillar inl sree oe hee | : TAs battery took the frat premtum and a sifcer medal for fares * 
ary obtained front th ro colland the shocks se t cia ire er, aud thence through tho primary coils : } | Ovastaney and soonomy at the Cincinnalt Expesitivn, 
cultol thi duiras wine ech aie sae We etre ‘ es : a bee biniling-rerew.— Sia, ; : ute each “Private Line Oatat" te farnlehed one Private 
A 63 niche fe . - zon, —: pe F ! Ine Instr: ne Cup It Ir Battery, the necessary : 
eG ona broken and closed, Thoin wig cl. ‘The . «work let ee Bol aia eae Ine one fo: Chemicals, ite Féounectons ands Manual.” ie ns 
; cd the recondary ef a ‘ ee . arranged a . ‘3 t s is 1 
electrical effects by iuditetion. aa acelvea ia t | ott. 7 indo with Nor at inntead at nes Wo. Tt should bo " ah oP LORD. 
Strout, rom the primary ‘ wane with small current inatendt or large. Tat te : ibe: Hal, semspleles He 
si re ae ER Tl . i will find that, os It ntands, ono xingle Danio . ment Oo 
very compact Hitlo” apparatus exhibited , by) 3 the pork dust as well aw’ nll he ae aha Brake : Heaervolr 
Mesara, Tisley and Spiller, ‘Iho other was a largo instead of lar Nim couple up hia cella nll toyether! ‘ : 
{ crics—that fs, nll coppers toguther an! M . 
H A discount of twenty, par cent, will be alluwed when remat! 


“torpedo hattery, belonging to the India.rubber and all zines together—nddi atts : 
Gutta Pereha Company. 0 had alrendy done a fale noting effet, 5 canis ont one ‘hte Pah ano tance accompanies the order, Hem{t by express, regiatered lot- 
amount of work, forit had been sunkin tho Thames A flo the conuceting-wire, and considering tho rest : *+feFoniertng state letgtio! Iine, vo that the rauistanee of inatro- 

“on September 24th, 1673, and taken up only fn Hot commento este tila in fe wire, Une ments may be proporWoned accord 
October, 1876. During this period it had beon fro- one cell of any form Kk tho bell get nud ND F 
quently used for teating fuzes and torpedoca. . It is : : Cote meets haeeamemen ae ORCCIRCURARY 

Literal toms le Agents, a 

still in'good working order, Of. telegraph instru- : : ‘ : " 

ments and materials thera wero two numerous 

collections, by Messrs. Slomons Brothers and Mr, fi |: i, 
Rt. 8. Culloy, while Mr, G. E. Preece showed many ‘ 3 

specimens of cables injured by cablo.borers, teredos, : a - 4 in fae eae 
and barnacles os ; 

s ‘ er 

: - i oat a =GAlvanio Battetion 
| CORROSION AND GALVANIC“ACTION*. ze Me tom the cht . : ae 
: IN MARINE sea peartines = E aging tt bai b: re Bs : eae k tes agape! : 
AOD a recent’ ‘ Ba at 6 ge 
‘AT angal Fite, eopeentgn pe Bagh s he A NEW ELEOTRIC BATTERY, 
1 teresting disenas: if Polnt, the coo! : 

| provionsefinceting oat f Jravea; wil tai up a eoatin . 4 M. Onimua recontly exhiblted to the French Academy of hs 
* yather sl gnets in commdction with f 1° Oy ropatition ‘of the proc fonces a now and slmplo battory, an engraving of which 
juction on boantship wero mentioned. Mr, Jolson - ‘form of De In Rue'a coll, a 

: . 4s given herowith, Instead of the waual porous vaso hesub. | 
ted that there miyht bo samo ill effects duc to. ! 1 ehtortde Of kino, tha atren; i ‘ : a cy po ohesub. : 
eer iHoyment of feel a ee hk aps made of brass; | | particular. conte nee . . : atitutes «diaphragm of parchment paper, Tho zinc cylin. | Serene, 
Hand «questioned the ropricly of their wo in conueey : saturated Bolutt yt temgth, ee : “pdor, A, being enveloped In the papor, B, copper. wiro, C, in { * som vanity 
{tion with compound maringengine boilers. Mr. | 1 pound over all. The latter holds the papor against th; ine | co DANGER Ds 
Hannilton had never previously heart of such a ease papor agi loxine ; PPER FOR DANIDLL's onLL, * 
ige had side mentioned by ilkp prosident ite. aie rand answers for a fastoning. Tho wholo is plunged in tho } 00113,}—Taxe a pleco of sheet ao : o 8 
iehrist), nud ho stated that sinea compound engines. MT hava hoard and uIphato of capper solution, and tho battory soon works ro. wit att 9 round the inside of the Jar (a jam-pot | : 
had come into uso engineers hat experienced: great, | Fone ee gin ma 20 f [gularly, . For somo, carbon batteries, the carbon Is Cnvoloped | reseed. rele you intond usin 

: ferred to, LEYDEN yond bond over 
other words, a. protecting "scale" of calcareousi rl BATTERY, 
| mintter wns hot easily slepasited upon their internal of (mo, but Taboutd [10430.}—Inv roading tho queries of a oid 
caurfacos, Mr. William: Whyte mentioned tho caso: Lut Ht corrospondenta it in clear numbers ra 
tof a steamer that iad sailed from the ‘I'yno. to. or abil Te he Jct ihe * beginners with oleetrical machines and ane 
Croustulé, nud thence to London. Sho had been, i» § under auch contkips ,. Ehnroscen several times plates of glass reco; 
workel with water too fresh, and tha exposat parts, | { atntourcte tho sliver lates intend of fara, Tenn only ailvise that there 
became very much injured. Tho samo yossel how: | ‘8: rato, Hi not bo used. ‘Chey will noone ide ma " : 
i works with water containing at least Gox. of ‘saline « ! Btoht Patt ee with tho same extent o surface wil} moti vi : f ov] Eee 
“eatter 7 tho, gallon, ‘mthier than Stor pad aa pete TromAte strong a shock ay jar. Th in i 7 y Wet } } mt ‘ 0/4 m4 
excellent senate is got upon.tho export parts, - Mr.', , somo, and dis 4 ies . | : 
Whyte said that Protecting “scale” conkt bo pot; | Pescribed tt my, yaa disclinrgo th ’ ‘ : = i 

dificulty in getting tho: hoilerstnbes  enited y” in. |. fearbous.” »Teaanot — L Vestal,” Cut top edge like saw (ack, og Goutaintag : 

! than a jar without a 
iu 2 hours.if the Loilers wero worked withavater - Haacarcely eve havo, jer rithous : 
containing 8ox, of eating matter fo tho gallon 3, but battory. A jar lined wi Dunes. 
if water was afterwards usol which was.quite fres «4 autphato of ain the top of the tinfoil mulaten much sted: 
tho scala woutd disappear, leaving tho iron surface + ug quia, 1 chine will chy 
jexposal. Mr, Hyalop mentioned that he lind proved ts ,. ker one, { rata. 
‘by tho uso of a’ galranometer on board -n steamer » 

4 see tof a A : a8 shown in akotch, 
that galeanic notion did take place, Ho hnd.cone i 0 their rubbers fy i a : 

2 porous pot (containin ’ 
} zine) atands fn centro of copper, ant y z 
nectol the boilers with a plate of rine immersed in aan tel | odio forms n convenient, allt on hice tones l ig. 
j tho #ea, and ho was able by tho usaof agalvanometer: | : ‘ : ope al of sulphate of copper, Aa ® substitute for an 0 
0 observe tha effect produced at orery lurch which. tri " home Screw A wire, W, may bo twisted and bont \ 
‘tho vesrel received from the ination of tho waves, by hi 4 é fs 8 Pra. and soldered to coppor, Ly. straighten. 
In closing tho disenssion, Mr. Gilchrist ‘said, thé “g ir : F me ul pateal slightly, 0 wire from instrament, &o., 
engineer of Messrs. G. ant J. Burns's steamers tas of ‘elreule step by 1 f lasted, recttee in it, nnd will be clamped by 
‘wang zine plates, and considered they hail a very en tho zing fisgit ff d va . . city of spiral, Glatton, 
material effect in proventing corrosion in the boilers; i Band Hawt had i ma _—o:. s 
‘Tho president atso believed that“ Vulcan cemont’® tar of tala ose) harm than pood, . f \ 5 cease % J 
ed internally, and paintel on with a atift brush, Pertence Mal the same. 
{like na onlinary nti-foulin, composition, wag an bees: - 

excellent preventive of corrosion!” But thera were 

Vi “Pows : 
rome boilorw that could notbe got to" seale.”) ‘That pilationtn’ Powor with Distance 

‘4 tacos tory it, Bs, 
galvanic action was xct up in roesols having ‘dif {| tlon Prevtously put, but to mule, 

‘ f whi 7 a 7 ifn parchment papor, and around thia fs placed olther a zinc | ¥ 
ferent metals used in the construction of their parts reference, it ts," Why w! | we :, i 
was o very patent (act; for if n castiron deren . p Rear the battery than lt ny wiro orazinecylinder, Tho battory thns constracted will, { 4 
wore wiod on board a woolen yeseel conted with | | rant whin rorbtance in 4 when moistened, work for some hours atter being removed : 
copper it would disappear in twelve months, falling . | reply fv, that it will do ¢ $ 

y fo the bottom of the sca. 

Such veesels now have Is ono, natural enough, et from the oxclting Hquid. 
‘brass ecrowa instead of screws of cast irou:” wh cet atte but oi 

; depeche, Anak stateinent of ¢! out 

¥ geater‘catrent it y E TELEGRAPHER 

% : coer hzough tho wire of the elec } 7 
: ear |~Eheotrical—To “Sraaa"—Why will from tho battery tn of 
nok beoy fo Lend their questions with somothing that Woca not follow that 
+ debnes 

Le subject T oxpect, if ind hy. th i Magnet, oven when It ts 
huve some tw 

Maul pep airs ffi sateen 184 mata ns oo. MANUFACTURER OF TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS, Ez 

wostions nro 
gonce nud informatio: 

ATTERIES of avery description for TELEGRAPH and ELECTRO-PLATING | a 

~ purposes, best ENGLISH and AMERICAN TELEGRAPH WIRE, ‘ 

% LINE TOOLS, INSULATORs, ete, etaes DIALS and 
and MUNICIPAL lines. 


en the 
ia tho 

to tho pro. / 
Kk and ity. 

ged oa P - 
andl cause a 
which, | masses? ieee 
revolus { 


Vonscening the good qualities of several other combinations, Unt freed from their deficlenclca or kmperfoctions, 
eu Jt can bo mado to 


In cleantiness and freedom from local action it fully equals the yf 


whilo {t vastly exccede it In continuance of power or conistancy, keeping up to tte Work whore the Leclanché attery fa 

and Joace ita power, i {tlon, conductors of electricity and not il 
"it ny Uo easly charged wens tu pronase lege range of poser eitaay contain withia tooth ecto 
stored up ready for use, Hence the namo glyon tot Nee oe 
eee ae MAG ASIN EI. 
tions aro novel and peculiar, doing away with ¢ho dangor of Increnalag res! red 
ducting ronal ‘For further paritcotare rotor to : “ ONARLAtS ‘, CHESTER, No,' 104 Coutre 


fact, ies Sanne opgn ranging from 30 i., the engine house ale, to 8 ta,, for how 
{or Mateo he capable of atrnitig Very taplaly--at Touak two blows th a seconde diseao vary in price acootdtag Yo sis 

aye ‘ 

fue mr er et hm, en een tee az an 
accordijg to also, ds : Scag Bh” ‘A180, . é Ne 

0 arranged that {t ts uiterly iiuposetblo whilv one box lela operation to atart anuther, hereby Preventing apy covfuston of alarms, 
a, ca + ALe0, : : nie Le 


I reavonablo prices, ° era 
AE anene ser TRS mE. Celael Ofles np negaiin mf anal renegade cet titel te ple te WRFCIPAL conrRaors, 


: : : srntNo; INaTRAD, OF Weiaut, Pee ye gongs RS 


lm, In, rellabie, and never get out of order. ‘Tho following Hotote aro ited with our improved aries Grand Union, Barstoge 5 ' t 
La ee re EEE LT areal ea rieeet cay deal wae ON HON 

. for Walle, Theatres, Churches, etc, elo. Inducemeuts offered to any persons oblaining contrnats for lighting, “- 
button om his bench (he operator lights a section of burners, : 

/ : Very alight contumption of Battery, aud very cheap, . 

P, 0, Box a1¢0, : 104 CENTRE STREET, 

er terk 

By simply, pualite; 

sadvantago | fn «mal 

0) G. PB. saya: I havea zincand cirbon 

alee the carbon plates of which aro aupported 

Von Tu s I 
quart Srote cine Ts thei ee :! py copper connections, I find thattho acid creeps 
inte ns Can 

r quantity & 
! t! ee circus! 
; FestatangéotAbeciccult outside of the battery ta}: 
* yery small, In tho latter caso the 12 one gallon 
| cups 

Ing Hu 

fe up on these connections and corrodea them, What’ 
A. No, untesa tho; | can Fuse to provont the corrosion? A. ‘Tho best 
plan 1s to depoalt coppor on tho end of the carbon 
and thon solder a wiro to tho doposlt. , First heat 
ne will givo the stronger current. If.tho| | the end of thocarbon and touch thopart Just bo- 

| oxterpyl resistance of the cirault is of any consid}, | yond where the copper fa to oxtond (about haif an 

1 eravid‘magnitude, tho best effect will bo obtained || 
t by unitlog all tho colls in sorfes, TH latter com. 

inch from the ond) with a pleco of parafin, taking 
:| caro ft doos not run up tho part tobe deposited zal 

} bination always gives the, highest tension or po- «| should (¢ do 80, howover, !t may bo driven off by a 
I tentlal. 2 Please give full fuateuctions for setting *] strong heat. When cold, cut a fow scores in tho! 
rface to give. hold to the copper, and drill at 

up the Chutaux battery; mentioned 19 your paper | 
of May 2, 1875. A, Thoro aro several modifica: 
tions of the Chutaux battery, one form is mado aa 

‘\faltows: A glass or stonoware jar {is perforated at 
the bottom, and an foverted saucer placed oy 
itho hole. Single plates of zine and carbon ai 

- thon arranged on opposite aides of the Jar, and a 

sheet of tin or other thin metal placed in thu mid- 4 
‘to (botween the zincand carbon). Tho side con-| i! 

holo through, in which fix dnnly a copper wire, 

projectingon each side, With a warm fronepread s 
‘] 2 good Alin of paraMin from tho Ino of intondod 
coppering as far down tho carbon aa tho part to 
bo immorsed Inthe Nquid of tho battery when 
working. Connect a wiroto thecarbon iy facrow 
clamp, and Jnsort ina coppor solution, arranging 
at drat for a quick deposit, When a good deposit 

ning the zino plate {9 filled with sand, th / Uta made, drill a few bolos right through copper and 

to sldo, contatning the carbon, with pounded |), 

fearbon, soak in water to remove any absorbod 

. | Soke, after which the metal partition Js withdrawn’): copper salt, and dry {t thoroughly. Now tin the 

anda thin layer of sand spread over all, Tho ex- {' 
elting tuid {fs contained In an invericd jar over 
tho battery; another Jar beneath catches tho liquid | 
after {t has passed through the sand and coke. 
‘Tako 15 parts, by wolght, of wator, 1 of bichro- 
mate of potash, 4 of sulphide of mercury, and 2 
of sulphurta acid, to form tho solution, 

(44) KX, asks: 1. Whatis tho best alzed cell 
to uso for a battery to produco tho olectric 
hgbt? A, With an cqual number of cells, the 
larger of two sizes gives the most heat and light. 
2. In amalgamating z{ncs with mercury, will It do 
jtolmmerse tho zlncs in mercury, or would this 

* {give themn too much morcury ? A. It Js usual, af- 
-fter tho zines have been proporly cleaned, to place 
thom Jn aabatlow dish and pour the mercury over 
thom with a spoon, Thoy should be carefully |) 
brushed afterwards to remove tho excess of mer- 
cury. 3, How Jong should the nitric acld last in 
tho Grove battery? Why docs tho current bo- 
» {como so weak whon tho nitric acid becomos 
“|weak? A. That depends upon the Intensity of 
chemtcalaction. With a givenquantlty of acid, 
ine, ote, u certaln definite quantity of electricity 
will be ovolved. ‘This wo may obtain ina longor 

Orshorter timo by making tho resistance of tho 
‘/elreutt wrgooremnll; If it !s very emalt tho bat- 

tery becomes perceptibly weakened in a very 

short timo, 4. Doos not the current dopend cn- 

Urely upon thedecomposition of the zinc? A, The 

current is tho reauttant of all the chemival actions 

which take place in tho battery. 6. As platinum 

‘ty a very poor conductor, Is not tho current weak- 

ened when passing through tho platinum strips 

rom the nitridactd to the zinc? Sometimes tho 
trips become #0 Hot as to almost boll thoncld in 
the battery, A. Anything that adds realstanco to, 

ho elrcult necessarily reduces the current p 


Pues = 




purt to which tho connecting wire Is to bo soldcrod 
and stand tho carbon with its coppored end in 
meltod parafin till {ts upper partis woll saturated, 
:Whon tho connection {ssoldered, a coating of pare 
{fin may bo spread with an fron ovor tho copper i 
and all parts of the carbon not intended to bo acts | ¢ 
(ed.on. by the Maqutd, ‘ ¢ 

By Jurys Cenvaux, Belgium, 
My invention consists in fe combination of plates of zinc 

and copper, separated by slate and blocks of wood, inserted 
in moist carth or sand, 


In Figs. 1, 2, and 9, A and B are plates of copper and alt ¥ 
consisting of fat strips with teeth or binds, The plates are 
C Hlicae oléetrte piles nea tixatt UL ialat Carlin oy ag 
{ or 
[n, guscous place, ant tho conner bone at earth or rand, or in’ 
{Produces an clectric current, ¥ Upon the motatk 

Seo ems en prpetenrey 


NeEwitan, of 
ledical; Society 4 

osulation of tho zinc (or other conductor), 

felon of the battery. E shows the mercury or amalgam in 

ATN8_ arran, nt of n° galvanio cell by }' eran 
“Monara,"J, C, and G, Faller, of Fenchurel 
atreot, London, hag. for ita object the In 
provement of batteries as regards thelr con- 
“atancy and regularity of working, Hitherto, 
according. to tho inventors, 1t has Leon ‘sunt {= 
to omploy a bath of mercury into which tho }! 
zine plato fs fo far Ingerted a8 to admit of : 
capillary action taking placo onthe surface | 
of tho'zine plato ; nevertheless, Srrogularity 

In the power and rmpld diminution of the } 

he hichromate ec 

‘well be 


on tho on 
tho othor, 

D shows the | 
Tho undnguiated : 
ition of this zinc plato fs dusorted in the mercury or amnal. : 
mm, only #o far asia found to bo neccasary for the perfect ; Thon, BIL + 8CrO, 
= Cr, Os + SHO. Fourthly, I have not tried tho 
French oxciting salts, nud therefore can soy nothing, 
Fifthly, 1 cannot spenk positively on this point ; but 
, a8 chromic acid is isomorphous with sulphuric acid, 
i Fshould any yes, by tho addition of protoxids of 
merenry to bichromnto of potash, ‘The bichromato 
of mercury may bo prenared by adding solution of |' 
Hchromata of pol toa solution of corrosive sub- |, 

~ D, 

ple, © 

we used this metal for 
ses, and the result 

the absence of 

es, but | 
it with 

gative as 

mony may often make it a useful 

ip and 

h isoften not the case with 

en formed into thi 

Journal of the 



ted uy 
not so good a ne, 

to the use of 


ig or disintegra- 

» those, for exam 
be mel 

gto the 

ion of elect: 


rcial value, and ma 
or by 


. Nunn, writin; 
e attenti 



ject, asks to be allowed to call 

in their comme: 

LYS rei 
gins immedi: 

it on acoreof t 
i¢ other metal. 

luctivity and other ad 

ge of som 

Re of antimon: 

rusti tho 

vantages are—its chea 


en plates alway 
» Ralvanisation be; 
¢ chie! 

T have co: 


f disadvanta; 

HE Use oF Antiniox 

rected by castin; 
iperior ci 

aman aay ty 

iW, Gronot’s i 
F.8."" (p, 537), is the ace 
ult ectactenges Bg | 
i ‘ho a vantage, but gives lower pot roa ae 

f Arts on this subj 

ile the bri 


7 ing up a battor! : 

; and 40 ofip quart: 

‘-tensigh pr qua” 

s Gro tl 
+ resistangd ofANt 
vory amall.. Inf 

ne will” 

{ by unitiog all tt 
| bination alwaya 
itenctlat. &. Ploaj 
up the Chutaux. 
of May 22, 1876 
tions of the Chr 
followa: A glow 
the bottom, and 
itho hole, Sing 
thon arranged 0 

« Bheot of tin oro. 
‘alo (betweon the 
alning tho zinoy 

leg eldo, contal 
Sake, after whict 
anda thin layer; 
citing Huld fs o 
tho battery; ano’ 
after (t has pat 
Tako 15 parts, by 
mate of potash; 
of sulphuric act 
(44) K, asks. 
to uso fora} 
light? A, With 
larger of two al 
2 Inamalgama 
_ ito immerso the 
Igivo thom toor 
{ter the zines tit 
jthem In ashall 
thom with af 
brushed after® 
cury, 3 How} 
the Grove bat 
como 60 weak 
weak? A, Th 
chemical actiot 

zing, ete, acer” 

‘| WIL be evolve 
or ehorter tim 
elroult urgoor. 
tery becomes; 
short time, 4 

tfrely upon thi - 
current is tho! 
jWhich take pk 

isa very poor 


ls about 


volts; but it is necessary to work it pee an externul| 
resistance of about 3 kilometers of onlinary telegraph wire 
in order that it may work well. Tho exelting Hquid inny he 
water saturated with sat-ammontic, or acldulated by sul- 
phuric acid, or the bisulphute of soda, in the proportion of { 

10 to 1," 

An element working a bell about 100 times a day would 

_ [not require to bo looked after for a very long time, and; in 

this case, it would only be the zinc dat would require replac 
Ing, ng the platinized carbon preserves Indefinitely its cata. 

lytic properties, 

' The Maiche battery 1s particularly well adapted for elce- ! 
tle bells, Matutenanee not being required, Its fitness and ! 

the care taken in ils whole constriction make it the 
perfect bit of apparatus of its kind. —L'Etetrieité, 

most ° 


Febsaary 15) 1875+} 

Vou, IIL—No. 49. 

Paomtuoy ia the prediction of an event—the decla: 
ration of sumething to come, Whea fature events 
—vither in the history off the workd or in the life 
of man—have been foretold from no huown date 
and from no low the prophecy must have been 
divine, for none but Gad cue know the future of man, 
When such events in the history of nature aud in 
the lify of mutter hive been predicted from known 
data and from established laws, the prophecy is 
human and seientilie,  Mvery setence in its growth 
passes through Uiree stages, Hirst, we have tho 
stuge of observation, when facts are collected and 
registered by many tainds in many places, Next, 
we have the stage of generalisation, when these 
well-aseertained and carefully-verified facts arg are 
ranged methodically, gencralised systematically, and 
classified logically, su as to deduce and elucidate 
from thon tho laws that regulito theiv role and order, 
Tustly, we have the stage of propheey, when these 
laws aro so applied thht events can be predicted tu 
ocey with nnerring accuracy. Astronomy is said 
to be the only science whieh lng thoroughly reached 
tho Inet stage. Other sciences are in various stages 
of growth. lectricity in some branches has 
reached the third etage, but in many branches it is 

still in ita infuntine period, Astronomy predicts 
eclipses, Giussits, aeguttations, for any period in the! 
jaunt surrounding condnetors, then E venture to a 

future, and the ? Nautical Almuanack ‘is the inost 
wonderfnl example of prescient Knowhedge; 
anilov say yo away fora five years’ eritise, mad yet 

in this book he will find every event in the motion 
of the planets, the movements of tho tides, the 

rotation of the moon, the eclipses of the sun, &e., 

faithfully and unerringly foretold. Bat Astronany 
has produced greater, wonders than these. ‘The 

planet Uranus was foun to suer from some slight 
disturbances in her path round the sun, Addins in 


oxpeusive, lecture experiment. Laight has given 
ug ono or tivo other scientitic prophecies, Doisson, 
from theory, pronounced. that in the case of an 

{Jopaqte circular diso the illinnination of the centre 

of the shadow caused by diffraction at the edge of 
the dise would be preelsely tho same if the diso 
were altogether absent. Avago proved this to be 
true, Again, Sir William Hamilton predicted thit 
in biaxial eryatuls there were four points where the 
refraction of the crystal upon an incident ray pro- 
ueed a contintens conical envelope. Dr. Lloyd 
took a erystul of arragonite, and, following Hamil- 
ton's dircetions, discovered what the mathematician 
had predicted. 

Whewell predicted from theory that there must 
be a certain point in tho North Sea, midway 
between Lowestoft and the const of Holland, where 
there was no rise or fall of the water, because tho 
creat ov highswater mark of the tidal wave, aud 
the trough ov low-water mark of the same wave 
reached the samo poitit at the same time, but by 
different routes, Captain Hewett, RN, found 
that it was so, 

Electricity has its prophets. Maraday, examining 
Sir Charles Wheatstone’s beautiful experiment on 
tho velocity of lectricity hy means of un rotating 
inirror, suid" If the tivo ends of the wire in 
Professor Wheatstone's experiments were imme: 
diately connected with bwo large insulated metallic 
surfaces exposed to the air, so that the primary net 
of indttetion—nfter making the contact for dis- 
churye--might be in part removed from the internal 
portion: of Che wire at the flest instant, and: disposed 
for the moment an ite seriiee jointly with the airy 

ticipate Ghat the middle spark would be mare 
yetarded than before, And it those two plites 
were the inner nnd outer coatings of w large jar or 
Leyden battery, then the retardation of the spark 
wonld ho much greater." ‘Tho exporiment was not 
mde for xixteon years, Te wag then shown as tho 
explanation of the retardation of the current in our 
subterrumeous and snbmurine wires, 

Sir Francis Romlds, with wonderfal prescience, 

England and Lo Verriur in France simultaneously —ifteen years before Fanuday—sug- 
and independently, froin tho known laws of gravity, | yealed “the peobability that the electrical snduetion 
predicted te existence und position of another which would tke place in a wire cnelosed in glass 
tnknuwa planet. Galle, of Berlin, directed by {tubes of nuny niles in Tength (the wire neting like 
Le Verricr, fund the planet in the spot indicated, | the interior conting of 1 battery) might amount to 

a ee Re ‘ 

nud it was called Neptune, 
Newton, tho grandest scie 

hug perhaps over seen, and the founder of Che laws phetis vision 
that Ted to the prophecy just narvated, in his {ure verified in ove 
investigations on light, predicted the fuet that tho with which ov 

diamond was formed of some’ combustivle material | electricians tu th i ‘ 
‘Hho! the exactitude with whieh the working speed of n 
combustion of dinmond is now wn ordinary, thu | eable is prudictat, dhe mult wad invisible super 

—from its very bigh index of refraction. 

ntifie man the workd [the suddenness of the discharge 

the retention of a charge, or wt least might destroy 
Barnday's pro- 
ision and Ronnlds's far-sighted knowledge 
ry working cable, Phe accurney 
eablo repairers avo dirceled by our 
jo sput where the wire is broken, 

"THE SILVERTOWN ‘IMPROVED- ?OGGENDORFF round the dine (li, dates io: kept pronerly amalgam cd. 
ee he ’ : : charge the battery for or inary work, one measure oO! mereury— 
BIOHROMATE. BATTBRY, the stopper of the merenry bottle forming the mensure—ia placed 
* - : round the zine in the porous pot and Yoz. of the grey compound 
fie The porons pot is filled with water to within an inch of the to 
Tho makers of this battery—viz. (Ahe Indif Rubber, Gutta { In the outer Jar, with the curbon plute,8oz. of red compound ure | 
Percha, and Telegraph Works Compuny—chiim that its electro. placed, and” the i filled with water to ‘within’ three 
motive force is equal to two Daniell elements, and that itis very} quarters of an inch of the top. Should the battery bo re. 
conatint and hay a low internal resistance. The efliciency of the | quired for hard work, the porous put should be churged with 
battery ia duc to the excellent epolarising qualities of the | oz. of the grey compound insterd of 2, nnd ‘water added na 
Vichromate of potash, « This efligionoy the makers have greatly | before, and in the outer jar 102. of red compound should bo 
nerensed by tho use of an improved bichromate compound, and | placed inatend of 8oz. By increasing the quantity of red com. 
by the employment of a new excitin, powder which replaces gul-| pound the battery is rendered much more durable and ‘efficient, 
phuric anid. “Tho resulta obtained y tha employment. of these When the solution in the outer jar changes to a bluinh green tho | 
compounds aro, itis claimed, far superior to those derived from the | force of the battery will be found to have diminished consider. 
; Useof other mixtures, The handling of sulphuric acid ia nvoided, ably. It is then necessary to withdraw a portion of the solution 
“Bh The battery ia further improved by the careful manufacture and | ane replace it by'red compound and water, Should the solution 
“) selection of the porona pots, and thus a battery is obtained that] in the porotts pot change ton bluiak green, half tho liquid shoula 
+ Justa much-longer than ia usually the caso with a bichromate | be withdrawn and replaced by water. If crystals ahould form on ©. 
battery, - The cell is composed of un outer jar of earthenware, | the zine the whole of the solution in the porous pot muat be» 
in which are placed the carbon plate, the red compound, ‘nnd | withdrawn and repliced by water and grey compound in the pro. |“ 
water, “In this carthenwaro jar is also placed x porous pot which portions already given, oa the cage may require, 
econtuing n zine rod, mereury, Grey compound, and water, By | ‘The illustration showa the form of cell beat adapted to general 
placing the mercury (which lies at the bottom of the porous pot) | telegraph purpeses.* 

ae (upnoven_Agaromen, : 


We are indeb in R ae 

raph Works uapany for the 
pative ele 

may -be men. 

Powd thon 

.. tained ) clement co 
: liquid ia n 
tion cither 
as the ce 

with the’ ns been d t 

Leclanehé x ly on charging, because the liquid ie brought! ¢ ! 
into direct contact with negative and positive elements, 8, The 
renewal is exceedingly simple, When the battery. becomes ex: 
hausted the depolavising plates which are joined to the eurbon f ; 
+ manganese, d oltrse of in } plate hive only to bo removed and freah onca substituted. 6. By, f. i 
| aubmittédto i j avoiding the use of porons pots. the risk of brenkago and deté.) ¢, 
Hy Plate servin, rioration is very:much leascned, and the coat of renewal consid 
j Zofit up th te laced ( | ably reduced. 
on caalt i : nda ¢ oe 
supplied w ell are h ‘ t 
Bother in the tivo Phices, tach 4 alate 

“or — aie ig yriida el” By Canten Louis Van TENAG, Paris, Frane au : 7 : ; . 
i. has just constructéd a e vet ART es 
new galvanic battery, which tho -dnnates | Air now allo eonslste In pega ghee Rages Aae i ne HOrite GALVANICEXPANSION OF METALLIC AIRES. 
Industriettes thinks Ilkely to -render great |=. a Lal ie ceadrolid nc eortith chao beteeee Mice teat: f Eouvyp found that when n current of electri? Ge passed 
“U service both in manufactures and in. sclen- |, ; alse tthe Miieh Mo it blottiv sp aper, sawdust, aand, of , : hrough a metallic wire an elongation of tho wire takes place, 

tifle research. - The original oxide of man- | « eee aba Dict materi i ea en for th : independently of that produced by the heating effect of the 
-{ ganceo battery by the aume inventor consists |i: Tei pena Kiet resanra Bry ede ‘ar'two rounts af} oo: urrent, Tn the wires with which he: experimented, the gnt- 

of o porong jar. Olled with pyrolusite, (per- | apapee preferably ‘pasted thereto, and over the paper I pass 0 ; gyanic oxpanston varied from 65 to 2° per cent, of that-duc kf 

oxide of mangunesy), in which fa contained |' a $ Of soft rabbee or other Ineulating Tmatorlale Tcloso the! ‘ gto the henting of tho wire Uy. the current, Streintz carried { oan b ted wi out. thug 

A itu! 1 
the carbon forming the positivenole. ‘This itwo ends with handirubber covers, or other lard. insulating | : fine series of experimonts on the same subject, which led 

Jar {s immersed inn solution ‘of ant-ammo- gs him not only to confinn Edlund’s conclusion; that th Is a}: 
i : : i : which I make a small opening, which a nclusion, that there is a 
hie In” contact ‘with zine, Mv Leclanehé Pit A pee ey n png. and throu “Hl quae ; feulvante lengthening of a wiro (urough which a current | 

.| has, howover, {ntroduced several Improve- ‘ i i asses, distinct from the thermal lengthentn , but. to nssert |: 
mentsinto this battery. Te ings reece LT pass two amnall wires, ong af whet fa the cont nuntlon of Fat it is very much greater than Edlund Thad found te wel \ 
the porous jar by cong lomerating the oxtde |’. aN ha ui ed S Li ve Pp wate tt re, tH tn ra pot n ' In the case of fron as much na 37 per cent. of the thermal ex: |: Its of zi a ts of copper. nor | : 
of manganese, mixed in nearly equal paris ic a! ord ot 5 ven g hell, Hd Hy ch a Wot nt : ie r om ‘" pansion, M. Exner, In a paper in Poggentorfa Annaten, By in 1 advantageous :for ita floxt. 
with-carbon,” but with. the addition of 1 top, and the otier canal putes the upper extrem FoF n shinies F fdescribes Wiis own experiments In this subject, whieh appear | i enalty ae the thickness of the 
small quantity—5 per cent—of resin for the lin content erithe ed odie ht: vail of whieh: the i armen, $t0 have been conducted with great caro und thoroughness, und | WCaltland batters ie utd eaiinl to that of [- 

‘| purposo of giving consistency -to the mass, in contact with: cach individual coil of which tho Intter Ia gavo very consistent results, The metals operated on were ; the bottom, ma ry. oqitound tho lead plate, at 

"h 7 , composed, Both protrude ton certain distance outside the 4 , placed crystals of 
an acy, even uber It rahorentersdar when erate ere ead Appetit Ste Sl gn base xg ial frm ie evo of Th, fe 2 
. fader a conmerable rears anata id a deg mehonlem altace to tbe enver afore "pansion ras cxcoed 2 pur e's Jf manta flan 
zs it < plemperaty i Rw fy . yevmeetne wee Sega . g mid, 
BH imeeeare oyllinton ong ee Fuhr), f_, The exelting Hquid which £ make uso of ix chlorido of zinc q caused by tho elevation of temperature. Streintz’s numbers {"_ vi hattery hn been adopted by the tatiana 
‘Tame thine aga porous diaphrgm and 7 at from five to ten per cent.; ora saturated solution of marine " are thus Bhown to be far too high, , To prevent the heating a Tnpany, and by the Italian railwaye, 
positive electrode. But hero n difficulty salt For the purposo of charging my plle, after having with of his wires, M. Exner Inclosed them in gliss tubes, through 8 had fomo appreciation in France, its 

occurred. Under the influence of the cus, drawn the plug aforesaid, T All the battery therewith, alloy, 3 which was matntalned a‘finning stream of puro cold water, |; ‘ Calta, 2 B00. 

rent, an almost . Ing It to rematn therein until tho absorb) ing material sfore- fg One would have expected that the Intensity of the current : 
‘alne was formed, inealatl ea etlorate of mentioned haa been entirely saturated, and then pour out all | would be therehy affected, sineo a portion of it would trav |! 
‘crystalline form in the pores of tl ,) A the remaining liquid and ro-neert the plug. is : crsa the liquid Instead of the wire, but ft was found that, so : eae Sis Par 
:tode,and considerably diminished iu ore: My new pllo can bo made of any shape or size within | @ | long a tho water was pure, the galvanometer reading was tho ' 1 aier-1—-Dantell Battory.—Tho Positive coll 
‘ductibility, so that the - internal tealetaney {reasonable mits; however, in order to produce an avalinhle sgn wther the tube was full of water or empty,” i- a ea era lat ph pelt Rater 20 parts et i 
jof the buttery: increased very ra Ldly, ove Practical result, the inner surface of the chloride of silver {! S ee ET ore, —t .  Ataalgamated by dipping it in tha above neld water | we 
‘{easioning considerable inconventencn’: on. jeuso should not-bo teas than alx aquaro inches, and of that |! : : and lotting it uct rather freely; thon rub it over |; rs 
‘ fally When used for telegraph bei size {t is capable of reddening a platinum colt for Industrial well with mercury, Tho ncid water shduld ho kept |. : : 
ati Leclanché has now aot nd on ne es. jor other purposes, « As it fa only brought into action when ‘ou nn exact lovel with tho blue-stoue,—Etxornon, 
culty by inserting in the centre of the car [the elroult a closed, it in of very long duration In consequence whee pastel Tattory.—Chargo porous cell 
jon and ninnganese electrode, while being of auch Intermittent action, "For instance, it can be made ‘ pharous acid, | part; water, 8 parts, Ont 

i . td Al wit! i 
moulded, 0 amall cylinder of Dtsulplinte of available thirty thousand times, and even more, for producing ov tHE T'erxonari | canner thas youth wan eg poe aulzbato of 

"Adda, This aeld salt prevents the form: th a light, ns 1118 hereafter explained, without its be ing neces- plain thnt wh : De } , (30009.)—Hlectricity.-Tho earth acts slmil 
jof the oxychlorate of zine; and the tattocn sary to recharge it with the exciting Nquid. : 7 a oe me fi ee ‘ton indo comduetore it in fact forma pai 
| preserves its regularity for more then» Hi reserve a central apace or chamber within the zinc coll, rm younger than “I ain <~ body rou apenk of, Thus i€ you havo two balls eons 
{without the necessity for renewing’ the for the purpose of receiving or housing the guses formed ro that’somo of the kei! j Neckar by a chain, then the ono ball uearoit toreay, 

Water of the saline solution, ftefene ty the chemfeal decompo ona of tha elements of the pile, paaa ‘niuster ‘Ihe onpcite one poate ae a negative, and 

» 08 Against 


: ; the opposite one positives now instantly ent the 
much slighter resistance than other bat a allowing euch .to combing in order to teact on the elements, 1 Be i Yad 
. re , A . vovor’ chain, afterwards remove tha prima dine 
tea, and gives outa considerable arene” thus insuring a long perfod of duration of the ile, and. a cn Ys however, that if the : | gha tivo balls will ba coverod with the a uetor, and : 
| \ quantity of pp 

“telectricity.  Acsing | greater power, «By pli . nae C tricitien; t this f t heut 
ipl, Aang clement of an sree rpoeee. miler i en {externally andl the ding it, ‘ indinentd firat Dall 'andl the enrth ns csc ear ode ae 
imlo, imme relntively much larger surface of chloride than of zine, ge 7 i ar the dete Shain and sou will bara n completo idea . 

" Whereby I obtatn, Ina: relatively yery small volume, the : i_,{90000,)—Etoctricity.—1 cannot. explain tho 

saa cr ag netunlly obtalned with piles of n consider. ‘ - Pasties ae ze iatatements quoted, or why tho earth fa 4 recelvor 

Demat eer, Yolume. “Aunin, these piles, being perfectly : " 1a lof both kinds of clestricity.” I hava repeatedly ox: 

hormette and dry, are available for belng carried fn the : : ; a ~~ plained that all there atatomonts are pure bos, and 

poe ct, and for producing flame hy contact with a wick ‘list no auch actions ooeae, 18 tn only a for wooks 

Saturated with an inflammable quid, or fire by contact with, itis thoroughly re ton seers Oe thts subject, and 

adry fibrous wick. ; - Y 

oe serge * 

it is thoronghly gone into in my Electricity,” &c,— 
Stosta, Seem te a 

at ~—- = fonnmas + yy 
| dan. 12, 1877, ENGLISH M] ‘| [80005.J—Dantell Battory.—You shoul not pat 

4 f Vlu-stone (eulphate of copper) solution in xing cell, 
or tho copper in it will deposit on the zine in a brown’ 
! powder, nud finally stop tho action, Pat a half. 
* anturated solution of sulphate of zine in tho zine 
— = ‘ : !  ecll, and saturated solution of sulphate of copper in 
aoe at fare ‘ wea? got = ae ' the copper cell, ‘Tho former should be occasionally 
Tho statoment in Mr. Prescott’a book tx corréct. ' roltond [a atrenath _ watering ho zine dissolves, 
iv vanto at te A fs “nm i Katter Kept saturated hy adding crystals o! 
‘ho ponitive plate of a galvanio elemont ie the zine, ; t the sulphate, Thee ought to w a perforated shelf 
nd the negative in tho copper, carbon, or platinuin, | ‘or receptacle for tham nt the upper part of tho. 

ve , {form of a rod, 
i ammonium chlor 


| : A z i 2 

| 08 belo Aller setae ANTG 160 | Sfa0; 0 { : : oH Tho wiro attached to tho copper plate'is the Hositive, ante sengaiice <9, G. 8." must, 
pei a ] pole, while that attached to tho zino tx tho negative. | : not only’ put n saturated nilation of sulphate. of, 

hid sooming confusion disappears when wo examino | fopper (blve-stone ng a galls it) in the conper call 

. 7 Ae : Kt er] ba 

ho matter carefully, “Tho ent Fopresents a nimple just below tho aurfaco of tho Tiquid, to be reaowed 

le wich i Ivanic clement, having ita zine and copper plates ina they radunlly dleappear, ‘Thin moy be dona in 
Kammnoniieant| connected by 0 wiro, For conyenionée of explana. i 

vari ‘aya. ‘Cho simplest method T can think of is 
to take an leagth of copper wire and twist it into the 

simple chloride | f tion, it hina ‘alwaya: beon customary to assume. that form of n little basket ur cago, which may easily be 
uble salts is th ” : ae A | do to fit tho cell and hook on to tha edge; cara 
after the ialtery onl : ae tho clectric current, generted at tho point of contact | anust be taken that It dn no way toushes tho sing . 

: makes its appear. ; : es botween tha surfaco of tho zing plntonnd the solution 
| ney, As long os : In which it in’ immorsed, flows through the solution 

sitive plato, and ts 
eaative, bo long is to the copper plate, Cw, and thenco returns over tho 

| i he xt op Aatoon ns oxygen ; e feonducting wire to tho zine plate, Zk nu indientod 
i by the nrrows in the figure, the point from which the 

i : 7 current flows being termed positive, and that to which 
{ current ta generated, and the roautltant strength cy if ca it flows, ‘negative. Tho zinc plat in’ therefore tho 
: if the battery betes eo atiary impatre 5 but ir : posltive. plate, beeatisa the enrrent flows from {t to}! 
, Alli the dust must bo remored from tho sees ‘ ‘ tho copper through’ tho liquid, and tho polo of ‘the 
i goer lato, bit his asganota ta broken wp, [- ed ‘jbattery ‘connected with tho. coppor,is.the positive 
j of’ fino powder tn the ose eo be teat g Ene pole, becauso tho current flows from it-to the line. 
; iy jerfore wilh the petlon of he battery but also to or ee ‘{fhis_ oxplanation will, perhaps, make tho imatter a 
A. BAUNDENS, SOs BMMERICK, ; Mttlo, more intelligible to: your correspondent, and 

— aos yeas mea ees ; }toubtless to othoru wlio have beon;piizzted by it. : 

‘eell’s contents, A little mulphurio ‘acid {lroppad in 

. ‘tho water of tho zine cell will make the battery 

attain its maximu strength _quicker,—Gronas 

atom wade, Tn m 

* [90005,]—Dantolt Battory.—In, tho porous ce! 

of ite ‘tens you sboull pak oithor dilate anil 

‘ hurie ncit or a solution of common salt, ‘Iho 

jatter, J think, would nuswer your purpose, It will 

{require more salt onensionnily, ‘Kho other coll will 

t nleo require an addition of bluestone from time to 

the, ATaclanchs battery would be tho best and 

[ i cheapest you could se.—Os, 7 

: [30905,)—Dantoll’s Battory.—If “I, G..S.'s" . 

“ah? OS artnet ho might fill “his porous cell 

i with sulphuric acid and water, about’S to 1, but E 
; prefer the water alone, as it gives a ateadicr current, 
+. {and is more cconomieal,—-ENDYMION, < 

HE s\ oe ieee me 


i ENTION hina been made of the new form of tichromnte 
lat weet Introduced by Mr. John Fuller, The tntrod, 
tducticn, however, of a new battery by ono whose ex: Meret 
fon thy subject extends over sowlde a range as Mr. Fuller 8, 
iMeserves something more than paselug word, 80 many 
' galvanic combinations of one sort or another sro almost 
Idaily being brought forward that wo nara compelled to Duss: 
iby the greater number of them unnoticed, It is therefore no: 
‘stall comfort when amongst the crowd wo alight upon one! 
; Whose behavior thus far docs not belic the fair promise which. 

it at first sight held out, and whose crnployment in the every! 
day work of practical telegraphy scems 1 ikely to be attended ; 
with success, . 
The old bichromute of potas, carbon, or clectropoion bat- 
‘tery, as ft has been indifferently named, was thought by 
{mest people to have become all but a Tantter of history, and 
"fow naticlpated its ro-nppearauce on tho seene of uciton in : 
‘active competition with such rivals as tho Daniell and the | 
‘Leclanché, Mr. Sivewrlght, speaking of it in his paper, “On i 
‘Batteries and thelr Employment In Tele yraphiy,” reat | 4 
“the Society of Telegraph Engineers in the beginning of 1875, 
says: “Tho amalgamation of the zincs, 0 point of vital im- 

portance In hath this and Grove's buttery, hind constantly to 
4 oom op! kal oie he adds; ** Both (the bichromate 
ani Grove's) have now hat their day, so far ns genenil iri 
tical working for telegraphic purposes oes ay i in alt 
probability be speedily numbered amongst the experiences of | 

Mr. Higging, of the Exchange ‘lclegraph Company, stuted i 
Hite iy battor y, although the Dest for their use, was a most | 
‘convenient one," 
: Now, Mr. Fuller, by taking up “the point of vital in 

Portance,” and rend ering his zines, so long as they last, pe 

manently amalgamated, has not only rescued the blehroma 
battery i m being inckuded amongst the bumber of the past, 

~, jut haa gi peo 
longer oxistenice than even in its palmtest days It could for- 
H merly havo dared to hope for, In the necompruy ving Agure 
[evo cells are shown, ‘The carbon plate fs placed fn the outer 
vessel In a solution of the bichromate of potash, 
‘Wounces of the erystats of this salt are placed tn each coll, in 
Solution consisting of nine parts of water to one of wulphu- 
Heneld, Tho zine element, whlel is of the shape shown in 
the figure, is placed in. porous tube, to while: an ante of 
mercury is added, and which tt then filled up with water 
only, "The nddition of this mercury Is the easential feature 
Jot the hattery, and toit the disappearance of the main objec: 
‘{tlons which “were Previously to he urged against the ott 
[blchromate form is ebletly die, The ging plate fs in this way 
kept permanently 

j| tery Inrgely diminished, but its constaney=the atne que ron 
Of any galvanic combination for telegraph purposes—is to. 

3200 meni 

etal, zing, 
Albmoniag, | 

‘on to ita fresh lense of life, and the prospect of 1. ? 

Thre ‘| 


‘ amalgamated so long as It Insts; the cons : 
{pRedquence fs that not only ts the internal reststnnes of the Init. 

br the battery fs ebarged 
conneated with ene other, commences 
and reaches a maximum In thevourse af 

Onua ontinry 

‘grout extent insured, The action, af 
‘and the clomenta are 
jalnogt fmedintely, 
ta fow hours, 

The maiotennaee ts 0 very shuple matter, 
working. elreuity' eh, for Instance, as a alngto needle or ning 
rately busy prifiter, no extn crystals will he required, after 
the battery ts orice, set up, for n period of six months, Se 

Hong as the solution remafns of an oninge color, none, it ts 
istated, will be required: only when it begins to assume a blae 
Heint need erystata lid added to ft. The only apeeite fait 
{which developed iteetf In the battery during ain oxperlence of 
caver eighteen months was thy cating through of the rod of 
“zine element, under the influence of the nck 
‘akinger has been efectually got rid of by 
with samy protective covering—wax, 
Uke. An objection urged avainst the 
when the cetl was not if 
upon and gradually to dleappear, 
, the ease, for the Mercury has the power of effecting this; It 
j from the result Ing 
found that an electro-motive force will be produce as pow: 
erful ns that in the original combinatigns and the strength of 
current will be in no way dimtnished go long aan pood con 
nection Is insured between this amalgam and that portion of 
the metallic zine whlch rematns, 

Tho electromotive force of ‘the combination fs equal to 
about two volta, or twice that of the Daniel's celts the inter. 
nal reslatance, by var ying the thickness of the Porous vessel] 
and the strength of the solution, muy be mada to vary from 
half an oli up to four oluns, necording to the work which 
tho battery fs called upon to perform, - 

Tn point of cost, thin battery compares very favorably with 
those which are at present employed in England, Taking, 
for instance, the Daniell, and nsoming that both are employed 
on hard-worked wire, say folned up in closed cireett of on 
one of the railway block-signat circuits, the statisties of the 
coat of cach will be found to be as follows: 

Butler's Mereury-Riehromate, 
Prime cost of n Uiree-cell 
tent toa tencelt Daniell), . 
Bichromnte of potash ant 
for slx month... .ceeee cee tee senes 0 
New zines and Merenry at the end of six 

er | 

Nor porous pots are taken into 
ct come before ula. ns to how 
Tho former w 

inte battery will 
plons, ns 

{31342.)—Biohromato Batt 
carbon to; 
that hinve 

To Mus bine 
0 broken plecos of 

4 aurfaco, And press tHe 
when sou will find ee nee”, it a hee . 
Mt the plate will laet na Jon; 
-With onlinary.cara.—W, 7 Tannaaten, 




emproyed, Thi! 
covering the rod + 
indin rubber, or the : 
Dattery was that even | 
naction, the zine Keemed to be acted" 
Such may doubtless be: 

amalgam whieh is thus formed it wil be: 

beyond the glass ° 
led zine. Ring aig 

he carbon ; 

2 ay be coupled to- 

be closely fastened to th 

and the screw 6, 


linder, exten 
linder c, made of rol 

‘ : x t 
BES epee 


my ei 

of the copper cross-bow 

upper part of the carbon cy! 
ler at pleasure. 

attached to the hollow 

and, as Fig. 14 shows, 

or by means 


the zine eyling 


H around the 
is ring 

made of copper, 


cylinder at a, 

g | vessel 







PAO ge eee ee 

fT hy 

ive of 


pins, to 

the latter sup- 

re well coated 

is com. 


y ment 

left free. The resultin; 

© eylinder ix 

platinum plate 


ly through it, 

ic current. With; 

Placed 2 porous 
2 to the end of the zine 

‘“glazéd, and filled with 

's liquids to -p 


Rhian Sonne gl 
- 12 represents 1 

each cell 

|. The stand has four 

Tn the holes are 

lators wi 
The stand 

e glass 

er is 
en g00n 8) 


libs a 

placed oaken 

ith wooden shie! 

, pins 

ors dipped in p 
trogen, is 


188 : slow 

rged at the 

ts of 2 hollow cylinder of 

und two in diamete: 
hat the plate 

baked without beit 

‘cup allow: 


and sh 

in foil. 

de of n 


it is soluble, so th 
+ The perox: 


lark brown vapor alread 


It cons 

tance to the electri 
zinc ¢ 



ip of pati 

ite ‘recently, - in 

in action sulphate of zine is formed 

WH Ens, peroxide of n 

- Within this ey! 


de of nitrozen d 



2 Of forty such combinat 

ranged upon a stan. 

auch girder. 




hy conduct 

: TUE GROVE hatreny. s ES 

. giving rise to the 

glass tumbler 

eavy broy 
The perox! 

led a st 
,in w 

jecting froni then 

arm proj 


les in e: 

which are attached 


wet, offers but little res: 
TIC acl 

tric acid 

Most powerful 
the mineral 
times its bulk of water. 

ip. made of ‘earthenware 

: strong nitric acid... This’ 

ic and xeiphu 

ig the battery cells. 

When the Grove 
e ni 

ed ina 
rove battery, consist 

letely insulated and a 

is cup is suspenc 

“ with asphaltum, and th 

and fifteen hot 
outer cell, and the h 


“by the: nitric act 

and, when 
* solution is hi 

* from the 


as chrom 

ith diluted | 
» With concen- 
e next 
Finally, - 
21 4 

the - porous 

inder ‘of the - 
eylinder of the 


fd of th 
copper strip of 

ith the co; 

gs in 
cted into'n battery is 


cylinder of . the 

linder.of the 1 

to be found. 
“strip |p of -the 


‘How: these 

ts, han, 

th sulphurie x 

the =} “p 


? ments are 
ird glass, and so 

uss"'is connected vw: 
strip or the carbon: 

rbon cylinder, is filled w: 

second glass, the zine 
second glass with the 

shown in Fig. 1. 
the thi 

the. zine cy: 
arrent . pisses in 

linder ¢, of one of the clemen 
the copper 

filled wi 

hich the 

in wl 

h stands inside the ca: 


porous clay cup, wh 
id, and the glass vessel 
tric acid. 

sulphuric ac! 

trated ni 

f the Grove 
ler, peculiarly 

im, is put : 
wof-the ‘carbon 

plitina of 

ape of a hollow cyl 


ion. aud 
T, Open at the bot! 


ces the expens 
he sh: 


- . 
its parts and construct 

13, a carbon 

carbon element re 
carbon made up 
resent it in 

v from Fig. 


iy amass of 

The Bunsen 

_ battery by a 


top; in the hotte 


: porous clay 

serted 2 hollow. 

Poorabdenneat heater eceek 

“ eee Pee eee 

i : ; : it 
lyre ‘Leolandho Battery:—Fill tha outelde : : : 

| “Fronch’ électrictin, ts 
! ; : ‘ recently ‘studicd tha statio affects of voltaic ole: 
f chloricda | *. ‘ 3 : ae : aie ’ ele! 
2F ammonia (TG) peice an a the xing ay ed Via) a . iq tieans of 9 secondary Lattory of 800 couples, 
‘of tho ana cel with t 0 carbon ot tho other, cy ai Ms . 2 “i i observed how ensy It was to chi F 
ollcrenrbon and enraged, ano soreme of tho]! | : BIBL Fewer 0 A eee ni ingulaied plate condenser,'t 
II, one to cach, andit will ring.—Joun Fortune, couse iv 1 intemalty of the which the m janté connected a certain num. |! 
'30070,J—Leclanche Batte: e ‘ 

, Dy ihe a: .Dercha, parafiln, etc., Mf, Ph 
H : H ; fags — f f these condensers “composed of mica covered vith ti 
i iN require | : i : oR i ber o. . posed a covered with tin 
pat in son ‘Ateaknneontng fall ter. : ; : | ae I Os cs Mates, These he disposed tike the couples of the secondary 
t the cells two or threo weeks nftor ¢! arging, and : ee : 
i if the Senter in low, Gt it np again; it i Soe 
sonked into the porous coll, : Let a wiro from o 

i * | fbattory itself, so ns to cnable him to charge them in quanti- 
ie AR _ ; § Tea if the el ik { 4 i : Jy and dischargo them in tenston, : 

t t matter which) be connected with { . ashy Te. " t 

Su dermal of Real eee 

‘ i) All tho parts of tho Apparatus wero carofully‘inguiated, |i: 
terminal ree jou renite, ° The : : ee, ‘he commutator was Composed of along cylinder of hard 
{ fetta al bale ca avi, ” roa ith tho work which tbe batten wanheerteient ‘ ce ; igrubber, having longitudinal metallic bande whieh united the 
{rom ‘tho ollir terminal of tho push to the other! =. form, and the copper or otter erative clement ; ;feondenser surface and were traversed by copper wires bent |: 
Pe yin ‘ largo! stible, wo aa to counteract the injurious ee s Ant thetr extremitics, the ob 
. PUSH aan? i ok effects of * polartentia: With regard to tho third | . = . 

: hject being to associate the conden: 
art of yonr query, the anitability of ® battory for par jgsers in tension.. Metallic wires made spring-shaped were 
¢ production of rarioua sftosta i) depeniant Bohn connected with the two armatures of each condenser, and |. 

“Tae ate, trramemont of quantity” all the |” F ; jg fixed on an ebonite plate at each end of the eylinter, which 

zincs being connected with ono binding acrow, _ an Alnstanay be rotated. “If now the end-conducting wires of the 

4 aicys cner coppers wit Telne AMteeetl en eceet tt , i ‘Zapparatus be brought into communication with ~ 

terminal of bell. Tt docs not matter cither wherein : with ‘cach other, resembling the atrangement of the 800-couplosecondary inttery,” saya M, Planté, 

ihoclreult the battery fade iteclf--tho coolest ninco Aggien jara when ghargiog by “cascade,” —Hanny g ‘even several dnys after the latter has been 

dt best concn petNra Hoop from th dintalsnes y abi Mirae pore Ee . j charged by two pune elements, and If the com. 

t isting gas or water-hipos : had §a 56 cath ng ; mutator bo rotated, there fs obtulned between tho 

; Tunteats "ia ‘al consecians io well monde, and } ep nee arms at which the ‘urmatures of the extreme con. 
bora the wires aro joined to pipes they should bo or " x i 

“ [carefully soldered. ° ‘Cho annexed diagram may | | : densers end, a series of sparks quite similar to 

env ina similar quaudary.—-GEonGs BELL. at 

those given hy electrical machines having con- 

densers, By using an apparatus having but 30 
‘ condensers, cach of 705 square inches of surface, 
| Dhave obtained sparks 16 Inch in length. By 
using a battery of 200 couples 1 have produced 
sparks O32 Inch In length. The discharges of 
( stutle electricity thus obtained aro not alternately 

forcaof the battery di : 

which constitute tt aud tho chemical action sat up, | ; . 
> Tho internal resistance, upon which the capacity of 
tho battery depends if’ th : 
small, depends upon. the plat For a 
i calorific effects one larve cell has a lig) tadvantegs + 
*{ Over a numberof: small ones pogsegalog equal total 

‘ al resiata: 76. 

7} cannot be readil: 
fone to erief, 


this way , . 
ideral Can ‘ 
harged Moat. } .  * we 

Bath be . : | posittve and negative, but are always In the same 
iI Lt 5 —l —————— : 1 direction, Hence the toss of force resulting from 
tre - i! debs teder wit A Strait Liquin.—Tho elected ; transformation should bo less than in Induction 
cient, ae : i the Iquid Is an_aqueous solution : 
—You will be Anable ito re zinc and graphite, and the iq iq 

so that thor wonld work { of tha mixture known us glass-gall, —T. Jounpain;: tn 

| apparatus, for, the voltate cireutt not being clozed 
Cecasionally,' | : z Comptes Rendus. 

! foran ingtunt, there is no conversion of a part of 
: the current into calorific effect, The machine 
j may be kept in revolution for some time and a 
| contrat number of discharges obtatacd 

without apparent enfeeblement of the secondary battery, 



; re a eee Se get You dar umvati Aves and {ta application oj i : 
ontin Ne o YIN Wien phe i . 8 2 
Cas he : F Lela IN Witten THE ELECTRODE AT. {92808.]—Dattor on thas mostly fatten , ye 
- [7 Gitoride’ st site sin] ff TACKED 18 oF CILARCOAL On COKE,. mmerenry hor the bichrowal ity In away lila to : az 
' Warren ae la Rue This battery is 7 : By M. Jannocuxory, : > ao that g carbons aud zincs seat Re mate pu i “4 
composed on t ements, cach con. 149) " ensily, or thoy rua: loft i ‘Dg what or where ho 4 
.{ sisting of a tube o length, and c 2160 Into this coke atau niente : ‘g . hon tho Dea form of simp) eoIne. booka have 4 
‘elements formed of g 12°75 c, in length only. lutinum or cist Irons hy 1 z {] of inn little dovica of 919 i Biven In roe) Q 
Ii the tubes are 19 ¢, diameter, and are closed with form of & pot, serves 7 Sa A, i More! i Fetash our medical / al 
Stoppers of vulcanised indi Tubber, perforated with ahole| the melted niter, “Ay atout dis, Tong and sti, deg ot oat yodonot mean i a 
neat the edge to permit the introdudion of rot of | ‘ if} tha twocatace beluig lined vy 0 galvantsm or oy 
: {amalgamated zi in diameter, and 10°43 ¢, in N : d 1] fo the lower part of a box, on tho contrary, wo are satie. | af 
Jength for the fements, and 7°93 & for the £ z wh ay 7 © been greatly Overrated, and { i q 
remainder. of cach tube powdered chloride ; : et : - ms es Te Pulvermacher's galvante apple 
of silver ix eight, compressed |, « . oe bell Be ! \ Imagination of the ; i 
ver wire having ant = 4. : 0, dl cared fousnesa of wear. ; q 
the tube, , tricity , { vagerness for favora- , i 
r tery Which fs antl pe ent ary produced by tho same, ; : 
: ; licity. Tt conniste of as lephone,—W. J, LANcaiTsn, —" °™* or vermacher belt was 80 deranged. mi | 
Stopper, with leaf ‘ th wi , tho latter Sled } : iieeeiatenen Jae 80d soos co. any galvante affect, and St | ea . 
esetve them from tl an irpn fists mc Meride, and haying | j , all tha samo, ‘ 
ppers. The elecrom VoMervte Etter Boley! THo outer folution i ‘ : : ; 
hat of a Daniell’s battery as 103 ¢ i : 

Now Binoxide of Manganese Rlomont, WF: rer : ioe. ¢ Coe ot 

M, Gulffe haa recently made a now galvanic clement, whiclt Economy or Zinc Con aUNPTION in” Barrerres—In 
consists of a carbon cylinder, perforated with numerous Fi : 





“{tholes, In which gralus of binoxide of manganeso aro placed, ;- °| another column will be found 2 communication from Mr. |; 
land a rod of amalgamated zinc, Tho quid fs 9 20 por cent | 

[rotton of neutral zine chloride, free from lend, Oxide of 

\ zine ts formed, which falls in pulverulent stato tothe bottom \ 
[et tho containing vessel, : : 

Désmond FitzGerald, M.8.Tel.E,, in which, for the first time, |! . | 
is given a general formula for caleulnting the zine consumed ‘ 
i 4 in a battery under any given electrical conditions. tas se 
suas ued se a) Petey Mig Ae bbe ie nsannta Cimcnnatnms sitet it 

Sy EAA) 00.9 Ea CF 2 

‘fe Jw 

: : : CO EE tein nSoimita ons anearcnn naityry 
“sre Preumatie Hdttery. =" ig“ Féinarkable Ldttery : a y 
210 peculiar form of the ord mary blehromate of pone ail 
2] The negative pole ts a zinc plate; but the positive pole, in 
i" aleutt f betng a carbon plate, is, In this form, a com ound 
: metal, plate, formed by coating a copper plate with : battery: capable of. producin; i 
pea esae NB of platinum, a 5 heat, as is required for cauterisin; 3. The negas |. : h vi : 
hee ents f “oF tive plate Consists of a very. thin. plate of platinum, to 
: | per, which a lead backing is soldered, and this. is covered with 
a sheet of thick co per, also coated with lead, the whole Adams, prest- 
being then covered with a non-conduding varn hy” 3 ere elected 

ex: os e exact adjustment is: 
fate i y effected as follows, . 
AN arrangement ‘ 

power be just sufficient to 7 

produce the desired s tures 
{This ts eff ing ap i these i 
the botton Baten 

HN, nnd a we or el eat Wolla ect it, Rut ifa | 
ito the tabe esea C8 i 4 ‘ ttlred e d is Power the armature will be | 
id, This clrenlat ‘on : ‘ ion and will be attracted by the | 
mo ry strength of current in } a pensated, Hesides the armatures * 
oan equally oxtriontinary de b ; : his nxt ies, concentric with It, a hollow metallic ring 
0 cell, Ten of the cells exhthiter ! ‘4 > ith water, and as this Possesses a certain momentum in 
wire, 80 Ing, Jong and No, 14 i : f its rotation, it will act asa drag tending to check the 
on pumping, The heating took i i in case it increases, and in the converse mannee when a 
bag went on, and the wire cooled: i lates are arranged to face the zine plate as in Wollaston’s form tition occurs, | aA blackened dise perforated with rings of 
Pumping was left off, Some f veel, and the exciting liquid consists of twelve ounces of |; Holes of various mmbers also rotates with the axte and by ° 
membered that Neat ngs power here dis. : : ichromate of potash, one pint of sulphuric acid } pacing the eye Pehla the ring of four holes and obs 
. : » i g uy 4 y ] i 

amie ena tk lakes 10 oF 80 Grove y water, Dy using such a mixture the sup & prong of the fork it is easy to ascertain whether the uniformit 
The battery nikecat he 

and five pints 
acid attacks 

: oduced, notably he ‘zine and the three atoms of very loosely combined oxygen ie aantained, since in that case the prong will appear to remain 
5 effect, Introduced t auenice of it and he went on xercise a depolarising effect hy absorbing the evolved hydrogen, Wiationary, 
Fy and nt in for the actual \ fine tube dips into the exciting liquid and is so arranged“that 

cessfully performe cently been sue. 

10-cell bat 

pans. The sanie 
electric : tt Vewutlfutly brilliant | 

8, tv electro-motiye 

t conducts a current of air, froma small pair of. bellows, against 

he face of the negative plate ; by this imearis any bubbles of 
* tydrogen are, asi 

‘ere, brushed off, and | the ‘current obtained 
md thet rom a given electromotive force is materially augmented, since 
fin Ne internal realest. he'resistance is diminished, Mr, Preece then referred to sever 
1's by the ordinary instru. 

Nd! forms of hattery in which such an agitating principle 
ntroduced, notably those of Grenet, Chutaux, and Comacho, and 
€ a amall battery of | te went on to describe a series of experiments he has made with a 
In c 4 ins. by 2 ink, a? ‘lew to ascertain the cause of the great heating and illuminating 
s i mical 18 (0°05 in.), could be | fects that coutt be obtained with the apparatus exhibited, He 
Ladd y ty Mr, | hoived that the effects were due to the mechanical agitation of 
Into the ce di ter another, y he liquid on the face of the negative plate; but whether the 
Nh gna was) the action: dd. i freat production of heat in the battery, an the great lowering 

if ag pl 

Frits internal resistance were chemfcal, thermal, or ‘electrical |: 

v, force, 
an Increase of ! 
fou be detected, t no difference ate, the 
‘ le BAMC Way, |; 8 resistanco | d 
dinary means, a to obtai it by or. bly bri d stead: © beln it was shown that, when connected 
‘Burns that thy nof Dr, : rear ae eed { 18 indly lent by Mr, Spottiswooie, 
ithe air oj tence of | a ae -'pitks of ¢ obtained, but this length was 
c's ¢ # ? + Raced: i topping the current of air, A 
about t ‘ {pPllar effect was also very marked when the poles were con: 
P H ‘ ed with wo carbon points, the light {riven out when the alr« 
he explain by 1 rent was introduced being remarkably’ bright and stenly,— 
the cell red y Mr. B ir. Preece then exhibited ait ingenious: method of showing the 
e that th { YT: ibrations of a telephone plate to an aulience, which has “been 
n gol H as 5 p « fevised by Mr. H. Edmutuls, A vibrating plate is employed 
Ne powerful curre . . ' break contact as in Reiss's original telephone, and is intro 
“" | depolarising agent, weed into the primary circuit of a small induction coil, ‘The 
“+ mical oxidising agent, Induced current is employed to ittuminate 2 rapidly-rotating 

ight be duo ton clr. 

the air, : 
plate Tee that fresh acid 

I 4 4 Would assint’s tube, and, on juaking ant ie ing contact by'spealiug 

Nereasing the che vould: have the niac) is placed in a porous |: to the resonator, an ilnminated star is observed, the number 

tiga Tenlstanc, Mr, rcace angie ection and diminish. } sitive saa a formed of a rod ‘SC whose arms variés With the p hh of the note; with a very 

atantan it wore due to fresh netd fae this expiant ; of amalgamated zine Immersed in the liquid, and the {! > low note it may resolve itself into a single straight tine,—Lorl 

| platinum were: Shereas we had seen the Me ve oF in d of fine silver or platinum wire “Rayleigh exh Me and explained «an arrangement which he hae 

i ; ne the eating of the : nployed with advantage in certain acoustical experiments, in 
i age with the pumping. rise of current strength, to keep P ploy i rs , 

» Ladd 

-onter to secure alisolute uniformity in the rate of rotation of an 
tutribute the effect t 

axle, After referring 10 the mathematical principles involved 

ce cc principal : problem, he explained: that the only hope of its solu. 
i. Eda atl the iain Teestaticy | tapldity of de; A lay in the ¢ ployment’ of a vibratory movement, which by 
Dr. Buras), said that De tauited the circuit (resistance of ; 

eat deal of the 

He mentloned tlint 4 

_ a aorkable results by using 
solution, ane digpenst 

a, ithe compound plate, . 

nie atritable device mutt be converted inte a motion of rotation, 
th te whose motion it ix required to maintain uniform is usually 
(ltiven, at an approximately uniform rate, by means of a small 
', pOrizontal. water-wheel, or, in some cases, the electro-magnetic 
Grilating apparatus presently described (Li sufficient by itself to 
tipply the necessary power, "At equal distances round the axle 
fe arranged four soft iron armatures which sticeessively come 
front of the poles of a horse-shoe electrosnagnet placed in 

circuit of a four-celt Grove's battery, ‘The current is 
dered intermittent by the following arrangement, Passing 

\ oa 

Rah turns to its original 
t returns to ig 
ho: positiv the circuit, 

TO. | eleQromotoric force di 


Porous jars of all sizes ure shown by M. Prion, which wo 
shoutd pass by unnoticed except that ono fs a gtunt in tte | 
way, belny ono meter in eight, and. thogsnmo in elreunfer: 
monce. We should not care to tayo bany clements In use. 
gcontalning such po; 

Bs Calta BS. HE 

The fatlosioene 
vzood LéSclanch, 
-Seleat onter ji 
. Open mouth), 
il atand inni 

By | the: ion. . of curren 
‘fal a when resistance is suddenly increased, but it rides again 
p60 nearly, ita former value. So, when resistanco ia diminished | 
eho current rises suddenly, but afterwards falla to nearly ite | 
ormer value, In the first case, the diminished current causes i 
& diminution in the ‘aimount of’ gas used; the electromotive {s'” 

Wied ead 

mall ja i 

force, and therefore the current, bei i 

fo : nf, being thus raised. In tho ! 

jeecond cage, the Increased current uses more gas; the. albotegs 

Motive force is therefore diminished, and the current falls. It 
further shown that the current js directly ag the pressure, 

j| This seems to prove that there is really.n coniati 
; 4 WY -00 .antagoni: i 
ightly i kept up by hydrogen | pases to the positive wir, ae nae ‘fon math 
» fluida, care should be taken that everything is cooled to the ordi. ‘Posed by Gaugnin, 7 Bs AS BU. 1 
“) mary temperature before using tha cella, Evaporation from ao x Maer tins Cdice ad i 

t cell produces a damp atmosphere in the battery room, and, if the ‘ Fe at ae mattorlens ; 
solutions arc tolerably saturated, a creeping over tho edgew of | a Fae mint } 
lace, which gradually leads to cryatala being Mr. R. J, Munn calls tho attention of electriclang, in tha : i 

; Journat of the Socicly of Arts, to the use of antimony asa neg: ‘ ' at ite 

‘ stron 

the cella takes p 
;atlye clement to replace carbon in some galvanic batterics 
where sulphuric acid is used as the exciting tluld, This ; 

metal, after n trinl extending over five yeara, he clalins hns : 

formed ; theae, by capillary attraction, draw up moru liquid, so 
that'n copions growth is produced, und the fluid trickles down 
the outside of a jar or cell, Bubbling frow_great action going 

vaporntion ia pre- 

tween tho 

foe mans ey 0S peteeeeteemtmimarannen \ oy 4 
a A will produce the same result. 
ON THE STUDY OF ELECTRICIT $ vented by sealin ¢ the celle over, by a few drops of oil, or, prefer- ; é ea te 
o _ SIONAL Pursurr!® Ay BROFES: ably, li vid petroleum, of high donuity and Tong point, being yielded moat excellent results, ANODE a ana between ‘tho 
3B », 5 dropped into the cells, This plan, however, ia not recommended, mentions its luw price, tho absence of scaling and ‘ mtoronh f Tae, the 
i THORAS Po: Pe BNUCE Wary, i}as the surfaces of the plates being soiled with oil prevent the | [ gention, and tho fact that galvanic action begina almost fin: f Its indeed, T, 
i. «bey : - battery solution neting, Couting the surface of the celle with mediately on Immersion, ‘Tho well known defect of brittle: ° ()2R27!.1—Leotancho ortf oth X attorios,—In 
+, have often thought that a collection of thy, . f ¢ | mel pnrafiin will, to a very great extent, prevent ' creeping.” nega of antimony when used in thin plates is overcome by | | ier sata ATzcuAwta of Juno 7th, page 931, No. 
tterics which have been used would posseas to's orne of Ita repellent action to wetting keeps off the deposition of mois- Mr. Munn by casting tho metal on a core of copper, or by ! nee excription of hi 
y, Features Off tino. If moisture docs deposit, it tends to collect in minute alloylng It with a small pereentago of someother metal, An- re, ‘and 
tlmony perhaps docs not form as perfect n negative element i =Cat st 10 poron 

Usefulness, apart from its high importance as  Eatific curiosity: 

Aa it would ivi ; 
coon intuacin i wold be ety tet, work ing are acrubber covered wire in the beet for battery purposes, 
e vat cepecially where melted paraflin is used for scaling up the cella. 

as carbon, but its great conductivity and, tg other qualities 
may render it valuable in many cases. aG, ty i: 

so that a student could handle or ing] 
" tent pect them. 3! H 
-Yaltaie combinations. aud armngementa whieh 1° nuuuber, of Ita surface should bo free from felt or other porous material, ane eres 
Pho Spplication is of 1 : Gutta-percha may be used safely if: the core is passed through a Da es : vote ‘ ,,089971.J~—Loolanch 
‘uti nef ditte devices whic udying the | perforated cork previously ‘well 0 led in parnfin wox, The hot ta teagan) Ao Tattois Able ie cae Gree ; os F271, reaianche 
ion of different combi ave ry d raffin does not then soften the gutta-percha so as to injure it. i i} qiren Rattory.—This is ono of Callan's ) Succeed in maki 
present forma of ba Mod in’ the | DP" 13 110 ten | cells, and tho bent thing ite owner ean do with it is i ono no porous pot; ont 
electrical student layingefora the | In putting up a battery, care should be taken to remove all the Ife employ it for haldiag sand or any other heavy | na tho object of the” {cloth 
: har be rated i ir from the eclle and materials, Air bubbles find their way into jobject. The worst uso ho can make of it {s to: maroly to restrain the povede cee 
ee ; {charge It, as itis intended to bo, with, nitric nei), {with Cho vilensnon ee eetneted entbo 
in th and uso i¢ in place of a Grove or Buosen,—Staawa. | Procure a common Peeaution, Fi 
‘ ay +. [83387.)—Battery.—Tho sulphuric acti, untess { of common sheot ah 
h j i <goncantmited, would cortain! raway the iron,— a bit of 
Paina nattoty.— 116 bate ia tion f jn to Fin. 
: .)—Battery.—' m : ; Gin, t 
or Maynooth. ‘The outer tron cell ia to ba & j Dioces, tI alee of aroma sak, 
: 5 th a bitof wire at ono ond dl 

j insido gas rotorts), . 
tho carhon lurid ine oon me 
‘and pack the pounded co 

* foreii be ? 
T. ah, messi yy werent 
‘ *cenarged with tadiluted nitric acid, while tho porous 
~~ jeoll fe to contain diluted sulphuric acid (commercial 
all of vitriol) 1'part to 7 parts of water, If-you uso 
11 ‘ nq {dilate sulphoris acid in tho iron cell you will die. 
te sulphate ‘ot } f * jsolve it gradually away, as tho oxygon of tho water 
containg, iro: {wilt pite with the tron, forming, oxide at iron, 
ry , iwhich”at onco combines w Oe h 
per, cadmium ioe ‘forming solphate of iron, whila tho I ciratod hydro: f | alt. 
gon cacapen aa 8 gas,—OwL. of 

| (88917,]—-Battory.—Your battery isn, bad ono, 
j unten attended to carofully, It is ono devised b; 
Callan, To chargo it, tec in the porous jar ent: 
id ‘| pbario ncit, 1 part; water, 10 partet and, in the 
‘'Jeast-iron jar, atrong nitric acid, 1 you uso weak 
nitric acid, tha fron will bo dissolved, aud conse. 
quontly tho coll will bo destroyod. When uning {t, 
and no fames aro given off, thon alliaright; bat tho 
moment you sce fumes of a dusky red colour 
(poisonous) rising from tho nitric neid, ponr out tho 
neil, well ewill, and ro-charge with fresh acid.—W, ver io we 3 
I, LANGAST HEIRS 4, Co sseatsices (99351 J—Dattory Power, 
ecasren.—You cannot send hrough one ¢ 
i wira ina lot without sensibly affecting all the other : 
Points of com wires ; henco [nm afraid you are going wrong, Caz | 
ill you explain mora fully what you want to obtain? | 
Then, T think, woruny fo to work at onco to remove ; 
ed_on ; ‘\ doubts, &e.. At present I muat tell you that no care { 
The ront would bo so sclective as you wish it to be, and, | 
ugh a at (f you require a limited attraction, yon must Timi { 
dotector throug’ pe ‘ the uumiber of wires on both siden Soma of tho { 
nghit; no de- cae Are : + | batteries you montion as being Intely advertised aro 
gE hans 
tl -batgery-board is moved a | good, and. o lot of thom bad;; Lot mo know the : 
tween the e aa ¥ til tho plug being : . work you want the battory todo, and I will tell you, H 
etek ¢ elements in a cel until ii hy M led to tho bost battery for yon to have.—W, J, LANcasTen, ¢ 
currenta from bubbles Pp : wire fa. thee Inst 5 ile aa MRR i 
rom the plates, bel te the wire 

or imperfect. rep} 

vad to the 

¢ iron aud copy 
Ammonia will leave 
ut that ammonia di 

EDT etter een 

valuable cell of this kind at present used is thato thianchd, : ye : : : : . : E tyA NEW, BATTER’ ot Be Wy for Blcatro-Motal, ; ; : 
[dn which a pelutio aot shiaemanay Hp te alta ig i thie) : } mm : “Yay THE Corre ndance Sefentifique gives thofoll us descrip. re sad diver in the dab satietaetory manner is : 2 a ? 
-o :battery is extonsively ual Upon telegraph cireui a gt in con ‘ > labia ae i [Alon “of a “new form: of ‘battery which ‘was broigit to the {| '88 follows :—Provide n oylindrioal atono. jar, “A,' : : 7 
atant uso, aa well-known single- mi cd Ys ty . : : a itd : noticvof tho Académie dea Selinces, of Paris, at ri Pat ‘capable of balding two or four gallons sonia the far. 
Bipees bat 7 Hay althongle i Showheta. De: Gledvtons ent ; i nm ede : of July tst, by M. du Muncel iu behalf of the luventor: Mf | fn Bitad 6 cylinder of sheet copper, 
" Dr ; 

133010,] Blootro-Matal. 

s . —to this attach binding 

| ft i ey vee ; ‘i ene ‘Pulvermacher, | In the construction of this appari : Inch in thickness ls salliont to th la : 
A. Tribe r, ‘Proc, Roy, Soc," vol, pe designed mu ar ; re 4 me (* ‘Inventor seems to have solved the question which mete ball, audruspend in Gy means of ronen cover 
battory which’ it was thought would obviate the ovils of the a : ae a i ‘pled tho attention of electricians ever since the fuvention of | . 
Pia aaccoaior call, Unt weiuae Siete HAR ie pe Bey 2 ~ptho Bunsen battery—the dlacovery of a continuous battery ex. | : 
that, thoy epidly polariso, and the film of hydrogen is not |} ° hee Sn fee ° et Y cited by a single itd, M. Pulvermacher Ia the inventor ofan : 

: i Y - 
easily oxidisod. ‘The last-named battery utilises the stores of cleetrical ehnin in considerabte use among Dhival 

oxygen in tho atmosphere for tho dehydration of the silver ‘uy iyo ae ee a Y treatment of nervous disorden, ° Fore tong tiny 

: inthe : Ean 
os i “ 
plate. . The inventors uso ates of copper ant silver immersed ; S ot} : : marked that one element of his chains worked bette 

i" i tion, 

i y M1 : : f the exciting Hquid than when fmmeried fn 
In an-atrated olution of pure copper nitrate. Tho silver : . ai : 2 : i). eeemeg 
/ Tata has a horizontal ‘position just Thor the surface of the we : d . % ! f the hat whl ted fa io Inatitnte n fortes of exp ’ 
t Fiquia in tho cell, anid ts, in fact, converted into a small silver ! \ x : i j ne production of} 
H tray full of crystals of tho metal which riso in projections 

abovo the surface of the liqnil. Tho copper plate ix parallel | 9 a . | not by ising: nits 
to and underncath tho nilver, soparateil, Pree be, by'n piece : Lay 4 [rat nnd »  M.Moncel 
of muslin, and connected in the ordinary way. ‘Tho inventors rrch i BS 
aay the theoretical interest of this battery in the fact that |: 
it differs from atl other galvanic Arrangements, innaamuch as |! 
the binary compound in solution is incapable of being decom. |; 
posed cither hy the positive met alone, or Vy the ive i a 
motals in conjunction, without tho presence of another 9 : ; | hellx of fino allver or platinum wire wound around the cylin. 
holy realy to combine with ile of its clements when : r ‘ a ' The spirals of The silver wire are separated nt such a 
en Ratesd imati pre et mereat bes the: fact that it is ; 48 ; a : ‘\ distance that no capillary effecta may be produced between 
ia ba ii ai Hepat acl eet nt air battery. | Should, yee TET $ a: { them, and the wire thus comes In contact at nn Infinite 
te o at Tet tale fi vill on come into uso cleewhero d : 1399 : B : : ' number of points with the liquid which transndes from the 
peal ihe lecture cy it will probably bo in tho form of 4 : p Lene |" ‘porous cup, It is upon these numerous little surfaces of 

Ae ere t Of zine. and copper, with an arated solution of tl; e : : : : * contact that the exterlor air constantly exercises ita oxidizing 
sing elloride, for that arrangement as an electromotive force ||: : ‘ action, and thus effecta depolarization, 
: urticulnrly, Limes ie oa For practical use the elements arc united Into battery form 

Daniels cell. tho arrangement H : : ! such 4 wa ae contact with molsture, and convo elt 

it All inve t iu : ; . loss of electricity, is avolded, and the apparatus charged 1 
we Pate nto cell invented! by i a : ‘ i Rr: fons of by cane of x simple deview By taking care to F) azine rod, F, Fill the stono jor sith a miixines 
hibition, and ‘rec | The electro-motiy C nga with a solution ‘ » ronow the oxciting uid and the zine the apparatus may be} 3; of (in nropertion) water, rallou i salphrio asity 

fof caustic “potash ith dilute sulphuric } used indefinitely, since tho oxidizing agent renews itsel Alb. 1 nitio neld, Lor, and Th saltencidalated with 
ieecee of acil’ to ten of wator—it tn hoarly 2 volta, The * Tho clectro-mothve force of tho battery charged with caus: aa 

ry ton of intic actd,, A compound battor 
resistance of a cell with silver wira as the negative pole, and tle potash avernges 1°5 rolls; with sulphuric acid diluted to fore dropa of evfite manner, 1 have. fonod wil 
{9 porous jar of good quality M centimetres Nigh and 35 iil ¢ 

: nth it fs 1°10 rolls, | ‘To give an idea of the raplility of} °°: ‘Geposit copper in abundance from a solution of tho 
jtnctres diameter, was 13 olin. | M, du Moncel ‘ended his ie sonata ton, it ts stated tliat in forming the elreult (of a sulpuato. min battery, elaine {ts action for A long 
paper to tho Académia ‘with tho following sentenca:—" In ". resistance of 10 ohma) during ten minutes, the etectro-motive} | time, and tho deposit is very erom, 
onder to give an idea of the rapllity of depolarisation, I will’ » forcu diminished about 16 per cent., and returned to its initial | Acgicust. 

rs : ‘ - conclude by stating that ina cirentt haying’ a reaiataucu of | : value thre the circult. ee 
pirat forin}‘and ia used as th jis sf 10 ohins, itt ten minutes the cloctrosmotive force diminishod | “1h Love 7 anata 
] the exciting fluid placed in’ the | Aabout 16 per fcentey and returnod-to ita. normal value after ae Ener teem, 
capillary attraction’ three minutes rest, ns ie q iH Single I. 

‘i wid Batlery,—M. Pulvermacher.—In this battery | 
gpnillay attraction tho alinospherie ar is employed as a natural epolartaing, ° 
agent, without the uso of any artificial chemfeut oxidizing 

agent, nud gives arelative constancy to the element 5 
ching Hauld rey to the element, The ex 

On Byrne's Battery, by W. Ladd.—This is the jon of | ° 
Dr, Byrne, of Brooklyn, A.—The chief features in this }e. 

ih battery are a compoun tive platg an Ne mechanical | 
5 (late sulphuric acld, caustic Potussa, or sale mieans for preventing polarbationt ld vs 7: H 
TL INCLOSE the resulls of some experiments Thave lately made | _ fie oulie) is placed in u porous cylindrical vessel: the poal- : ‘The negative plate consists of the exifeme negative element, * 
to ascertain if the cost of working the nitric acid batteries, of |), i ve men Hn orice of a rod of amalgamated zine tmmened -{] platinum, hacked up by a plate of copper to reduce the resist: |” 
Grove and Junsen could be reduced, 1 find that the nitric acid Y i t he ae inl the negative clement ts formed of. thie ance, the copper being Protected by a thin sheet of lead to pre 
can be replaced by a mixture of half nitric and half dilute al nee or H atinum wire cotled round the cylinder, “Tha vent any local a that might occur owing to holes in the; 
sulphuric. And the latter gives a higher foree fur nearly three F spl nt ee sl Wer wire aro too remote from encht other for the ° + ] platinum, which might allow the exciting fluid to attack the 
‘J hours, ‘The experiments were made with a large-surface volta+ aot be ant ah 0 capillary actton, and the wire 13 at an Intinity Copper, and a thicker sheet of lead on the back of the copper, 
ineter, and the gases were collected during one minute every ped +o hol nts fn contact with the liquid exuding from the Porous . which is japanned ; so a plate in section would show a3 consist 
ty. The. porous cell | half-hour; four pint-size cells were used. ‘The experiments were Ay vessel, The rapidity of ‘depolarization fs: such that, on, ing of, first, 2 sheet of platinum, then thin lead, then copper, i 
ver, 80 tliat tho whole 'cell ! repeated, and every care taken to avoid any crror,, Ihave also | closing the clreuit (resistance of 10 ohins) during ten tinates, and last by the thick japanned Icad, the whole being soldered 
ar : teed the mixed acitls very successfully with tweutyecight cells for a the elcetromotoric foreo diminishes by ‘about 10 Per cent, |2ey | together to form a solid plate, The batteries are built up with | 
oe the electrie light, I presuine'the increased power- Is due to the! 1,143). 2 and returns to Ita origival valuy in sbreo minutes after open: fe” | azine plate and two of the compound plates, the exciting Muld 
internal resistance of the’ battery being slightly lowered. by i lug tho circuit, i fe 5 being a bichromate of potash and dilute sulphuric acid solution, 
the addition of the dilute sulphuric acid in the ‘pordus cell, LT | ere : [é iy : ‘This battery would soon become polarised but for the injection 
may add that the fumes were much less than when iitric acid i of air between the plates, which action appears simply mechanical | 
alone is used, y Joun Hexey Kuour “pauses ante been ani not chemical, various pases producing no different eflctss 
Fambam, April 39 (7 ‘ {plate on tho engine he will “haa” When the air is pumped in the most extraordinary effec! iy” 

he produced, the quantity being enormous, being more thai 
pee tis eH iis 1E70 doa ite that of any pthe tery of the same size, It Ln muclt 
3 nS Ulphato of Moroury Nattory.— ised in the States for surgical operations, its extreme portability 
cert fede ete a tan iis or and control rendering it pecullatly useful in this ditectlon, The 
platinum loop can be raised to any temperature and kept at the 
same simply by the action of the foot on the bellows, leaving {; 
ed ahontd both hands at liberty for operating, there also being an entire 
Jess oxpensive,— oa absence of fisnes or other disagreeable smells, 6 
{31837.]—Pontal Doltvort dion is battery af four sell cells will heat nine inches of No. 16 
By the Att Dollvortos,— platinum wire to redness, : ‘ 
| bound by ibe ct of Pi arliamont upon Miter F : ‘There is also another form of this battery in which the plati- | 
very at totter {ho collection, tranemlasion, and delle. - | nun is plat : the exciting solution is composed of: one part |: 
¥ery of letters reate, hy means of » daly authorisod i] sulphuric acit to ten of water. In this form no air is required - 
ro a maristrate, to placcench to be pumped through the solution, ‘This Is used as a ‘motor 
battery for driving sewing-machines, | ‘The inventor states he 
has driven a heavy Singer sewing-machine for eight hours a day 
: : ; im a : : at a cost of twopence, including everything, as yet nothing 
{ , _ } ¢ been done in this dir i land. 

rly mad 
t grovo moro satisfactory, and uel, Te 

minsavenmsrntls keke vice teresa anal 

' Atarecent meeting of thoFrench Academy, M. DuMoncel |" 
hibited, on the part of M. Léclanché, a new model of the. - 

yex ) 
well known battory of tho latter, designed to furnish a moro 

Ey constant current (a3 well as being more durable) than the 
{form at present in use. In this new moi! the carbon clce- 

role of the positive pole, instead of being immorsed ina}: 

mixture of peroxide of mangunese and carbon (from which 
* it often becomes tsolated when tho battery Is operated much), 
‘ Is completely detached ; and, forthe mixture, thera are sub- 

palo two prisms of these materials, held in pluce against | . 

the two faces of the electrode by means of rubber hanita, 
| The simple contact of a fragment of this mixture Ia suflleicnt 

| to quickly and powerfully depolarize a carbon plates and]. | 
this elect results from tho local current developed in the}. 

contact. of these two substances, which current causes the 
hydrogen from the carbon to he immediately absorbed by 
the peroxide. In order that their local current be better ese 
tablished, the prisms are hollowed onton the side of contact, 
ant tho depresston titled with a layer of carbon, thus-in- 
creasing their conducting power. By this means the nega- 
tive electrodes may serve for an indefinite period (which isan 

J fmpossibility in the form of battery In use at present), aud |’ 
i when tho prisms aro used up new ones have only to be sub}. 

stituted. Morcover, in this modal, the mixture can be moro 
strongly pressed, and the resistance of the element remains 

; uniform, ‘This system, also, may pasty De rendered port 
able for the use of physictans. nr 74 oF 

ee Crlk Melani thnrtd ofleines 
a ply 29. 857. 


HATYeRy, «| 
/ Rronmonn, Vai, Dee. 18, 
; To the Blitor of the Journat of the Telegraph. 
Tne Callout battory has proved auch’ n vist Im- 

iMovemont in economy of timennd monoy and, owing 

to improved insulation and conductivity of our wires, 
jhas shown itself 40 offlcient, that there appears to be 
a tacit agreement nat to complain. ‘Thin, however, 

n't do, letting well cnough alono wonld not have 

produced the duplox, that most substantial ‘of our 

Inter wonders. Although’ it 'haa been found to bon 
eat raving over battoriog proviously used, there ig 

F il room, Vihink, for improvement. ‘The Callaud, ; 
is far ns T Nave geen, is linbto to become foul, and | 

vhere there is dirt thero is waste. Te thin aa it nay, 

shore is evidenco that wate ntises from Jaulty con. | 
itrnction, In a papor read recently before the ; 

Zhemical Society, Englund, by those eminent cola. 
aratecita, Tribe and Gladstone, they gaye it as thoir 

poncluxion that “the bower of the Copper Coupte 

Yaw in proportion to the quantity of hydrogen ab. | 
sorbed by the copper plato.” Now, as thix action ix 
?roportional to the deposit from the copper solution, | 
ind as thin is chiefly on tho corners and odges of the : 
plate not covered by the sulphate of copper, it 

vould neem to bo a fair conclusion that the battory 

‘8 proprotionately weak, Du Moncol bas shown 

iComptes Hendu tame 63, PANG) “that whon the alzo H 
of tho negative plate in increased, the Dermanoncy of i 
tho battery is decidedly Greater, Thoro in alao grent i 
dconomy of zine, and. the intensity, contrary to ox. 
peetation, is in no way diminished.” - He #10 gives | 
the following exporiment : «To cells with zine sure 5 

fnees as 152443 gavo detlectiona of 81° 10° nnd 78° g', 

easiest te 



of York, 
‘a * . Joseph ‘Baxondoell. 
19 Obiorvatory, Birkdale, Southport, Dec. 16, 

T eubmit moe 
are micto changes of loner 
finest’ means 

foly bright spot.” Tho 
ns i$ nn equnta. 
"of din. apurture, by 

colt“ ncid-ti 
thotrown cons 


= ibd dtnncmenremmeen i aw 

fop and holtom of this porous 
previously sosked for an in 

. 718 


.) Tro 

\ @ trough 3 ani the 
carries tho pistes, is made to ba 
to any position by moana of rack 

can be doro eas 
on tho ta 

(lL nart) into the zine coll, 

Tug Action or Danient's Batreny.—The 
immediate resulta of thechonical action of Daniell’s 
battery is the avolution of hydrogen yns out of the 

. SE Alito’ " 
jAmatiuice will Gnd it dittientt to ranko the Bind Nquid, aed the deposition of metallic copper on tho 

“For those who wish to maka 
t at batteries we pivo the foltowing 
instructions :—'I'o maken six-cell Matters tako six 
ch tin, high and diameter, 
apound of thin abect copper for Ld, 

nt dd. each. Cut the copper in nix sheets, 

‘hn. by 10in,, punek three small holes in it 
whick you pass tho end of picen of vo 
tong, and hammer tho end cf. tho wir 

ine for 44,3 and & porous cells, ‘ti by Un or 

sheet copper, (Sia Fi B, in whieh 

UM, porous cell: O, coppers ant 1), outer cell. 
Make a mould of plaster of Paris, in whtoh yon east 
six equace or round rods of zin it. by gin, You 
can easily cast a copper wire for a connection into 

T a recent-meoting of tho Physical Boclety, * fhe amallor surface giving the greater force, The 
tho zine by scraping ono end of it elean and apply- 
lag some soltering liquid, then hold that end into 

De. James Moser exhibi { 
r exhibited a novel: form of, conxumption of zing was as 32 and 38 grimmes.” 
the mould wken casting, Varnish tho tops of your 

Yanlclt coll, of tho. gravity type intended as a 
\standard of electromotive force’ It consisted of a, These results were confirmed by Ruhinkorft and . 
* . oye i outer cells (jam pots) for tin., and tke care never 
to web. a topes, fea up "your copner sheet 0 

Jong glass; 
ie Glass vossol of tubular form, shoving.a coppor Delanvier, ee 

pnd a zino plate at Evi > the : . 

! Plato at tho top immersed in sulphate of | Evidently these things aro not now, Untisitequal, |. 1° Yd a : that Ht fast fits Into the outer cell, Melt n coating 

per solution { ffusa upwards into tho coe, jauds is constructed on tho basis ornccording to there i , side of tho bottom of your porous celle nad roak 


j falling from tho oxi ing up the ! Ing porous pots, make them by rollin n strip of 

fad turn oror one end fo that it forms a guad fiat 

Plato at tho bottom {mmorsod in aulphato of co, 
aine.. ‘Tho tio solutions . 
by thete deneitiea: but ay, Poles £8 pee ly ovident that any one of tho various styles of Cal- of elatic glua (sold in penny sticks) over tha ont- 
eolution.and depo: 9 . tho latter top and bottom for an inch in hot melted 
I This diffusion (& ro copper on the zine ata. Sxperiences? May be not—who Mears pana waz. Ifyou bneo any diffeally in proc, 
: vip Foaneny, ff 
solution-below. Dr. Af h “ Pees. ete : . stont brown paper, Lin. by Sin, aver the end of a 
aa : ; mae broomstick, Mako a goot joint with nealing-way, 
bottom to your cell, Put o thick taycr of sealing 
wax over ihe bottom of your porons coll, and 

it tothe inside bottom of your onter cotl~having 
beforehand eoaked tops and bottom of your porous 
collin melted paraftin. Cat ndiso of woot about 

» diameter, and make it to fit tightly over anit 

rily into the porous cell. In tho contro of tho 
dire cnt a bole, and tightly fit into it the xine rod, 
whoso lower end should never tonch the kotlom of 
tho porous coll. : 

fo thoir discordant observations; to further avoid 
j whieh thia other character: eatery formation 
fn equally wel ustrated without it ng 8 
at 1 ee ts - the x es ' ‘ fac-aimile from the modat of its suggested one onthe 
ot aetna gt il _ wmeda tae eee etal getter | ame ah ese, Ge an eee 
‘ g . rogeo, 2H, may then ba considered to take the 
Cal that can bn voce seer n dictates eect nlice ait ‘motutlla clement in CuSO, and wa 
Hf nld) appenes to curve either to tho right, neat A, or : shoul wee + CuSO, = 1380, + Cu 
Raye ¢ Rie A {to rs dt ae at De 7 secord wit. tho ut sing * It this Leuly re reeanted the netion in the copper 
0 ulplinto ft : . ‘ the widea and floor of the cleft when vient: in cacit Cuauaina THe Barreny.—Pot a raturated |ecll, aulphurfo acid would be produced ther Ci 
ei, Bod econ pan etna se ee thea aan Svea Be tinct Tomer area baat A 
i! to the outor cell, and additional crysta ho | is ¢! — 5 
} Bs. € aa pansergecrainary ean OF asa ae ory ts nana ‘att on the shelf, so that you aro cerlnin the | certain, however, that the cliowical afinity of Zn to 
forma of shadow ‘perfectly ana logons to these of tho | solution will romain saturated for some tine. In| SO, Is preater than that ot Cu, and that, 0 pio 
working of tha terminator, both railically to and over | tho ioner Sein oF erator 20 parts nul of aatiiintie baie doposition of ZnSO, Cu-and 2H really . 
vitriol), 5 
te rarent realities ou the lunar surtagec 8 ty veline i you wilt te ‘lava. very constant Cause OF PatLune in Working DANIELL'S 
roe as battery, but fess current, from the samo number of Barreny.~ If the top of the outer cell ia not yar+ 
calls (moro cells for tha same work), puta volution | nished, or if itis kept wot, crystals of sul phato of 
RAOTIOAL NOTES ON HLECTRIC DAT. f aulphato of zing in tho inner cell, or simply waler | copper will soon cover the whole cell outs ide, ant 
of anlp! 
without acid. Groat care should bo tuken that|oncasion great waste. If top and bottom of the 

iso i fuels f inner of porous cell nro not sosked in paraffin, Io nk- 
neither coll is over Hlled higher up than one fuel: from. mn r o¢ porons eet nce not some In pars Gin, te ak 

tha top, ' A ¥ i 
For elcetro.plating and tho working of telegrapts | will be coverad with Drown ‘mud,’ metallic 

a battery: consttucted ns follows is ve suitablo:—| copper. This deposit seta up a current in the ODO 

Muke a trough of Yin, toakwood, inside measurca | site dirretiva to tho current wautad, and the Intter 

l2in, x 8h lor aix doublo cells, with slots | will be wholly or partly neutralised, — If tho copper 

, but 11 slota instead of the 5. | wiro is woldored to tho copper plato instead of ham 

fit wooden partitions quite | mered into the same, currents will bo started in the 

tightly, and soak all the joints with melted paraffin | coppsr from tha joint which is harder, ito the copper 

applicd quite hot; you thus obtain aixeelis. Each twhich fs aofter, or sico vorst, This process Is 

tha Dsttery has been inuction for rome time, boiling 
it down to 4 of its bulk and letting it stand, when 
needlo-ahaped crystals of %nSO, will appoar in the 

ppor x 
6 dl in tho tires, | 

ontained .in n., 

Udon : In. 
% ulphate of | 4 — 

into tha: sulphate of 4 . mas : f 

“by Toying a 
om! oft the coll /— Sagincering, 

a a t 
int DahtOll Snviron” fied est Sage 
“Cae 6! factlomén 

avedlti fi 
lo yar Jo 
‘pr anek 
et le liquide 77 

on Bs r ; x ‘ 2 5 e =! 8 " . pe: a 
lier ax Vis ccord EEN oxe 3 : ee SERIE, i 7 es 2 57 eee 
j ours es. Slémants ‘doi AE : “BA RYE = 

Sak — 2 8 — 


Sofontific American Supplomont, Vol. VII, No. 157, 

Solontifio Amorionn, ostablishod 1848, NEW YORK, JANUARY 4,1879, : Scientific American Supplement, $5 a year. 

Scfentifio Amerioan and Supplement, $7 0 year. 

GALVANIO BATTERIES.—No. 1 The Tom Thumb Battery, Fig. 6.—Thia aiinplo battery is] parchment paper for.the 8 The zinc cylinder, A, 
.  G, ‘ porousivase, The zinc cylinder, A, 

‘ - constant for several days, and is sulliciently. nowerful t har caveligee the: er, 'R, copper wire. O, is wound 
By Gro. M. Horxin work the smaller electrical’ machines. ve fe being enveloped tn ho Ie tho paper against the zine, and 

It may be constructed ns follows: Takea plece, G, of com-| answers for a fastening, Tho. whole is pfunged in the sul- 
mon ahect zlnc—stove zine—slx Inches long, and four Inches} phate of copper solution, and. the battery soon works regu 
: Titty. For some ‘carbon batterjes, ‘the carbon fs enveloped In 

parchment paper, and around this is placed cither a zinc 

wire or azine cylinder, Tho battery. thus constructed will, 

a . when molstened, work for somo, hours after being removed 
LB ; "soe ; . | from the exciting. iquid. “ pales ‘ 

Tur principal galvanic batterics now. in use will bo de- i 
u vapour niis vot. scribed and illustrated fn this series of articles, In the 
nvi F ane : present articlo a number of simple batterics aro figured and ; 

described. * 

eine ty 
ja’ miso en D { 

que nous ayons indiqués, mais: principalement pour, 

iis hoke dy 

The Earth Battery, Fig. 1, consists of a zinc.and copper 
plate buried in carth that is continually moist. The wire 

{ that extends from the plates to the surface of the ground j ve 

H must be insulated, The surface of the platea must be large, | ZY New Single Fluid Battery.—Figa, 7 and 8 represent a now 

4 to insure good reanlta; from 25 (0 50 square feet are required : Lise oe eel invented, by oats Pulvormocher, he accompanying 
to produce oven a weak t. pry” ZZ Ad uy y vires speak almost for themselves, They show a po 

: i rea currents. bts: bnltery, farolshes.c jar purrounded by nallver thread. This thread fs rolled ‘to: 

continuous current for a long tine. ES 
9, : - j ¥ take a apiml form, and Is used as the negative pole of the 
«Tatra ‘i Dry Tie by pola this battery the elect: 2 : olement, The exelting fluid placed in the unglazed jar er. 
ver and binoxide of manganese. To con- f Z 7 = colates through the innumerable pores, and makes the elec 
struct ono of these n piece of paper silvcred or tinned on ond z PAAR ERNS SS RO tre contact ‘ith the cell com rete, Externally the electric 
ry way; The positive pole 
quid ia dilute sulphuric 
hor sal ammouiac, The 

a aETab ad 0. 

i Hewavo's Batrer¥.—The poles of this cell are zinc 
‘ and carbon, the exciting liquid hydrochlorate of-am- | 
monia, and. the depolariser is mercurous chloride or 
calomel. When the circuit is closed, the hydrochlorate, 
of ammonia forms zinc chtoride ‘with evolution of? 
ammonia and hydrogen, which appear at the positiv 
: pole. The hydrogen reduces the calomel, producing 
metallic mercury, hydrochloric acid, and, consequently, 
hydrochlorate of ‘ammonia. The: zinc is’ suspended 
amidst the solution at a distance of several centimetres 
from the bottom. . The carbon'ls, with its surrounding 
: solution, contained in a linen bag, and the mercury, 
‘which is reduced, gt the carbon pole: falls by its welght d 
through the linen y,, the bottom of ‘the’ cell. In ‘order ne , 
| to ‘prevent evapointion of the ammonia, ‘the: cell ‘is 
: closed.with an airtight’ cork. The-cell is held to be 
; constants its electromotive force after 246 days, during a 6 

' which it was. used for a variety of purposes, being 66 
per cent. of the original value, ‘The original electro. | 
motive force is’t*45 times that of a Daniell clement. | ‘ 

side Is taken; the other side of the paper 18 coated with fino- E : 7 elreuit Is completed in the ordina: 
ly powdered binoxide of manganese by allghily mofstening .= = ° 18 a rod of zinc, and the excltin 
ft, and rubbing the powder on with a cork, Having placed acid, a solution of caustic pot. 
together seven or elght of these shicets, they are cut. hy . He Re 
means of a punch into disks an inch In dlamcter. These 



wide; bend it up at right angles two Inches from the end, 
Attach a binding post, A, or nick it, and wind around it a 
copper wire, Cover tho zine with two thicknesses of com- 
mon white printing paper, A plece, D, of sheet lend of the 
same size na the zinc js bent up In the same way, or it fs 
provided with 9 binding. post, B, as In the cut, tna com: 
mon tea eaucer place one ounce of sulphate of copper, and 


! Theoriginal resistance is given as eqial to the resistance 
i of 7§ metres of telegraph wire. La 77>, 

Murat & 


hittiah dy 


La ‘pile ido Galffé'est 

ge glalt dana 

Z dito. au ‘-bioxyde: nennaee - 
iraaeletd ainedist erie tet Fe emesantas et 5 Serews 
“Elle'so ‘composed’ Mbibhiehagt@ caveat — CMattery Wires and Battery Screws 
pose d'un cylindre‘do:charbon'c percé;idans . Protection of Ba ery M teen a 

‘toute si'longuewt; ‘d'un: ou ‘plusieurs. trous 

oe Po ay " ‘ iS‘ paralléles: 4 

» Vaxey qui'sert'dé:vase poreux:en éme' y que.-d' 
ment collecteur, et d' ee 

Ix oxporimenting with galvanic batteries it is often 
found that the metallic connecting pieces, wires rie 
binding scrows, quickly rust, aud thon hinder ve 
passage of the current. It is necessary again nnd H 
ngain to have recourso to fling or rubbing, in order} 

! a ito 
7 ‘ to have good conducting surfaces. Ina recent no 
gulld'an graaer ne eortna de ‘mangandso- Bike Horlin Chemical Society, M3. Boiletein ond 


aiguillé‘en: = l0B : f : —_. 
| vata en grains: los «‘cavités: : : Sawein, of St. Petersburg, cdmmunicato a simple Fra, §.-ZAMBONI'S DRY PILE. 
i; di i fit ea i bead Rie te luce d : i remedy. ‘They ruball the clean and clear metallic 
i @! eau: contenant: de’: 15:91 parts of tho battery with a well purificd lubricating ; disks nro then arranged In the snmo order, so that the tIn or se ia 
i oil prepared from petroleum. The pieces thus silver of each disk Js connected with the manganese of the x 
conted ‘remain Tong wnaltered. | On, the | meet Having ie wth Te provided with a urassenp at 
i gerows attached to enrbons dipping ia nitrio acl, a3 tach end. The lower cap Is connected with the binding post 
4 thero wns not tho least formation of rust. ‘Tho small t * onthe base. Jn the upper cap here i arod ant melas 
y 2 ty’ ¢ the metal opposes ‘Bh |. which the leaves mo; pressed together, 80 
oi ale Derteieoohs macnn “In the electro- [HG a better contact. Tho knob in contact with tho manganese ma a : 
re ‘ 2 corresponds to the positive pole, while tho cap at the othe : pale, 
lytig oxperiments the authors mndo no difference 3 ? end, which fs in contact with the silver or tin, Is the nega- , | nt wator—it is nearly Bolte, "8 : 
,, YM aptible. “$7 AL aA fe SE é tive pole. ; ‘ ae EY : = 
i porcoptl le. oc ca ran ser ; Tho piles aro remarkable for the permanence of their fn and a porous ; Wh centimeters i han il 5 

, Which may continue for several years, Their action 4 i 3 millimeters a 
pias rently "on the hygrometric state of the air, Two MANY, resistance of 10 olims, 
thousand couples givo neither shock nor spark, but can 4 force diminished about 16 per cent., i 
charge a Leyden at and other condensers, mal value after threo minutes’ rest, 

The Voltaic Pite, Fig. 3, consista of several compound raeruity Chloride of Sitcen Cell. Fig. 0 represents a small form of *; 
+ pairs of zinc and co} ne plates put up in Jnyers, always In De In Rue’s chlorido of silver cell, which Is remarkably well ‘ 
{ : the same order, and Tetweon each pair a mofst conductor Is ! adapted for electrical testing either on shore oF at sea. 
inserted, euch ose ab of felt. olatt or Pastaboard, 80 tat Sees Tho engraving is about 3¢ the actual size. te very 
2M. a succession of the ies arranged on each other from to; m , a + i . 
. ; : to bottom Is a. follows!. Copper, zine, felt, copper. zing, Fras, 7 AND 8,—NEW SINGLE FLUID. 
} Pee felt. Ono end of the scries terminates with zinc, and the y : 1 
‘\othor buging with copper.’ ‘Tho pasteboard or felt disks are | fll the saucer two-thirds full of warm water, Let {t stand 
‘soaked in Water mixed with common salt or sulphuric acid. | until dissolved. Vluco the zinc in tho saucer, and put the 
‘The cut is about ¢ actual size, = lead on the zinc. ‘ 

<" ghe Binple Zine and Copper Battery, Fig. 4, consists of 7 . i Fig. 6.—M, Onimus recently 
stripe of ane nal Cor ner bent at ihe upper one and saldored omnes eT A ten of Bctences a new ant : 
i. : > o cngraving. ‘The jars, : 

y ent tho size shown in the cute are tilted with rater alighaie simple battery, In aia ad foe 
acidulated with sulphuric acid.:. Tho expense of this ba tery : 
is Ca that it may be a fow times, and then thrown 

: ng el of th rigs use : ¢ 
| fh eRe Sd TOG ay oe ee al we ae ndebied 

H f « 

Fria 5.—TOM. THUMB. f 

; ‘ ee a - eek aad 

Rr oe ere oe as 

Sti 2 
SEARO Sto oye by mone enit , 

BATTHRINS.— i steer to 
= 6 Zino Carbon Battory.~ 5 
: Stake n Powerful Inexpensive Battory for 
; producing the Elootrie LiRtt. noice a 
.J—Bunsen’s zinc-carbon 
3 Pa sorta ‘of Grore's, the only difforence {rom fhe 
* Tatter being -_ substitution of eirbon for i my nant 
ie plato of ¢: 
: fol ao belie in time through tho ac on, of & i 
battery, and should therefore not be too th! i $ ne 
. necessitates a much larger porous cell ¢ han I 
7 Grove’actement, and makes the battery more 4 iq 
Tt ts, howovor, to ba preforred to Groro’ mn for (1 f | 
> ithe touch less exponalte, and 2nlonn ate : : | 
: i mn y : 
: te er a bad | temptation to workmety and at 
i in a mysterious way, 
Hinge dies eemente single cloment of Danson's 
pattery. aA shows tho outer cell mado of gi nate 
earthenware, or vulcanite, tho zine-plate bent roun H 
~ +, wich a binding-scrow, a, at the top. V, Brome F 
porous cell, with a ‘wooden Hd at tho top, tl rou 
‘ qhich a etick or rod of carbon pasics; anc ier 
+ binding-serow, b, is attached to the top of # q 
catbon-rod, ‘The wooden lid at the top is no! 
absolutely necessary; instoad of that a clamp 
binding-serew may bo fixed to the top of tho carbon 
3, (ver Fig. 2), Carbon is a very porons. substance 
4. G€ tho top is not protected tho acid will risa io a 
"by capillary attraction, and soon destroy me i 
+ fixtures by oxidation, For this reason tho top. 
*. encl carton plate or rad phould, before iret being 
is uted) ie oaked in hos malted paradin war ae 
. ‘Wf mtlacial carbon is used, 
1 coll ana shuped liko Zin Fig. 1. Tho carbon rod 


eee : : NI 
PRACTIOAL NOtHS ON ie cates : sok Ps | 

nal resiat. 

i (86998,.)—Bichromato Bi 

: attery.—You can get 
/Ras carbon almost for fetching from the gasworl 
“Pick out the fattest pieces and thoso of an cyen |! § 
texture, without any bright bubbles on them; : ¥ 
Then cut them up with a long soft-iron saw and {i : : 
plenty of silyer sand and water, or rough emery | 
j and water: eheatd them ou each other with thot? j 
-samo substances, You willsoon got into tho way |! 4 
| of doing them.—W. J, Lascasrene yh, 

». AY 
i+ +{36299.]—Economy of Carbon. + tho best 
“} artmngement and the cheapest is to have ono piece 
H of zinc and two of carbon ; you then use both sur- 
| faces of tho zinc, and as tho carbon docs not wasto, 
| ‘this arrangement is by far tho best. 
i Caster, 

(35205,J—Dantoll’s Battery.—To Tn. W: 5 
DANGEI.—Is there any objection to pal thecat. 
aide cell with powdered cupri phate, and fillin; 
up with water? Would this form of battery work’ 
fle tho positive consisted of a simple rod of |: with iron plate aud feria sulphate? If 80, it would 
¢, the exeiting liquid boing a_snturated |; | © chines it greatly —W, " 
ution of sul-ammoniac, A hundred thousand |}, f {36207.|-Dichromato Battery.—Tho pegs are: 
i Hi Jts so constructed have been act up for use, ne ators, and et thera to prorent the carbousand 

: i grtly for telegraph work, and Iy for hella |.| Bag fonching each otf ho bammer should be 

ae 4 ff getly eer | » and partly moderately strong and clastic; it must not bo oiled, 
aU milway signalling inateaments, When em |!] Have platinum only on tip of acrow and opposite 
yed for telegraph work, M. Léclanché saya |) part of pring. Ieead abont the constraction of? 

t they act very revularly for nearly eighteen he machine before you do anything 
\nths without attention; but whene r thoy Fhe my spoil what may now bo go 

ve been applied to instrumenta worked by |; ANCASTAR, Conad 
ctro-twayiiets of low resistance, numerous |: p P7072 Biche mato, Battcry,—Tho pegs on 
fects have shown themselves, the work done |! Tho spregot th fo keep tho lates from fonching. 
ping a toss of more than GO per cent. of the}! weak, or ft will ‘. "a er ahontd ot be too 

i j a cauno a disagreeable clattcring 

soretical energy. instead of a stendy bum. No oil is required on the 
n proportion to the electrical work accom. ||| screw. Drill n bole in end of ecrow, and solder in ay 
shed the peroxide of mnnganese, which 

price of platinum wiro, using as little solder as 
aia about 40 per cent. of the mass, is reduced poselblo, | Drill o bole in tho apring, where tho point 
the rerquioxide, a body which is not nbso- 

4 _ fonch nnd rivet {nto it ry ricco of stout platinum 
ely a conductor of electricity ;-the mass thua piatinain mill Te amine Fie asda ormamee with 
comes inore and more realsting, besides uy your platinum. It will bo of no ao on tho, 

3 Nite, 

> ; tt 11 holo drilled right through fin. 
‘ gat, and with oon can if necesenry, drill the holes 
in the lathe, or with an Archimedean drill. Two 
plates, each 4in. thick, elde by aide, act better than 
a rod of double the thickness. Tho end of a picce of 
copper-wira (mentioned aboyc) ie then to bo pasred 
‘through the top of tho carbon, and twisted as 
‘in Fig. 4. Tho other ond of the samo wire is 
soldered to tho top of the zine plate (sce Fi; 
Tho wiro may bo coiled round a pencil, as shown in 
Fig. 4B. : re wiro connections, and ia, folderedl 
’ and then painted 
ged cake abtate mea has retorts aro saan jee of Braaawiek' tack, appt pot, ‘The 
Tear eit atel ceca ot chin ike tion from olement to elemen ; 
jattersa aa ae seh Pieces of carbon, the erect hare reduces the work and time expended ined by the man of whom you 
{dal oul as nestly as possible of cqual size. i “the bi siderably, arte x or a or pat 
a itonget, zitelo ell H mul tale the carbon call a tho baley ave to fo scl at intra for other : aatares tote quant tice of ammonia ne. hammer.—F, C. Puruxy, 

0 10, or 2, in ‘ 5 i ls a 
iwne cell, ‘The action is aimllar to that ix Grove's ibtrip of ae rH tei etal to the to of the soe : {ndherunes: ‘The resiatanco of the eet}, whiel: 
cop ‘ ate, and clamped to tha carbon of the next cell. 3 primarily onty nbout equal 200 tuctres 

Tho clam required aro sold at 46, per dozen, but 4 inn, telegraph wire, attuing after somg 
rae riage alarmnan iy : ate $ feuatenn series op resitanee: ten the two elements fs tho same, for, the resistance. 
gen tines as grent, fir-placo could be x6 utili Vf ; vot : 

NOE: No. 721. Sax. 17, 1879. This defect is not of much importance in puflefeney of elected fora ana aon yprien ciestly oa Kis distance between the plates — 
legeaphie work; the clectro-magneta of re-}:' 1a not to this point that we desire now to call atten. : 

: ving instramenta having an average resiat- |i on, but to the wasty of power in using tho curront.. 

: (36299,]—Economy of Carbon.--Astho carbon 
| Insts long than the zine, it is tho zinc you should 
«| ‘sock to economize, Theordinary mothoil is, thero-: 

zense mothod.—Os. < 

described above need not bo carefully squared op~ 

i pint ditto it would ony in power the pint ditt 
i6 may be of very irreguiar sbapo; picees of ‘the a6 ' : 

{36300.}—Siza of Battery.—Yes; tho samo 
size plates, and at thesame distances apart, would 
work just as well for a short timo in a small cell as 
ino larger one. The reason for havin, larger. cols 
-is to hava plenty of solution so that’ thoy shall uot 
bo uscd up too quickly. —W. Js Lancaster, | ‘° 

Thormo-Rloctrialty save atvarions times 
sud in various places discnsast the qneation: What (36300.]—Size of Batt A rtor=pi 

part. will ‘Thermo lectrieity plat i ; th gine tho anong cureeit for baeet tiene 
regurds Electric Lighting? TI th Seca ieee: cal rat Riva, te, ane current for 8 short tna 

in not altogother satisfantory, yot wo believe that by | an lut dilto if; tho suetaco of carbon ard xine fs 

‘Directions for making, at low cost, a Battory 
for producing tho Electric Light, 

Boy 30 ompty aalt jars at 2d. cach, or 53, tho eet, 
‘3 oun porone cells bin. high, fo of 2a, ain = 
‘ab Sa. . per dozen, also leces of zine, 
Moin, by Sia. by'1-8 or 2Gin., ready eat, at Al. to 

no oimple arrangement the waste beat of almost nay tho saine, provided only that tho distance between, © 

How to Mako Battory Clamp-Screws, 

{Sd. por pound. Bend theso round as shown in Fig. 1, 
by beating them, i€ neccasary, as described in my 
‘Inst letter, and nama gomate thom, .Cut 29 ploces of 
{copper-wire (No, 18), each Lin, long. Buy alao 30 
/Picces of [carbon rad, Sin. by Hin. by lin, ready 


teat 44 OR FIGS 

Buy—at the froumonger’a, or at tho wholesale 
house in Clerkenwellowe pound of flet brass rod, ; 

‘Hin, wide nod fin, thick ; half a pound of brass wire, 

No. 8 gavugo; snd s quarter pound of etampd 
hexagonal nute, Cuts thread om the wito, and cut 
it in pleces of fin.; tap tho nuts, and cither rivet or 

jsolder the threaded wire into the nuts; drill a hote | 

at fin, from one ond of tho brass rod, aud similar 
holes nt 2jin,, Stin., 7tin., &e,, to the emul of the 
rod, all holes being 2}in. apart. Tap all tho holes. 
Bend the brass to shape in tho vice, as shown In 
Fig. 0; cut each clamp off, and Gt the screws in. 
You can make thus your own clamps at about Id. 6 ‘ 
piece, or less, Thoy aro just as good as thore mado 

ce equal to about 100 kilometres, the incre 

resistance in the battery being small com. H 

red with the total resistance of the line and 
truments, the current remnina sensibly con. 
nt. On the other hand, when the clectro- 
pyneta hare, relatively, a low resiatinnce, az 
railway signal inatruments, the increase of 
stance in the battery causea variations of 

rrent se considerablo as to render it inefll- 


‘The reaistance of tho mixture is essentially a 
hiction of the conductibility of the masa, and 
the adherence of the carbon to the latter. 

from onv dynamo-clectric machine for the coils of , 

tho electro magnets of the othr. ‘Tho following ; - 

sduotation will be read with intorost, and probably 
supgost all that wo intend to suggent at prosent:— 
“LT desire hore to record what I Telleve to be novel, 
jthat on the 27th of last Juno, with n thermo-olectric 
pile, consisting of 30 patra of biemmth and natimony, 
Ijin. square asd jin, thick, with the radiation of 
rod-hot iron at ovo extremity and ico at the other 
extremity, n roft fron clectro:magnot, under the 
inductive inflacneo of tho electricity thus generated, 
supported 98lb, welght, the moat powerful thermo- 
electria magnot I have heard of; but it must bo 
observed that this is no maximum, for whoover 
employs a largor elementary battery will no doubt 

{80301.]—Improvad Leclanche Cell.—Pleao * 
few back numbers; try the index of the 

search a 

Tast volumo; thoy havo been described almost. ad 


[36302.J]—Battory Polos.—Tho current’ pro- 
ceeds from the metal or clement which ia the most 
solublo, or which is consumed the faster;: in a 

‘zine and copper couple tho current. circtilates i 
from the zine to the copper. The zinc ts tho posi 
tive and the copper tho ney 

ent of the wiro 

tivo clement, but tho 

rom the zinc becomes the negative |. 9 

j ypoleand that from the copper tho positive, Os, 

56302,]—Battery Poles.--I hayo° 
j a list of clements, o8 per 
well to purchasa somo 

janot. You 

book on electricity} i 

from castings, but do not look quite so well finished, - 

‘The 80 elaments of our battery are to he connected 

na shown in Fig. 5; clamp-binding screws aro to bo 

used for terminali. ] 

i I givo heron list of fair prices (not uoreasonably! 

i on) of all the materials wanted for making up thot 
tory. oo 

Cont of tho Materints for a 30-Elemont Bun-; 
sen’s Battery for producing. the Electric 
1 Light. 1 

30 salt jors,2d.oach on 

would mye you much tima and trouble. . Tho. ola-! 
metts below aro olectro-positivo to those below 
them, nud conversely thosa_below are celectro- 

render it entirely independent of thee two 
ditiong, it is auilictant to employ tho com. 
sked mixture in the form of «plates united 
i a plate of horn carbon, having about half a |: 
wok : fuara decimetre of surface, In this case the 
* histance of the cell depends only upon the 
ductibility of the exciting Hquid between 
carbon and the zine, ‘Chis conductibility |! 
yds rather to incréase tian to diminish in 
ject, in proportion to the work done; chloride 
zino is formed, which ig a very good con. 
o . ctor, and the only varinblo is tho depolurising |; 
M4 H : wer of thomixture, ‘This depolarising power }. 
26 i 

obtain groater effects, not only as regards inductive 

dafiisice fete Iron, but at others 7 wich the F 
influence of tonperaturo may ba oxerted. Thera ‘ i 

ample fiold for inveatigation opon for those who have- nogative hi to ot cach | a. alte Pavids est a 
Idauro on thie subject. Who knows bat boroniter Caustic Potash Hydrochlorie ‘Sulphide « of |; 
j ngnetiam may be omployed us a prime “4 cid “Potassium 
j mover, and that n thermopile may bo tho oxciting ° ‘ * ote: Zi ye ate 
causa? [E. Watkins, in Phil. Afag., Soot., 1897.4 - 
:}It may be that wo shall bnve to record a peed: 
j, Soawer to this qu stlon.— The Elecfrician, 

al ann 7 

ic ic. 

Cadmium . Copper 

Tin. Cadmium 
Antimony «Lead Tin 
Loa «Trou Silver 
Bismuth Copper 
rou Bisinuth 
Copper Nickel _Bi 
Nickel Silver Nickel on 
| Silver : Antimony Tron i 
You will bo nblo to yet all tho information you' 
{ want from this table.—W. J, Laxcasten, 

{86303.]—Equivalent Battorlos,—Rend ans 
awers to query 36163, Let mo kuow for what pur- 
poeo you wish to uso the cclls,and I will tell you’ - 
the Fi Lay: 

* Antimony 
FIGS i * 80 porous pots, fil. onch esse 

80 carbon rods, Git. 4, ase we 7 

always utilisable ant effective, for it is moro }* 

30 zines, Od. ench wore = vee lan auflicient when the mixture contains only {! 

Qelamps ow. - ae on oy 
Mercury andwira., © ae 

PT few hundredths of peroxide of manyanese— |; 
i i - (deed, says M. Tedclanchd, the reduction is}! 
i . : ected to the last atom. ‘I'he inaintenanee of |} 

} “Many a student han until now, found it imporsibte ements constructed according to this method | + 
H 'e " ecosgary, 4 4 
« . toexperimont on the sleetric lights on account of the most easy, altico it fe only necesaary, when implest arrangement to use.—W. J. 
high prico of the apparatus for generating ‘the: 8 i \ , CASTER, | ae Ye ane ie 
‘current. I hope the instructions given above willl - i : 2 - 
‘onnblo such students now to unilertake the tark, ani 
aa any ona of them finds difficulty in obtaining the) — 
ntcrials nt stated prices I will supply him, + (Sea 
lAdrt., front page.) : “ 
1 Of courso 50 element! 

‘} using ono yory small carbon or zinc among the 30 
we roduce, then, the quantity of the whole number, - 
and waste our interial ‘Th. Wieacndangor. 

a etog q 


i polarizing the 
parts can both 
the one hand, 
acid, This acl 
of zinc; 

-E ployed is such 


iproperty is, 0s 

© We will now consider the 5 

jo sodhim; the 

salts without ex 

‘oniductor known, 
reat number of athe 
Mtrie, notably sal-nmmoniae, the hypochtorite of soda highs 
Jeoncentrated, the chloride of lim 
‘but all have given les 
trumotive force than 

“4 Tins battery has for its posttly 
~{ and for Its negativ 
ae | fry imei orl 
C D Ug 
i cabin is placed echloride of Iino contalned it 
} of elther porcelain, canvas, oF parchment paper. 
: ‘lorie of Time fy, us is w 
. LE bypochlorons actd and It 

rit cun attack the Time and 
‘Pheso two salts are very soluble, aul very good 

: ine In the presence of the chloride af lime is not 

J sensibly attacked, and conse ently batteries with theso ele- 
iments can remain for an ine efinite period without waste; 
jnction only commences when the circuit is closed, ‘This 

i conductors of electricity. 

Si ie a er pee i eee cee Ss 
By Anrnep NiAvDET. The engraving shows an Improved galvaule battery lutely; 
eclectroite n plato of zine, || patented by Mr. A. Floyd Deladeld, cof New York ‘city.| 

" q . ee 
Hectrode a rod of carbon surrounded by | pyig -nattery Is provided with means for Increasing tho, 
material. | 

7 strength of the curront by producing «more or less rapid 
into a solution of keyg teeition of the’solution In contact with the elements by 
meehanical means, operated by hand or by a motor, | This) 
is acenmplished practically by. fitting the hegutive element 
upon a shaft for revolution between the zine plates, aud for 

well known, a mixture of 
1g well su at for de 

rgatlve elector Its iwo componen 
pret combine with hydrogen to fort, on 
water, and on the other hantl, ehlorohydric 
id can attack the zinc and produce chloride 
proce chloride of 

‘The clolce of the substancesrem- 
that the combinations which take place are 
Itjs possible that certain double 
caso In all batteries; but if this 

as experiments with the batteries 

is well known, of great importance in many 

son for employing chloride | 
advantage {s, that it Is the cheapest of all: 
ation, ‘The solution is the best quid | 
But there is still another ndvanto ry 
resalts and other lqeids tinve heen 

diluted sulphurle acid, 
stilts and a tower 

The reasons of t1 

inferiorittes are undoubtedly very varions; the defect ap: 
{pears fo arise from the formation of an insoluble sulphate of 

ine whieh stoy 

: The eleetro moth 
experiment to have a maximum valuo of 16 
falls tu 16 after hs! 

~ | The depolarization produ vd by the ctiloride of lime ts not 

‘complete or Instantaneous, av it Es in 
atteries; Hf the battery is worked thrav 

resistance the electromotive force fulls, as ts the case with 

almost all batte 


“Ythe cireult bein 
$to 1°38, 
The Internal 

sible, The zin 
jualmple devic 

The amell of 
ewith the ordina 

‘ftects the salt 
securely in the 
be hertmeticall 

Inan experiment, the electromotive force being 
found to be cqtal to 130, the elreult was closed through a 
Zresistance of one ohm for forty minutes, the fores was then 
Hound to be reduced to 1 

: hr, great care having been taken to reduce [tas ninch ns pos 

jeumpletely a rrounds it, but. 

‘{porous cell, atits upper part, with asphalt, wh 

ns the further action of the battery. 
force of the new batlery is found by 
tis, which 

vernl months! Use, 

sulphate of 
ah a low 



ries, Butthis force regains [18 normal value 

increasing the effect the revolving disk is made In spiral: 
form, something like a screw propeller, so that it creates 0; 
circulation of solution in the cell, thus continuously depolariz.$ 
Ting thie (luster teen a reeenennonnrnetnrnees. 

Pre > 

3, bat at the end of forty minutes, 
2 open, it had risen to 1°29, and in two hours 

resistance of the battery is comparatively 


ec ts phacet very near to the porous ofl, and 
i$ prevented from touching by 

the chloride of Time fs hardly sensible even 
ary batteries, hecuuse care iy taken Co seal the 
Ih pprerey 
from the alr and at the same time keeps it] 
cell, The outer cell cn also, if necessary, 
ly seated, ns is sometimes done with other; 


Snland. Theee, lke the plains 

January 11, 1879. 


mountains 2,000 to 8,000 feet Migh were seen some distance 
plow, were free of snow to 
their highest. summits. Sumo small glaciers were believed 
to be seen, but they ended at a height of ubout 800 to 1,000 
feet above the sen. 

to a mixture of about one part sea water with two parts 
river water. This shows inc 

nn easterly direction, Other almilar currents originate from 
ihe Katanga, Anabor, Olonek, Lena, Jana, fndigitkn, and 
Kolyma, all of which pour their waters, more or Jess heated 
dturfag the hot summer of Siberia, Into the Polar Sea and 
render it, during a short period, almost free of tee. 

On the night between August 27 and 28 the Vega parted 
from the Lena off the mouth of the River Lena, ‘There is 
scarcely any hope now that the voyage will be completed 
hefore next summer. No doubt the Vega has got Into a safe 
winter harbor, and that during the detention of the expe- 
dition a burvest of scientitic results will be gathered. —Nature. 

(Continued from SurrtzwenT 157, page 218)). 
By Gro, M. Horns, 
The Daniel Battery, Fig, 16, is scentless, and docs not de- 


phate of copper, Tho porous cell, P ©, contains the zi 
site oe parakeet: a copper, Cc, hing nttacied one 
tket, ¢, containing crystals of sulphate of | whenev y ts 
‘illed with a solution of wo weeks re tink 

copper, The porous cell may be 
common salt or water slightly ncldulated, 


The zine is not amalgamated. Tho ‘ 
ating, g, of eoarge cloth, which is pa ihe 
tata ay fe Steamed, which uo be onec in 
ance for local batteries, but they are adm ably ade ee 

‘This battery ig especially adapted for closed circults; it is working long Ines. 

lesa suitable for open circuits, 
The cut Is about } of full size. 

Fro, 1.—GRAVITY (ordinary). 

The Siemene-Tlalske Rattery, Fig. ae ts 4 moiifieatian of 
jattcr substantintly in im: 

the Daniclt. It differs from the 

provements in the diaphragm, 
A isn glass ve: 

per-plute bent In 


Fro. 214—GRAVITY (with Disks). 

the porous cell, formed ofa piccullarly prepared mass of paper. 
"he muss of paper 
must be well compressed, and afterward n fourth part of its . 
weight of sulphuric acid is pourcd over it and stirred up un- 

UL the whole mass has become homogencous and glutinous, 
Then four times ag much water is added to it and worked 
with it; the supcriluous sour water is removed under pres- 

Z is a zine having » binding post, /. 

Fic, 10.—DANIELL. 

velop any polsonous vapors, and lenca may bo used any 
where without fear of endangering health or acting disad- 



vantagcously on the metallle parta of tho surrot ; 
tt - 
Talus, The glass vessel, G, Is filed with a olution of. Tae 


sure. The inner glass cylinder, ¢, ts led with crystals of |, 

sulplinte of copper, and water Is poured on i 

ho space around tho tube, ¢, is filled with acidulated wi 

Fra, 18,—METDINGER. 

ter, or with a solution of common sult. Afterward it $s onl 

neces ¥ to keop Ay inner cylinder always filled with 
pints Of copper, and n 

water in the outalde vessel “ie are ee eae 

sel; ¢, a glia tube; &, 0 perpendicular cop- 
h spirals, and having attached to it a wire; 
de, isa thin paste-board disk; J, the diaphragin in place of 

Cut, about y natural size, 

The Meidinger Battery, Fig. 18, is n 
Daniell battery, but it inns" no PR pe peg 
greater durability and constancy of current." It conslsts of « 
0 ginss vessel, A, 8 Inches high and & Inches wide, in the 
bottom of which is placed 1 sinal) plass vessel, d, of half the 

1 Fi, 20.—GRAVITY (with Wire Spirals). 

‘size of the larger glass, This vessel is cemented to the 
bottom of the larger one with rosin, A hollow zine cylinder, 
4%, which ts supported on a ledge of the outside vessel, sure 
rounds the smaller glass. ‘The tustle wall of the smalter 
gluss, d, Is covered by a sheet of copper, ¢, on the lower end 
of which an insulated copper wire, g, Is riveted. The 
mouth of the larger vessel is cloged by a wooden or tin plate, 
having an opentogin the center for the reception of a glass 
veylinder, 4, 12¢ in. diameter and 8 ing, high, narrowing 
toward the lower end, which fs rounded and in which a 
small hole is made. ‘This tube Issunk to tho center of the 
small glass, d. The larger vessel is wearly filed with a dl- 

Fra, 99.—-MENOTTI. 

Jute solution of Epsom salts. {t port of aalts to 4 or 5 of wa. 
ter), The glats tube, A, is Med with crystals of sulphate of 
copper, formiag n concentrated solution which, being the 
heavier fluid, vinks downward through the small hote in the 
ginas tube, and fills the glass, d, to the center, 
The zine Hsueually amalgamated, 
Cut, ubout | full slze, 

The Gravity Battery, which ts shown in. its simplest form 
In Fig, 19, consists of n glass jar about 8 ins, high and 6 ins, 
diameter, having a zine casting suspended near the top, and 
a copper plate 1s placed on the bottom and provided with a 


-Fia 33, 

5 L wire leading out of (ho jar, One or 
Fro eee of ropper are placed on the bottom 
of the jar, andesough water is poured in to cover the zine 
about J inet g 24 to BO hours, the battery is 
jn condition 2 the name of this battery indi- 

ers Doe rae 

cere tnennmetin na st fey, 

SOO ee eee OTRO ae 
Graeked Hattory The bes i) BATTERY 
P : ie : racked Dattory.—Tha: beat comou . : 
ne "succeeded “in solving ‘this ‘diMculty: ; baste 4 for auch a: pu -is simply gelatine allowed; to] * marae (Continued from Pe 88O) - 
rendering absolutely constant the internal resistance | : enter’ and fill: tho! erack, ‘a little bichromate: off | [ 7-J—Bramowate Tatterica of ‘hott “at tha fon, lok two ‘ 
" : ¢ ' f clectro-chemical potash being Hssolvet in It. On allow hig thin to ot plates of carbon, each hin, by 2{in., anda y ee 
of the cell, whatever the amount of electro cans . dry in the light'tho gelatine becomes insoluble. This] - f a teith torminale) of the sumo dimensions, Cut two 
work performed by it. ; ee igi 4 4 in Very wacful for several purpores “but Iam: not] ; iecea of thin mahogany’ boand, Sin, by din, uy Has 
The’ resistance “of the: glomerate is‘essentially uito certain whother it would resist the action of < aad: nnd aclamp such ns shown iu tho illustration 
4 function of the conduc ifity of ‘thie® : ues tho strong bichromate Vatorygsolution,-Siasa., i 
‘of the adherenco! of the carbon:'to' this tnass,: ; 

t thas! 
ot. ; Wig. 2). The clamp should hayoa rings frat : ‘ : ri 
oidigterteked BattePh Stopap themed] (soe ce crm om 8 als 
it ‘entirely’ 3 je +k with paraffing wax, using it liko putty, and thon| ei A 4 t right ain 
render it ‘entirely independent of these two'con : ; naint byer the crack with Uruuswicl Diack, laying i 1 _ two ploccs of wood, AY he aha, the two 
| ditions; it-ig: stifficient to employ the ‘compressed ' i ‘On protty thick and hot.nW. Pec : eft to tho top of the zine 4 te het tho te . 

' eareerate oe a che ped pene nae at tad ~ Gronat's Dattory.—The solution tised F apes G thea shits coment is clainped by | —_ Xe 
vA of horn carbon, having about half a square Meck: “Ss {ff is common salt, Sol-ammoniac is better, Tho solu. » 5 i ‘means of the top-clamp, co The fone bi te 
metro of surfice, In this case tho resistance of ‘the ‘ Hon will requiro little renewing, beenuse by the ; 1 anode with a ceo of bout brass strip, Oy le caldera 
cell depends only upon the conductibility of the i tae ree aatel the susan vlna Lorain neUHB : “ [Ads to ile i ie upri aerate ot trout bens 

: A Blackwell's, 0 Hogarth’s glass jar will | 
{ ito), mt You will fhud tho inside measures of tha first 
hay fe io iat by 2hin, dinmeter at tho top, “Got twa 


} Ty MG. Lecbaxcits 
Ix a note which I communicated in 1876 to the 
Academy, of Sciences, 1 mentioned that I had suc- 
; ceeded in combining, by hydraulic Pressure, certain 
i Aepolarising mixtures, among others one formed of 


they Hy 
5890,) fc 

ih one’! 
t zine i any other.” 
.,|  ¢atbon powder, Peroxyde of manganese and gun . if { 
: \ lac. Tha clectricity of this solid mass was collected : . j| from the snou! 
‘simply by a small. prism of carbon, three or four M1 Tho bost pla 
centimetres long, - ; 

This was embedded during the compression of 
the agglomerate} the solid mass so formed consti- 
tuted the electro-negative pole of the cell, while the 

! electra-positive consisted of a simple pencil of zinc; 
the exciting liquid being a saturated solution of sal. 
: ammoniac, A hundred thousand. cells. 80 con- 
} structed have been set up. for use, partly for 
; telegraph work, and partly for hells of railway 
signalling instruments. 
With regard’ to their use in telegraphy, I’ have 
noticed that they ‘work very regularly for neatly 
cightecn months, uninterruptedly and without atten- 
tion ; .but ‘whenever these . batteries. have. been 

described in my next letter, ia adsheslanaeh: 


aud split, or 
sot-scraw, In 
by means of a 
‘Tho solution 

} Applied to. instruments Worked by electro-magnets 
of low. resistance, numerous ‘defects have shown 
themselves : “the electro-chemical work done has 
never attained so’: per cent. of what it ought 
theoretically to have done," : : 

In these cells, in Proportion to the electrical work 
accomplished, the 

exciting. liquid between the carbon and the zinc 

ainmonia accumulate in This conductibility tends rather to augment than to | 4 

rate, with the inevitable iminish ; in effect, in Proportion to the work done, - iB oe . 
the’ latter, whence follows | chloride of ‘zine is’ formed, which isa very cood : (35838.}—Convorsion’ of Bunsch “into “BI i" 
etween it and the carbon, conductor, and the’ only variable is the depolarising "H@/ chromato Battory.—Put a solution of water 10 
sts cells, which ‘was primarily “power of the agglomerate, . aie gene ae parta, nud sulphuric acid 1 part, into the outer cell 
Only abouit “equal to 200 metres of ¢ mm. telegraph hi: 

*. foani ties . i a solution of water 10 pat ule | 
This dey olarising power is always utilisable and Tieton ‘nd bichromate of otha ‘part, 4 , 
‘effective, for it is more than sufficient when the; with tho carbon,—-WisenpaNann, i 
agglomerate contains Only .a ‘few hundredths of — 

Wire,: attains: after‘ some months Of ‘continuous 
Service, 2 resistance ten or fifteen time. 

In telegraphy this defect is not of n 

8 4S great, 
much import- 

peroxyde of hat the reds i {35858.1—~Convorston, of Bunsen to Bilt should profer thie “hatter to -all olhers: 
OF inh croxyde of manganese. “1 may say that the reduce | chromate Battory.—1¢ you wish{to havonouitrie [fy,g°0uld, mer thle ba erica crane’ sine 
4 Ameo, the electro-magnets of receiving instruments | tion is effected tothe Jast atom, ‘The maintenance avid, make solutions up thus: Bichromute doz, be. Ge to Yn, according to. tho sizes 
| pal inB an average resistance of about one hundred | of elements constructed according to this method water 1 pints sulphuric ncid 167th bulk of solution, 
kilometres ; the increase of resistance in the hattery : 

| being small compared with the tot 

f tho plates and their number, three carbon plates 

is most casy, since it is only necessary, when the 

t £ you have any old zine. sulphate, uso half-sat; pul two eines being employed in tho largest appa. 

. ‘ 7 j statin it wot sulphuric uct T part, water 10 OF kntus of tho kind. Wo aliould hardly think that 
| the. ‘tine and ail resistance of cell is worn out, to provide the carbon with fresh | 12, "ts ts for tho outer eell—Phont ALONE. i Sfunal outa eo snake thiskind of bata so cheaply 
: ‘sensibly asta ments, the. current remains depolarising plates, 5 cot ! (35898,] — Conversion of Bunsen into Bi- hs it can: Vought, tccauro the bottles aro high 
; étasibly constant. On the Cther hand, when the The old batteries constructed with a mixture of | hromate.—Yot havo gonu to work tho wrong fiu price unless ordered in largo numbers at o lines 
{ slectro-magnets have, relatively, a low resistance, manganese and crushed carbon, contained in a; way. ‘Tho tines are muelitoo lange for tie asbeng i this reason, and becanme tho battery described 
1 Metense ble, in railway signal ry eaenents,the | poratis vase, or with the eylindyleal agglomerates, | Youu relly neyuiry for good elect more carbon thau jvovo is rather expenrive, { have triad to doviso a 

crease of resistance in ‘ihe battery causes varia- | at present used for. igniting platinum “cj fire’ | zine, Now the best thing you can do is to maka up {form of bic! Pry 

tions of current. s0 considerable as to render it torpedo fuses, of somenttat Ian Yires to fire ! 
*  incflicacious, , 7 cs, Are 

Nu paste of carbon, and mould it into a far Ifin. [advantages of the ono described above, and could’ + 
of somewhat Jarge dimensions, : iy wb 

Inthe tructi f ha : Kcr than diameter. of zine cylinder, Fit up tho fbo made by nmatours at a fraction of tho prices 
nthe construction o} my, terics,’ I hive + 

whoto of them in this manuer, and you will have a [yuoted, and I think T havo succeeded, 

i a 4 ko nuch a battory tako a jar, such ns all 
. capital working battory., “Charge sith bichronate To mal my Indo (or 
‘ ? , been able to diminish their size and weight by one \ aiphurio nel 1, water 10. partemAV. dy Las [yrocers eclt full of John Morsis's Tunanalods, (OF 
, “half. By augmenting the number of plates attached oe pguren, eames ne we 
. to: the carbon, the internat resistance may, so to’ 

speak, hie indefinitely diminished, » These cells may 
+ remain charged for an indefinite period, the internal 
~ action being ‘ai? when: the circuit, is not closed, 
the conditions 


coats of varnish (shellac varnish {s tho Lest for tho : Envet of Sawdust and Ordinary A NEW BATTERY, Scuff. } 
purpose). The connections should be carofully ’.. , Y Callaud Batteries. s Tir: merits of tho Leclanché battery, now 8 untyersally | : 
‘ oe Nonw Conn., april 7. used where no great amount of energy {9 needed, are familiar 
‘ ICH, VONN, sipree te loall, This form of battery; which, it will be remembered, 
he Journal'of the Telegraph: is charged with peroxide of manganese and sal ammontiac, 
ding‘tho last lotter in has the great dllsatvantag however, that when once the 
ed.{o me after reading: th: { | Manganeso Ja used up the clement becomes useless, ns it 
iy THE THLZonarn, regarding the saw- cannot be charged a second time, There has been great | 
the gravity battery, that a much need, then, of fame agpiratuy like lis rhiel conld bo | 
. enally charged tke other batterfes, According to u nate re- 
ettling tho question of its epee cently presented to the Society for the Encouragement of 
rity, to tho Western Union form, would he National Industry, by M, Marcel, an improved battery of 
to apply tovit’ Olim’s law, viz: tho strength of our- this nature has lately been devised by M. Gaile, ‘The new 
Tent ina gatvanio circuit, in: equnl to the olectro-| <j clement is arranged thus; Tho binoxide of mangancse 
5 f the battery, divided by tho sum of placed in deep holes drilled Ina cylindsical plece of carbon, 
motive force of the battery, divid y which forms the negative clectrode, atid which at the same 
the internal resistance of the battery and tho resiet-| J time performa the function of a porous cup, The carbon tx 
‘anco of tho closing wire. . placed Ina olution of eliloriiig at zine is an a Vequidl 
7 : é 4 the positive electrade, + 
As the mngnotic power of an cloctro-mnagnet is Te a Raptr azine rod forms 
A ‘ . sot! : of the chloride must contain from 16 to 20 per | 
Pads ard gre shown foie oo ke earlonn, of ‘directly proportional to tho strength of tho current, cent. of tho zinc galt, and must be free from the preseiied of 
copper-wire, and also to a -binding-scrow. Tho . |) ‘it follows thnt tho grontor tho utrongth of tho cur} ‘Tiead, and shottld be as neutral as possible, ‘To Insure a 

two carbon plates of each of the rumaining cella , |: 3? rent, the greator will be tho volume of-sound pro-|, {perfect contact between the carbon and manganese the | ‘ 
tauat be connceted Fellowing cl ta Fig. ae : ducod by the sounder, aud as thia volume of sound |’ utter should be introduced Jittle by Ittle, and well shaken 

dotted lines illustrate the connections of the carbon |<< Md tw of tho highest importance {ti moat of our offices, gone batons was weadte tani Pye it gy oe 
Plates, The last zing should bo connected to, “LBD wo ahould notloso sight of twhon studying economy |, {thio powdered kind Iy Inferlor, ‘The electrosnotive force of 
are beast fron 1 red. Se ee ean. iar : ‘ in the consutnption of battery material, - ifthis new clement fs 15 Holla, or tho slecieo minlive foieaet 
two wooden uprights, and bent as shown aD and | 4 Enfecting a saving in bluo vitriol, and at the samo a coun aud ee pane ene OTe net attaation ely 
Moth eec eee nando ae fol on ‘eine Nand a J] | timo losing in volumo of sound can therefore hardly}; {innears, morcover, almost. com Kote y when at rest, even 
whcel can be obtained at any clockworker's, or filed ‘bo caltod economy. ' J when tho battery haa been scarcely driven, In this battery, 

Ne out of a disc of brass, It fe Hustrated ‘separately ; Now, let us apply Ohin's low, flrats—with the] fas in that of Lectanchd, there ts no waste of material when 
|FRACTICAL NOTES ON ELECTRIC ane aro attached quae of ait {3 the dowher | “H] western Unton form of tho gravity battery, with two|! | the circuit is closcd, since the weak solution of zine eliloride 

: has no action on clther the manganese or the zinc, An in 
“BATTERIES: VII,— THE CHROMIC] © N, anil to two hooks X and’, and fixed into -B) colts, and n sounder in circnit. 

th Jen f hich carrics tho plates. Lf . teresting feature in the actlon of oN Pmt? da. that tho 
ho wooden frame which carrics the plates, Ke th Vv | y attached to the zine, falla 
SCID OF BICHROMATE OF POTASH! then, the handle N is turned. Highe-handedly’, 5 Two cella would: give uaan electro motive force oxide of zine, Instead of rematning 

i ino state of powder to the bottom of the contuining vessel, |; 
- liko tho hands of a watch, the frame is wound up, 1! > YB) of 2.168 volts, nnd an intornal resistance of six |. , 

(Continued from p. 630, Vol, NXT'11Z,) faut al tho platen re lifted to thy positon shoven Ha ohina,. o>. ee rope acer Gevieed this battery. for medeal 
vidieemao aera srk ge construct a} P18 !+ At soon ax you stop winding, the ratchet 1 ‘Tho sounder would give a resistance of three] | purposes, he hing also — several forts a Hicalile to ae 
; obtain with se ane . ; : of no great] | rs: one, 125 millimeters tn height, designed for port. 

Troutto of reehang pend eat without the ig FIC F a off [obime, and the donmentie Stee: (eu - . (Hane uaess batteries; another, of 160 millimeters, for large : 
lowing desen iio ea " sey ill ind tho fol- : +. Hength), practically none, ‘medienl batteries and electric annunclators; a third, of 185 | 
B iption aud working drawings useful:— B 5a Wo should then find the xtrongth of current millimeters, for telegraphic purposes: and, flnally, one 225 | 

2.168 millineters, for such applications as ay to ee H 

FLOR os 

or .240 of one farad. Second: With tho saw-|  setion of several apparatus, i 

ss - =k : = @ | dust form, also of two cell, and tho same sounder, INT: 
ti 7 

7 TT Ti Hore wo "have tho sume olectro-motivo forco (for ftayia.j—Memus, axe any Borroxs, se 
tho nddition of pastoboard dixcs ani saw-dlust does 1. 267, {havo miasedt the aint at thg questions which 
vo i virlently as C 

not alter, a Ee aon bats | fase aligns of aco Trt anni 
closing wire, bat tua Jutornal sorisbition of one Dat: gaan in which the internal and external resistances 
tory 6 increased nearly soven fold, for one cell of | | have to bo rantntalud equa in two creumsauces 

. ve is sc f, { 
‘this form will prosent a revjataneo of nt least twenty oa titi ba ot Ae atu exterunl ress 
tot aneo, ‘Therefore additional oxternal resistance has 
poe 2.168 to bo added to minke it equal to that of tho fest 

iy ro — io work out the 
“en seouditions. FE have not timo to work ow 
In this caso wo find tho strongth to lia, ; or joo i tot : ‘| , 

er ied 


nel p with your left hand : 
n eadebed I pet ! . +050 of ono farad, or only about ono Heth of Chat 
on produced by the standard battery. If wo are ready 
to racrifics four fifths of the: volume of sound pro- 

i lot us all adopt the: 

quantity (1-10th) after’, ‘duced by our soundors, thet 

‘wht are ees neat joner. et mt ; * ‘enweduat arrangement at once, allowing that it at 
* * a woolen y q f y tha s i ; ° . : , 
which are placed 4 cells of Tass Coniter nites for any considerable ‘ save vitriol, as has beon elnimed ; but if wo cannot} 

ware, cach Sfin, high, by din. by 2 G 1 Pp iis, and, wo had better stick to the 
mny tonvententiy Feinnslony i a ee arma tervals of rest), the ‘i uffor this loss of sound, 

mahogany or any be wound out of the solu- A dfrected to bo ured by the company. ~ 
other wood: the dotted tines 7A show 1 cross “i ! : Mt tures : | 
: A bn ection with the 
dann nt sera oA Ban | alr SW eres ei sounder franesy ae arog, it 
tes Tho outside mensures of tho framo aro iii og. oe an re veil “be the samo whatever tho 
iV oui by doin, high, Each cell is to hold ‘two foi testy 7 icon). oe Se eee oe 
ea ron plates, and between them a zine plate, nll Tin. expensive, but will)” 5 ~ |variation: 
iu Sin, The price of such carbon plates ists. 2d, each; oi : : oe ; haa 
hat of tho zine plate depends upon ite weight, It Whera a 
should be amalgamated, nud can bo had at from bw of ebo - 
id. per plate. "The 16 pintes needed for making Tho pl 
yb b-ec Battery are all firmly fxed into a wooden |! 
rame (seo Fig. 1, tr, f, and ntso Yi 2) by being | } Bon 
i in. ‘ 
A Lattery of this description produces a current * 
of ample strength for all onittnty lecturo caper i 
mints, tho working of largo coils, powerful electro! 
mngnuets, heating platinum wires, &e, It produces { 
ho unpleasant fumes, gives io trouble in. roe 
charging, and thero ig absalutely no waste. of.! 
work. you ent ina fone ige uate done ye 
A ‘aw seconda, miso tho pla! 
: and thus put the battery out af action altogether 
fi : T.. Wiesondange: 

wedged into tho slots shown in tho it on Fig, 

reat care should be tuken thutthiswooles tants 

cannot becomo a connocting medium between the 

dna plates, es wool Selected should be quite 

wick black, or it may be rade t a recat Prue 

de to receive sever} 


i 15716.}—T was able to seo the paper of 23nd Ma ! 
a this ovening (Mondo; iy it is, therefore, impos. 
+ Bible for moto rep at ull to tho interesting lette 
« Of Mr, Moberly, 14686, p. 263. I will endeavour to; 
doso next week. But Ido not think ho has quito!* 
seen what my papers mean, very Ukely beeanse, as! 
am well aware, thoy wero not’ so woll-doveloped 
asTliko my work to he. The fact is they originated: 
in 9 paper read by me to a scientille society which 1, 
meant to convert into two articles; that }rocess of; 
Teconstruction aud oxpansion is not farourable to. 
Cleamess ‘and coherence, moro particularly when! 
offected, as this was, at intervals of other pressing. 
work, ‘Then it happened, ns it often hu npens, 
that ns 1 went on the 8 fractifiod and grow 
untit the series became a panorama of thoughts 
rather than a singlo clear pleture. However, that 
will not make Wrong fleas correct, lint then Fam 
not prepared to admit that my ideasaro wrong, and 
as to Mr. Moberly’a notion’ that I do not fully 
unterstand the afsolute system and did not, theres 
‘oro, give it proper form in my “ Electricity,” 1 can 
only say I havo received scores of letters from all 
Parts of tho world Mlocliring that tho writers 
obtained for tho firat time a clear comprehonsion of 
he system by means of my description, and that 
among all_the o1 sins ny work has been sub 
Jected to I shave nover met with one obi lecting to 
‘that part of it, My) igman, 



OURRENT, Ruined 

(16717.J—Mvssns, Gays asp Borrow: 
communication (lotter No, 15601) ant subject 
appear to have misunieratood thy question in tho: 

} Magnetisin aud electricity paper which they ty 
S and to havo come to the condlusion it Guokhies 
: ' 

in thoir 



7 thatis that the 
required to bo dono cannot he dong; t 
urren! ugh the gulvunomoeter cannot 
Es i Ot oie smitvout also altorig tho 
atrength o internal bat current. 
Lam ot hea ait had sever heen disputed 
thatthe current in 2 battery ie :iufluenced by the] 
“addition ofreaistanco to the external circuit; indeed: 
inalldext booka.of electricity itis expressly statod | 
that “the gth of. current is equal iu all parts 
of the ciroult:through which it flows,” iucluding,| 
of. conractho ‘battery. Therefore tho experiment} 
“described: in‘ the above-namod letter only proves.a: 
_ |fact-which-was-wall known before, } 
“Dut,-to roturnto tho question, I wish to show! 
“|thatat inquite posible, aud indecl easy, to reduce; 
tho etrength of the current:dlowing through the! 
*. |gulvanometer without .altering tho strength af 
: inthe hattery. 
} ue veclution ‘of dh question sroqnires a know-{ 
;Jedge of the Jaw of ahunts:and derived ciresits, 
To reduco the current flowing through a galvanos 

meter toLth of its strength, the galvanometer 

must bo shunted with resistance equal tot, 

of tho galvanometer resistance, Therefore, fn this 
case, tho shunt roquirod is of 142 = 12, 

" But when tho shunt is inserted the resistance of , 
, the external circuit ia reduced. Woinust, therofore, 
find the resistance of the two derived circuits, nt 
odd nufiicient resistauce to mako tho woxternall 
resistance equal to ft first amount, Now, tho 
resistauco of two conductors, forming derived 
circuits, is equal to tho product of their individual, 
resistances, divided by tho sum of tho samo. 
BY Thertore, ho, rositance 4 the gatvanomoter oni 
A Wl ‘ 
1 Trin” | 
eeribeny casois', +i NM. 
To increnao this reaistanco to the original -resixt-, 
fanco of ‘tho galvanometer by. teal , wo must 
Bridently insert a compensating resistance of 121 
nits. “Chen, tho external rosistanco heing the 
pio (121 + 11 =: 132) the internal battery current | 
Brill also bo tho same, and because the talvato- 
eter is shunted by a resistance of L-llth; ono- 
twelfth only of tho’ entiro current will pass! 
hrough it, * : 

As Messrs. Gann and Bottono ovideutly havo 
some facilities for oxperiments, and also somo ox- 
perimental jingenulty, I trast that their clectrical 
“research may prove some {inportant Jaw which has 
“nover been satisfactorily demonstrated, 

TlLitherto, they have proved, fn their firat letter, }- 
that liquids possess high clectrical: resistances, and }.* 
iin thelr second communtention, that ‘the current 
strougth ina battory varies fit the sano way as the | 
current strength fn tho external circuit, both of £ 
which truths have been well known for some tino, Be 

appeutl. diagram of the galvanometer, shunt, und 

compensation resistance arrangement; G galvan 

motor, Sshunt,.Jt compensating resiatnuces;_ 
: Me et e ‘Humble. Boo; 

1s wh 
botwoen the two cells, 

you may 
the cells will 
i{ Copper boing exhausted too suid 

a) tents, 5° 

: Jer usyinuco of Lime Batto: 
Narly men 
I write in Mbattery from oxpericnce, 
suporior cell to a hichromate, 
mato can bo bought at a fale price, it, will bo 
chenper cell to ya¢, It alao wor 

longer thine thof Ahp-pic)y 

oot futuro ‘in Atore! 



—1 havo some 12m, |' 
7 Bs leave about an ine 

per ce! if]: 
use a Pher plato in an outer cartionvate 
ring them much nearer than that aa 

contain sufftelent liquid to pre t 

ily iy ay : 

~Dantoll Coll, 
ich work very well, 

. We havo also to ant 
of Mr, James Ad: * 

boy, in whi 

native co 



ecimonts of |, 
ne A few 
laying tho. 
bar watroet, guid 
éey ql 
{15612.]—Is yourissuoof tho 18th inst, amongat 
(ho replies to queries, are two numbered $6302, 
1p. 145, nigued by “WT. O.? and Wiesendanger, 
1 on battery poles; in each of thes replica, tho zing 
‘ is put doiwn a the positive clement of each battery. 
‘Thin ts a matter then which I was in some doubt, 
Int tpon reading the replies ubove-tamed came to 
j the conclusion that my doubts wero necdlees ; how- 
over, I thought I would again try whot I had] 
toveru) tines tried before. if took iw battery, con- 
sisting of elyht patra of plates, zinc and copper the 
plates about S4in, squaro cach, anid excited ry Bul- |; 
phurie acid nnd water, ani connected the zine elo: |! 
iment to ono end of the wire of nn ontinary gat~ 
; Vanometer, nnd the nocdle was doflected to thio left, 
1 or weatwards; I then connected the sine clement 
; fo one end of tho coil on an clectro-maguet, and 
‘tho left leg becaine the south polo; I then con- 
aiccted tho wire from the zinoclement of a Léclanché 
, battery of one coll, and subscquently of six calls, to 
‘tho snino terminals of tho gaivanometer and the 
; magnetic coil, and the needlo was dellected to tha 
tight, or costwards, and the former south pola of | 
+ the electro-mnguot became the north. ‘Ther nurt 
| bo some mistake here; am 1 or your reapected and 
_Ablo correspondents in error? Perhapa one or both |: 
(oF them would reply, 1 certainly think that the 
list of ponitive and negative clements requires ro- 

o vision, noogedlag to tho composition of the battory, 

| but havo not t! 

Means for making the expe 



rye a 
sorry I cannot give you any information about thi 
have not yet mada anyy! 
experiinents with’ it; but: 1 betfovo ft to be a) 

and when tho chro 

grandes: pro smitres noad-roncont 
. rds fie d’ondroils:i La plus 'igrindeobdervie «jt 
ici; 8,8C0.'malres:en }se! trouve‘dans:to-nord-oues 
id. iA. ke prolondaur’moyerine da:-4;0/10-malrasy 
laipression ' 

profondeur supporte un poids de quatre cents kilogrammes 
por cenlimdtre, Un homme dans eglte situation aurait A 
résister” a une pression “vraiment sefrayante, Sans nul 
doute, les animaus s'aceg dent aussi bien de ees ter- 
tibles pressions que nous{de colle ‘da Vatmosphire, La plu- 
part ne ge montreft inéme gueére incommodt's par In varia- 
“tion quils subissent cn remontant,brusquement i la sur- 
face, 11 faut toutefois faire exception pour les poissons 
‘ vessics ngtatoire: ion des gaz contenus 
dang Ja: vessie. les enfley rilile fuyon, tes éenilles 
Hortent de la tate. 

sgdlations 2. digs detain vtoatid oe at, 
Le docteur Carpenter ‘aynit-ramené des corallines ou 
( innit :dy,varbyau;rouge, 
ée,., mais, leg. dns 


, ag 

té.das 7had 
_viyant, aux 

gous, du niyeni 
5 on,np trouve. guar 
* lophytes,siquit 
: ddpensiido leura. holes, .peuver 
- commmejles;qhumpigngns ¢la.n08: eaves! 
dgs éofaitilons, pechés fi. 13760. mdl°es avers 
“obnbseneo da dumidre;antrainantPabsento.t bit re 
ale, lejeyale organique eatincomplat.atsles-anitt 

ss deg 
dnt ennt! y:houriir-auy dépans. 
* ‘profondeursidoivont Joreé rea jos panies oF IB3,ta:surfaced Sans hul cov Te 
liad arrachis aus, rivigesi ener mat uae 

“ nourrilure. Un oursin dragué a plus do } 
fond, nu large des cdtes d’Austra’ ult. cies 
pli do ees herbes marines appa “omigil et Pon rane 
yeu : Findustrie conime erin Ve 1 ae valle 
Gey athe aateiales nitro Australie al ees 
Hébrides, des fruits de (alii a Leake 
vation, oit s'étaient installé ‘dos molt Ss punto WX 
Hen a ad ap alent tes Sables, c'est celle 
besoins des animaux quis peupren) cS | Sr ionoel ate 
pent ent lomber 

pluie continuelle de matidre orgnmisce que 
bat irissilee: Lean pee yy tomps né- 
ur le {i focéan. “ait croi temps n= 
,, Sur te eaten de cos corps légers, bulllt & ieee 
Laan il n’on est rign,-et-les_expérienct de a a 
fositior nt démonté que le-corps duno. salpes aes 
anaes at un mois;dans Peat de mer sans coe 
ot; rmotlfuit ‘moins de qua(te jours: pour 

9 1o,.ve : 
eb; qui 


ip nto (Reb 
PUB da 08 297 
? if 

pieces op nanqoroateq niet itea Wit 


alice, avail Pestomac rem 

t déiplus:do:400/kilog!:pat:centimétro.carnts. ” 
‘alrement dit un objel ou un dtre vivant plongé.4 cette. ° 

yee guvareulur WppGE itl 



“La destruction’ de ‘In: cuscute 
siaeepee eee : 

ommen. il est désigrdahle pour les ‘cultivateurs « 
do voir les trifles: envahis, par Ja 
il, ost difficile de go: débai 

» premidre: précaution: 
run champ de tréfles 

Hi, cuscule, ct combie 
rasser do celle mauvaispherbe. 
4 prendre, quand on vi fu 

est de se procurer de ines 
de cuscute, Si Von aclitte des inconnus de ia graine, 
on s’uxpose & etre envahi: pat fes,mauvaises herbes: aussi, 

it moins d'acheter tout & fait en conflance, est-il prétérable : . stion. j 

de vecucillir sa geaine § , monte ; on choisit pour cela a 
un champ de trefles un-endroit bien garni, bien net. de. : 
manyaises herbes ct surtout exempt de cuscule 5 on jnisse 
miirir Ju plante avant do fi faucher, eb bien steher Ingraine® 
avant de la rentrer ; c'est de svassurce de 
honne gemence, 7" * : 

simples et, 

apr ras 0 wal 
ment gur la cuscule sans: 0 ons différentes, ° 
Plugieurs éssuis na shee uirrait 
aurulont tonne a ers je. pomme qui ont une’. ¥ 
ayer’ r : AA ae 
également CSs1yrr sh calle des mares do raisin, 
composition analogue i celle ¢ ance Ps Guyot). 

is ‘procdlés ‘do-ta 6 we ie 
eis areil compose, difldrent . 

Lapparet a ‘par Ja sépa Myce 


oduction , m 

peuyent servir pour 18 0 
ah ee vd 4 ci um 
Wee Te 

antell ete 

4 Tyaed garrh Phe 
eats ce nace UY VO BYE 
King tho aticll by - : 


a date, on s'gn'souyl 

versello, frai 


ycoup, cependant, qu 
w’ello-devrait Ma(re, 

‘ ; ¢ a aia 
{ Varrachage,;i}p,‘aico! Lon. uk Leauwet 

to:nourritura. (Cela: es}, indisp 
I ces dtives,!dont la, végd{ntio 

2 Thestngocssaira;-en outre, quarto. s¢ 
eb la graine répartic d'une fagon trés égale,.p 

développermont des plantes soil uniformo. De plus, quoique 

ng lo vaso, de 
0 dacide sulty- 
: de Vacide azolique * 

ba 6 ratt 
de: serrage do i none 
it sur nos fe (lo systéme quelconque sone 
nu} Gures ; Pautro, “au sin, / com a 
nalo; Oy au zine,’ pir y 


disf] quand are 

Bes icas : 



; >”. Uno,ourteuse; industrie. 

~ Suivant uno: stutistique- officielle, ta Hollando a ex} 

- eruseize,anndes,de.t 864: jusqu’gn;§ 877, your plys. 

2 Tanla.milliang de trangs.doiunons sleilenrs; .c¢.f1uh,-don 
gn;moyenne deux;millions cjaquanty,'millg, francs, par, 
Cette, yalupr.naugments d'année.en année, d})l'expo 

de, 1876 s'est, dlavda;d prea, de,,leoip umillions « 

; francs; La,icullure de ccs :plantes, :tulipes,, jacinthes yet | 
““pidy autres du anémo. gente; acupo, 2A0;heclarag di Rap 
_ Bolg B8goud!’tigmiont,.deV. larg 
leqt: en:grand; ony Bhs sf Q) $414 

la woisie, 
‘gran ie ‘on 
no;culli ces. plantes que pour, lo produqlion 
iventles-fleurs,.on,lesfuncho, sf 
ln'stve,suriiles, On a 
Hleups..Quant nus: oignons)::il 1) 

dans, tous Jes ‘pays: dis, monda, ,cay,ic'e! 

le plupart.des jardinigps is’qdressentipour. ity 



out an 


Busi lies rocontly mado tho batter oot iy, and 

D:. Itisn moditleation of the Callau tions, havin 

tt! the usual pro 
ae a 
to it the ins a wi 

lacod sults 
te of tho | ba 

whilo in 

bottom 0! 

side of tho sholf b, 
without disturbing 
story absolutely cor 
that thero will be local 

| Cae ealolf, but Dr, Plush hotds thet p 

tos | action can 

take place, as there 
potween tho leces of zine and tho coupe 
atituted for copper in making tho ots 

of the Franklin: 
bo fed into tho 



mm THB 
: 1C USE, 

Tim: cost of supplying clectricity for the operation 
vof telegraphic lines and apparatus is not an incon- 
"siderable factor in the expense of conducting the 
i-busincss, ‘The most eflicient and economical form 

of battery for gonornting tho olectricity cequired for 
egmphie purposes is, therefore, an important !e production of thecurrent. A battery with a great: 
question, and necessarily receives much attention iMternal resistance, euch as aro the vations forms of 
from those who aro interested in telegraphic pro- what aro known as sawdust battories, will paket 
gress. Tt is in this rather than tho purely acien. tho material slowly, but on the other hand the: 

tifle view, that our contributors, to whoso. favors amount of curront derived from them for actual uso 

. ADAPTATION TO TELEGRAD: vantages over combinations heretofore commonly, 

employed, Another principte which should be con 

ovolved is in proportion to the character and quan- 
tity of matcrin! consumed, and that the purposo to be 

fj have considored tho subject. ‘These contributions) so docs not vary the clectro-motive force of tho, 
if which have of Inte, especially, een quite numerous) nattery. : 
| havo atated with more or Jess particularity and de 



tail tho experiments mado in tho direction of bette! other conditions being equal, will, whatovor tho rel: 
adaptation as to afliciency and ceonomy of tho bat] ative size of the cells, pivo tho same clectro-inotive 
cries employed, Aside from other consid erntions| force. The difference will Lo that the smallortho cella 
thoy uro intorusting and valuable, 04 thoy show tha] and tho leas the amount of matorial employed, the 
thoro isamong the thousands engaged in telegrmphid sooner will the battery be exhausted. figs ie i { 
service in this country those who think and reasox ples are familinr to thoso who havestudied sie ; ‘ 
for thomeselvos, nnd nro not content to accept ns final gcfonce, but aro restated for the reason that > | 
the conclusions in electrical aclenco and tho tele- our correspondents appear to bo unaware a a ae 
' gmphio art which nro more or less authoritatively and nro, thercforo, led to adopt Sane cae 
‘ sions from the results of their oxperiinents, 

' presonted to thom, 
Our correspondents and others engaged in oxperi- 
ments with batteries should, howover, bear in mind 

Wo would impress upon those who desiro to dis- 
that certain principles in connection therewith ar HASSAN a NRE re anes 
plicit in their statements, 

well determined. Ono of these, and it id ono which w.4 ronson for this will t 

ne Leena enthusinitic exper) constdored that ono tions pinibey aa ; 

in ee ity y é he 
H ho durability of a battery dopendd iy ork with sounder whose lever lint but at 

upon thoamount of work it is called upon to porform 
i play, whilo another wants a loud sound, und a corro.: 

i That a form of battery where it hos but o smoa\ ; 

HE umount of work to do deetops power fora long tin apond ing inereaso of the movement of the armature 
| is necessary; ono battery requires a certain amonn: 4 

without renewal, is not of itself suf v 
ibaeaaner pie gals teed aac’ of fecding for cortain work, which muat bo increased 
ifadditionn! work in required; 80 that, in avery enae, 

there aro soveral functors to bo taken into account, 
Ifonly ono or two of theso factors aro given, no 
available information is conveyed, and tho time , 
spent in proparing, as well as the space dovoted to 
printing such communications, in Practically wasted : 
Tt ts useless also to send 18 accounts of tho perform. 
ance of batteries of which all tho ingredienta deed 
and thelr proportions aro not given. Let our frienda, 
i therefore, in proparing their favors for our columns. 
remember that it is definite fuformation that ia 
wanted, This enn bo given by stating in hie fs 
unite what tho electrical constants of tho bauer 
aro; or, by supplementing the statement of the! 
amount of material consumed with tho yaluo of th 
current alono, which can bo ascertainad with ah 
cient nceurncy‘at almost any oflico now, ; 
vided with Catland batteries, ‘ 

as all are pro- 
for compari 

; ison, and n 
tangent galvanometer, for Meaguremonts,' can bo 
usually procurod, if needed, nt nny place, 

Wo do not wish to bo const i 
comutunications on thia anne cae, 
wenro much pleased to rocotyo and print (lone 
| whenavor thoy contain fools of value in th teen, 
or that aro calonlated to oxaite, others. to bee hae 
on or_rensont hich “shall po este ee 1 

At s 

would prove economical, or Tis employment offor ad- 

stanUy Lorne in mind Is, that tho olectricity actually © 

accomplished is £0 economize ns much as possible in’ 

havo given placo in the columns of this paper, will bo proportionally reduced. Tho size of the coll 

Two batteries of any given number of clementat + 

(May 16, 1879 


which will be of service to our readers and practical 

telegraphy, and to prevent so far as possible the 
waste of time and labor in making and recording ex- 

E is to indicate the drift of the information 


ts which cannot possibly be successful, ex-.- 

cept in again demonstrating the immutability of 


ples and conditions which have already 

thoroughly established. 


oe Joxn 6, 1879. 

.. OB: No, Tl. 

‘a bumer. Another way of platinixing the silver 
foll hy ihe solution, is to ay nest it by menus of a 
stout copper wire with tho zinc polo of a battery, 
and to attach a piece of platinum foil, which is sus- 
pended in the A atimain ‘chloride solution, with tho 
copper pole 0 tho same battery, Of course tho ¥ 

ininum foil and the silver should not touch on 
athor in tho liquid, ‘Chis is the process of cluctro- | 

pase ares 

Tonz 6, 1879. 


| producing a varnish that will withstand tho action 
: Of ackla moro effectively than Brunswick binck, we |. > 
‘shall be able to work Smce's, Qrove’s, Bunsen’s, j 
-and other cells moro.economically, and tho con- 
stancy of theso Dutterics will bo inercased at, the 
;- Bane time, é no 
Since’s battery docs not givo off any unpleasant 
fumes; it can be used for all ordinary experiments, 
such as working coils, bells, clectro-magnots, mag 
notio engines, telegraphs, &., aud is very exten 
sively used in this country by professionals for 
electro-plating, gilding, and -typing. For tho latter 
process six or more cells aro titted in a wooden 
Tramuwork, go that the plates can be ywound partly 
or wholly out of tho solution ; aud as the quantity 
of the current obtained depends directly upon the 
sizo of tho plates, or, in this case, on tho depth up 
to which tho plates nro immersed, this arrangement 
pres yery useful and recommenda the Smeo 
ttery befare all others to tho clectro-plater. In 
my next letter I propose to describe the arrango- 
ment spoken of, und to givo the necessary working 
drawings for constructing such a aix-coll Smeo's 
battery. Th, Wiesondanger. 

hy Sin. 
eco of 

Sin, by 2finy 
or inahogany, 


(16717.J—I snout liko tho opinion of * Sigma?" 
Vv. J, Lancaster, ayd others upon the follow- 
ing:—I huvo scen o very compact rotary clectro- 
motivo machino working a watchmaker’a latho, and | 
also a sowing machine. In fact, I beliove it is! 
patented by the Howe Company, ‘Now, what par 
ticularly nitracted'my attention was this; itis well | 
known how very rapidly, when put on a closed 
circuit, the Léclanche polarises. ‘Well, 10 nt any: 
rate wero working this machine well; thoy were 
connected in series (for intensity). I noticed, 
though the commutator was widely insulated, that 
ans ra is, tho contact I think would be thoroughly broken 
by the width of tho insulating muterin laced 

a Platinived 
pesine Aatteriess 
ucted that 
“ one ina porau: 
ater and imperv! 
Ly throw 
of this kind, 
present a i 
hattories | Fig. 
aud, to | foul 


petween the two halves of the ring, Would this, . 
thorough disconnection of thocircuit assist tho bat-« 

. tery, and. account in somo moasure for its boing” « 
uscd? Liwatched it (tho machine) for 16 minutes 
full, and was very pleased with the work it did, 
‘but 'I could not gut to sco the construction of it, ns 
the parte ara covered with a sheet iron caso, Asit! 
fs patented, of courso it would be wrong to moke 
one (even ifT could) ; but as an advanced student of. 
electricity I should bo glad if any oue could givo 
‘the detail. | From the outside appearance itappears 
to havo four permanent magnets, in front of which 
rotates a Siemens annature, but for tho ‘reason 

‘ ‘ before given Lnm not at all certain, and mention 

Yel v rt © Ht to assist those who will bo good cnough to reply. 

Coat ‘ ‘Uncas. 

rit mated, 


thin saw into 
w of tho fe 

. (Se 
fra. ihe 

AL Aw ene 

water 10. parts 
hed yes both 
! 0) ton at S. xed i i 
{ramo-work G 

f tho 
into ‘ dbs 
vated spiril 
en tho 

f | senling-wax 

jin, by 
dipped into 
1 part of oil 

huric seid fore se 
y Me is iinportant to 
oon hy {reo Hydrogen given off } 2 itty nro t ae 
ttory.: If it is dopoaited om acidulated wat 
i wil Yorm there n gascous of vitriol bay j 
arta current in opp cury. a ae 
and partly or wholly nottra iso 
tho intter, ning the action of the lattery. nel 
Tha spocess, whiclt sof the very it momenity aN 
nnd should always po carefully cons 
invention, construction, and iso ¢ , 
S| called the «potariaation ” of battery pl 
E lit changes the polarity. of th 
Many triclans object 
fon’? ; bu 

tho 36} 
film, whi 
tho origin 


ro that « 

6d, When usin 

uco only Oo! 
austofully comsin 
‘put tho solu. 
tie time that it, 

rfaco We! 

Ve paint 
Pes tained a current 

yng from tho 
r\ nie it meu. tho current 
inary»: Ye 

oftha Suadiuary 

in intensity, white 

surfaces wore | eal 
current, and when 0 

Intion being exhans 

Bs enn current. If wo 

and not on 
on of 8 tion must 
would bo 

urnishing & 6 
| had ceased to 

tho lntter still 
should succeed in 

\mnora expe! 
ito the requ! 
tof platinum 
avare, dip the 

f glass or carth 
Wautd aver a Bun- 


verre it lar’ 

jose qu sry! A AEN 
grammes pour’ cent’ grannies Wea 


bs soe’ 

Seton ee: 

{37031.J—Medicat Battery.—E.11. Hills will 
Tam sure, pardon mo if I say I cannot understand 
his reply to my question, Willhe kindly explain? 
Provabl ly there isn misprint. Iahould also like to 
add tomy query Ta it understood that the cura- 
tivo power of electricity is greater from some op 
paratus than from othera? if so, is tho causo in the! 
number of elements used or the kind of clements,: 
nnd is the effect upon nerves and muscles physio=! 
logical or mechanical merely !—J. D. : 

+{87051.]—Iedical Battery.—Magnoto-clectric 
uunchities are generally used for medical purposes, 
The moat useful coustant battery to work a inedical 
coil is the Leclauché battery. You would want 
about 20 smallesizo cells ina caso, ‘The bichromato 
battery would bo less axpensivo and Jess bulky, but 
would want a little more attention than a constant 
battery. —Wizs) a 

(97013.)—Battertes.The con 
of ite bimaneter totic The constancy 

Fle awistons 

(87076.J~Economising Zinc Platos.— My 

.  experionco taught mo that sealing-wax varnish wil 

protect the wooden framo in Smeo's battery for 
some considerablo timo before it need bo rencwed + 
whilo it does not answer so satisfactorily on a metal 
aitrfaco, aud oven less so on tho positive elenseuts of ° 
a galvante battery. —Wirsexpaxarn, 

Veesemn at 

lient ayeo la pile dé Grenet, un courant tres 

tv, l'une “avec 

# Weiius * 

chirditinlédé potnayy 


i 8el yr 

He bt-eiealnite faa phi 
vee’ La polity: Senin ile png 
um v 

} npent dens ‘ames -de- 
charbon Inissant ealeelles un intervalle @environ: un cen 
timélre U t 

bones a vis cohimuniquantait 
0 luux!'chartions, 
tices hdres qhéyts'ittal | 
ile. 'Cielleréi * ust charge! 
f chbom 
daiis! tes" proportion 

On'évite'en! sig 

¢ é‘vonitivie 

e8 'Mhiinipildliony nude Udsig 

Vacide sullurique et du“bitehiomale 
ate . yee 

“de ‘Vachde veliro- 

should be ground to givo.cluarance auglo on Lath 
vader faces of 3, w point or frout nngle of 907, and 
this ground back on the top to 147, ‘Then place the 
tool sn the rest 50 that the righthand, or following 
cdo, Hes nenrly parallel to thosurfaeeof tho cylinder 
to he turned, “1 suppose ‘the toul to traverse from 

ta loft. on is not quite the best auglo of -. 
rt » 29 120? is hotter, but tho’ above-named, . 
giving a graver point, or, rather, fico grarer edyes, 
of G0’ will suflice.. Thus placed you havo both 
edges cutting, and, with duccare in gotting correct 
angles ani specially attending to thesmall clearanco ~ 

angle oF), you will tnd pho resylt satisfactory. a 
bis Niodants de 

AG 0 % 
MEMOWANDUM OF exelit f { 2 ; 

a aT litnitée,’ por : 
que Von veut frire! des Ruhmkorl, 

‘Ug PbuTasErNousintroduirorn solution dans, la boule ill ‘WITT! A: COAL-GAS DATTERY., 

[16305.]—Auavsr 29th, 1870,—Completed tha 
conl-gus battery Hl each cell consists of a SIb, glass 

verre (dn énldveilb ‘cdiverolg;:et Je lournantisur luimds 

Jetadels lotinuidate 1 me‘en at q 7" 1 melt mamnalado-jar, inside which is a plate of lead, Sin, 

_ Ot Verse lodiquidatst“onrrefurme n ayant ( F exemple Pour eye t hy Gin, bont rounds inside tHhid fa au Bin. pass 

ra alipportint luflame doizineng t4 nt) es: is i ugir Len ake Bg) F burns chimney, a tho top ot vee it a nleee i 
ee wre ta ae ee, A +3! n am! of mahogany: fed in; a brass rod yoes through to jy 
Getta lahne. set trouveaingi maintenu’ caucdysst canny tt : { plate of lead, Sin by Gini, rolled. ap to: go inside 

i the gaschimney. A small piece of tuba is also put :~ 
through tho mahogany, and all jointa mado tight - 
with paraffin, Tho glass far is filled 2in. deep with { 
sulphurio acid and water, 1 pint of acid to 21 pints : 
of wator, by measure, ‘T'o each of tho tuhes abovo : 
mentioned is attached a short piece of indiarubber © 
tube, and these aro all carried to one comnector, 
whichis then joined tothe gas-burner, and tho gas 
turned on, the inner glasses belug lifted out of tho 
acid und water to allow tho conl-as to blow 
throughand fillthoglasses. ‘Phe galvanic connections 
aro then made from the inner plito of one cell to tha * 
outer platoofthonext. Tho cellsaro threoin number, 
«A current wus given which mado o lowd sound 
\ in the telophione, dutlected n not very sensitive gal- 
} vanometer, und worked the microphone faintly for 
{ashore time; tho current soon fell off to about ono- 
'third of its full etrongth, judging from tho sound 


tions que: 
autrement pour, la.dor 
assur courte;puisque: 
fucd de Vob, 

longe: tant que'te liquide. ness’ 
transformer an'sullate de zine,-eb elle dép 
ment de ta quintitt-de soliition coptenue dui 
verve, Géndralementdes:appareits que ven 

Ie. vase 

de, ‘in tho microphone, but in about half a intuute wna 

rot Pagain up te ita {ull strength, On the followin, 
faible, ou, d ‘morning, tho 30th August, the battery appeared 
par. exemple, ils. sont. iby sound, to ben little stronger, but soon fell off 
ssujels:i a a when short-circuited through tho tclophouo; it had 

ompreintes: et spgdlatine, 
longtemps maintenus dutis ua 
y an Meee t, 

been disconnected all night from tho gas-pipo, and 
this morning was again connected aud well filled. 
It was tented daily ‘by the telephone, no freak gas 
Deing adkled, and until the tth bo tember appenred 
to retain ite full atrongth, though it foll off day by. 
Quy more rapidly when short-circuited. On Sop-) 
tember Gth thu power was much retuced, but tho 
\ : power of ono of the cells waa about equal to that of 
He on t all three, Ou September 7th, the power was much 

further reduccd, though it still mite a loud sound 

hain electro-chimique. 


tho p : in tho telephone. (Iho pieces of tnahopany used. 
and 1 1] to stop up tho gus chimnoys wero. oiled in 
pintinise ati i paraffiu, and the lead was the thinnest I could got 
‘nurfaco atthoplumber's.) Oncof: tay tolephonemannotty fh. 
ditce on 4 coroand No, 30 wire placed in tho circuit, au ordin- 
Stasta. : nry Boll telephone cotl of No, St wiry being also in 
one circuit, would attract or repel a small compass 

4 needle 10° on either side, acconling to tho direction 

of thocurrent, September 0th.—No change in tha 

.| latory ; it would not work one of my clectro- 
| magnot telephones, but continued to givo a strong 
sound in the Bell telephone, ono of tho cells being 
ng strong as all threo; I short-circuited tho battery 
for an hour and a half, but it did not fall off per 
coptibly, ‘Tho threo cella of tho gas battery were 
not equal in strength to ono cell of tho Gravity 

ek Pnedtesnnd, Wer the,.auimato 

“1 A wew form of Leclince battery hng been Introduced by 
'the inventor, in whieh) the high: resistance of the older 
‘nattern ts diminished, and the employment of a porous pot 
b dispensed with, a corbont is sueraunlee w th a a 
ture of 40 parts of pyrolasite, 155 parts of grain carlon, wn c f 
6 parts of vain, tho latter neling as nt cement. This com- Daniel, which latter had ne been remayet or 
position is heated to 100° Cent., and subjected toa pressure; seni forat Leas two monte eptom ee 
of 800 wimospheres, It forms a homogencous cylinder, te tat wight lochang ho battery, 

the center of which is the carbon electrode, ‘The Inventor { Soptonbor 11th —Tho battery was thort-cirenited’ 
terms It the “conglomerate mixture * battery.’ ‘The elec allalght, and when I tried it this morning thero! 
tromotive force is nlso higher than In the older form, He was only a very slight falling-of in tho strength! 
has also recently added depolarizing plates, which’ can be nud it recovered its full power in n fow minutes. | 

new . They are simply attached by ‘Phis ovening L again charged tho battery with coal 
dere cere ge pis sd : pas, io gas avi been allowed to cuter tho battery | . . 
: ree ini a ‘ t tie elect: sinco Aug. 30th. ‘Thera was no perceptibloalteration 
(le vases plus, grands contenant It appears from. careful experiments that the ites i: 1 sage ae vot tho battery quen hogan yeas just 
; bis ou q uals » fy plug motive forco of this arrangement ts bay of Si otaae ‘| added, but iu nhoutan hour tho current had become ; 
Bart A wt Se a ‘iment, and the resistance when new 0 718.8. U. The elec. tiuite ‘trong, gave t very Jouil sound in tho Bell 
he q delle tromotive force, however, diminishes rapidly when the ox ') tatephone, and a strong sound in onvof my cteotro- 
din copie ternal resistance 1s low, recovering quickly when tho battery maguot tclophones with a Zin, T put the 

: Aras hay : fcrophono in circult with my watch in tt, and tho 
NS Se. 5 di = 1574 . Bell tale Mono also in cireuit tho tick of the watch 

yas fondly and clearly produced. “I leit tho whola 

1 working, Sad atthoend of half an hour thero was 
no falling off {n tho strength or clearness of tho 
sound. When working tho micropono this ovgning 
tho threo cells wore coupled up for: quantity 3 inal 
provious experiments thoy wero coupled upinseries. 
Sopt. Mth.—Tho battery continued to work tho ; 
microphono well up to this ovening when it fell off 
alittle, no gas having been adted since Sept. 11th, 

un vase de la pile f 

‘ ay Eee y : F 
Daniell, Cy yase est recouvert d une place ‘de ‘hols ‘oti 
mieuy de, cnoutchoue durei & laquelle sont fixées, au-des- 
soug, les flames de charbon et ta plaque dy zipe; au-des- 
sus, les bornes “Watticha “des“conducteurs, bornes qui 
PRK KER MAT charbons et, Jes, zines| cod la” fad thotattory having becn ahort-cfronited through 
2 Oa ern sala, i a vi ay v7 Nt i ye ‘ if J telephone for nn hour and an 
soluilian!tt ttdivierlsal habe tt , ont eoduvre [eluitel de 3 ! : descr halt at o thio on several occasions. - 
son couvercle Sept. 15.~<tho battery would not work through 
Tuiie! the ‘microphone, but gave n good sound in 
AIGUIGL, 1G GC tho telephono; charged tho hattory again with gas ; 
apyler, tn, prox 

dL lot it blow through, but Tcould got s10 sound | 
in tho ‘telephone until I turned off. the gus, when ! 

mecarising quel- 
Ura nchon'd 
ahi te Ne ae 3 


pasunle,, f 


9! i 

Bes rapid 
rat nen “8 

ic man 
a te pet 



Fort “of /LECLy 
if rot be 

f Leolanché-; 
very considarable resistance;:and the 
employment2of a porous pot was subject to many 
| inconveniences, which have. prevented the: greater, 
employment of this.description of. battery. +. In the. 


~ te cewand improved forms the inventor has dispensed! = 

swith this porous vessel. The carbon electrode is 
roundel with a mixture composed of 40 parts of 
ipyrolusite, 155-parts of grain carbon, and § parts 0 
. [resin, this latter substance acting as a cement. This 

. leomposition is heated to 100 C., and subjected to a 


ressure-of 360-atmospheres ; i forms’an homo: - 
[feneou ade in the axis of.which is the carbon 
electrode,» The inventor has given’to this element * 
ithe name- of “conglomerate: mixture battery. 
"(These elements are extremely easy to manage + their 

lelectro-motive force. is higher than that of the old 

é form, and their resistance less. Under the influence 
>. ‘of the current, the peroxide: of manganese is’ re- 

duced tothe’ sesquioxide, a bod ich is not an 
‘absolute conductor ‘of clectricity Tho conglo- 
merate will then offer a more or less high resistance. 
Moreover, it fills up the pores oftheconglomerate with 
considerable quantities of ammonia, which tends to 
decomposeit. Whencompletely exhausted, itbecomes - 
‘a useless mass, which is onl fit to be thrown away. * 
ML. Leclanché. has recently devised a new modifi+ 
‘eation, which is made by attaching to the, carbon 
‘depolarizing plates which can bo renewed from time 
‘totime. ‘The two or three plates arc simply attached - 
ito the carbon by india-rubber rings.) 9) 8 
|, Asregards the value of this new.form of Leclanché ; 
‘battery).in the Zraite de la pile electrique'of Niaudet, . 
‘the clectro-motive force is set down as 1°6 that of a: 
‘Daniell, and as: regards its resistance, M. Barbier: | 
‘states that it exceeds that of an iron wire 4oo metres ” 
Yong and 4 millimetres in diameter. ‘The present 
; ‘investigation was made in order to determine the. 
‘precise valuo of the battery. ; 
Amongst the different methods devi 
the resistance of galvanic clements, 
remarkable for the exactitude of. the results i 
igives, and this was in consequence, the method. 
‘Chosen, \.In-order to determine the electro-motiv 
force, I have employed a condenser of *5 microfarad: 
‘capacity, and have measured the discharge from i 
ona Thomson galvanometer. a 

Resistance Measurements, 

’ J, An ordinary element of the No. 1 size, viz. t:: 
Inyo millimetres high and 75 millimetres square, | 
‘charged, according to.the directions of the inventor, ..~ 
‘with 100 grammes of pure sal-ammoniac, and with 
Water sufficient to three quarters fill the jar, gave a 
« ‘mean result of 1325. U. ,. ; : ‘A 
-AL-The same element, after working an electric 
pendulum on the Hipp systen, and in which tho | 
‘current is broken during 8 ‘0 or go seconds (resistance: ° 
of clectro-magnet 38.U,), gave a mean resistance, 
of rs13S.U. sake ae : 
IL} After an interval of two days, during which 
tho element was not worked, the measured resist- ° 
‘ance was 1°153 S..U, -- . ‘ 
i+ 1V.. Five old conglomerate elements were tested, : | 
‘These elements had -been joined up. at the end of 
December, 1878, and: were since that date often 
employed for the measurement of the capacity of 
gutta-percha wires.. The mean values attained wero * 
as follows :— : Se Sa : 
Element No.1; we ga SU, 
: roar reer Ba ie O32 oe 
woe i usr 
” ain Se eg ote AOS BS 
Rees Pree St STD 

: plates, 

i millimotres, “as he 
“ Gn'the same way-as the pi 

» The measurement being 
the liquid had been place 

| ance was found to be 1370 S.U. a 
y he same element measured two days later 

6 S.U. 2 
1g measurement being repeated a day tater 

Ekeetro.motive force measurements, 

| Aga standard I took a Daniell clement, carefully ! 
prepared. The ‘specific weights’ of the solution + 

cing kept as nearly constant as possible. 

“L The element indicated ‘under the ‘previous : 

headings I, I1., and IL. 

te Two hours after being charged, the clectro- 

motive force was 1°46. ~ 

2.'wo days tater the result was 148. 

ILThe '§ ‘old elements, indicated under the 
previous heading IV, gave the following results:— 

ie Element No, 1 ae 5 ‘ 
. ‘ i a0 1°42 



ing tested in the meantime :— a 
ant. No. 1. 1'43 
: J go 
“TAs | 

IIL, The element with renewable plates, indicated 

under the previous headings V., VI, and VIL. 
- 1, One hour after being charged -- : 

, yn ae oe ‘ 
2.-Immediately,’ after the measurements V. and 

mneo ‘ 

ie F F mie 1°38, t a 
3, After the measurements VIL. 
‘ “140. 

“4. Three days after the measurements VIt., tho : 

element not having been used in the interval 

“ ‘ 143. 

idly when 
lement will 

te, the batte: 
circuit. or 'w! 

“the batteries : 

M. E, Cail has, from numerous comparative experi. 

| ments, been led to advise the Fi 
H ministration to suppress the. silt cate er 

*, NS y 
the larger being, however, retained because ports . 

powerful current and capacity for chemicals, . 
tery of 650. Callaud elements has been er : 
Lille by. 1,440 other elements, The ;Marie-Davy is 
recommended by M. Cail when the mercury in it i3 of 
ood ality hut the Lestanehé, is preferred to it, and 
AS a mai it i 
phe > iating Ls . : ¢ : out for it in offices of the 
Nitric Acto ix Batterie: 
states ina letter to Nature, that a 
and half dilute sulphuric acid is preferable to nitric acid 
alone in Bunsen and Grove batteries, since it gives-off: : 
less:fumes and by. decreasing’ the, internal resistance : : 
inreases the current, at least to begin with. i 

pnetendeety ola 
} Greasep ‘Zinc 1N° Batrertes.—M. Bandechon,! 
jn L’Electricite, states that he. has found a: sule | 

; phate of copper battery with the: zinc'cylinder slightly.: 

greased on the outside surface next the vessel, and a! 

+ mixture of, vinegar and salt for the solution, to give a 
stranger current than the ordinary Daniell. 

“Galvanic batteries, 
by Alfred: Ninisdet, Paris), Dated ‘ Sept. 
19. °6d:" In this battery chloride of lime is the 
depolarizing salt. The ‘zinc poe is plunged: in a 
solution of common salt and water:s..the carbon 
pol is surrounded with chloride of lime in a porous»: 
a battery js enclosed,in a hermetically sealed, , 

Cheanina Eecrropes.—\MM, Beilstein and Sawe' 

' of St. Petersburgh, have found ‘that: metal electrodes © 

arg kept clean by being well rubbed with oleonaptha, a 
lubricating oi! prepare from Caucasian petroleum, and | Ragosin, in Nischny Novgorod. The residual ; 

oil opposes very little resistance to.the current. : ° 

A Hoxe-Mape Dantuut Battery. 

don Eleetriciin gives the following directions 
for making « ol: Select s small round 
carthenware' hy ‘neod for keeping pres 
norves, _ and ned + the. bottom :with 

utta-porcha, or’ suitablo* cainent, “to the, 

lepth of one-quarter inch, fix,upright in this 
rol of -zino,éof equal hight with’ tho-jar,-J 
which a Jength of bonpor wire has been attached! 
by paastng it through o holo drilled in the uppe 
partof tho zine rod, or by soldcring., Mako:a 
cylinder of. pipo-clay, or other porous clay, 

‘JIargor than tho zine rod, and ‘having, driod 

make it lot in the fire by ddgroes, till it attains 
ared hoat,’ ‘Let this oy finder cool gontly, and 
whon cold place it in tho jar round tho centor 
rod, cnoircling it at a little diatanco. |B; mod> 
oratoly heating tho enc of tho cylinder, it will, 
whon placed on tho gutta-percha, maka an groove 
which will fix tho tubo and provont infiltration 
of tho fluids, Lino the insido of-tho jar with a 
late of thin copper.‘bent into, a cylindrical f 
orm. and having a:fow holes ‘punched :{ it, |! 

oP aD Many AOE 27 
Tue Action or Lrant on vite Vourare Bartery.—Thol: 
question of the effect of light in modifying the electromotiva} : - 
force of cortain forma of battery has been carefully studied 
by M. Edmond Bequerel. Some further researches in this 
direction, carried out by M. H, Pellat, at the Inboratory off; 
the Sorbonno, are, however, of considerable interest. This 
physicist constructed two Daniell couples, of high resistance, 
[fovea of two concentric glass vesscls containing respec. 
| tively the sulphate of copper and sulphate of zinc solutions,: 
‘tand’ communicating only through the minute space inter-! 
yening between the neck of the interior vessol and its glass 
stopper. ‘These two couples, perfectly transparent, were kept 
during five months. Tho ‘zine was not affected ; but tho}: 
copper became coated with a greenish deposit, In spite of; . 
this alteration, the elements were found to have maintained| 
their initial emf, which in one caso was 1:15 yolt and in| 
tho other 111 volt. ‘This at lenst was the result of measure: 
ments made when the couples were in darkness ; when the 
were exposed to the raya of the sun the e.m.f. was diminishe 
by quantity which reached one-forticth of the total value,|; 
or 029 volt. ‘Tho effect of the light was very rapid, and}; 
ceased immediately the rays were intercepted by means of o 
screen. . M, Pellat is confident that the effect ia.not due to}” . 
an elevation ‘of temperature; the immersion of the couples 
in fluid’ at 50°. not producing any very sensible effect,)’ 
whilst'a red glass, allowing tho passago of one half of tho} ° 
solar heat riys, produced the effect of an opaque.sereen. On| ~ 
the other hand, a glass trough containing u light blue solu} . 
tion which allowed of the passage df only one-seventh of tho 
hent rays, was found to transmit, one-fifth of thoso rays 
which wero eflicacious in producing tho, diminution of the] * 
lectramotive force. It appears theréfore that tho effect is 
ue to the more refrangible rays. ‘Wheét'the copper clement} 
ofsthe Diuiell is quite bright, no effect*is observable; it is 
scasaty that the copper surface should have undergone 
By concentrating, with.o lens, the}. ° 
ns of tho couple, M. Pellat ascer- ee 
tact of the tarnished copper, 
ution ia alone sensitive to," 
8 ia to render tho copper, 
ay bo constructed 
pper wire oxidised in # ; en burner; + 
ut in thid case the -effect ig to, ren 1 an 


as sev aorieees 
Be ‘HOWEL S 'S ‘Sirkdveb barrery:: 


© tuts! baitery-is'shown by-the figure. It- consists 
of an outer jar of stoneware OF tass.! Inside this jar 
is ‘placed a cell or tubo'n, ‘either with or without © 
‘a‘bottom ;. this cell or tube, which is termed the | 
separator,” 8 made with a number of narrow stots | 
| vor openings in it in the direction ofits length, the 
- slots being of. sufficient width to'allow free passage 
of any fluid, but not so wide as to allow much:of a 
mixture (which will be referred to further on) in 
“the compartment a! formed by the outer jar, to ; 
pass through. ‘The “ separator,” which rests upon 
the bottom of the outer jar and extends to the same 
height, may be made of stoneware or glass, 

“Inside the “separator” is placed an ordinary porous 
cell c, thus forming altogether three compartments. 
-'Ip the outer compartment, ‘or the compartment 
formed by the outer jar and. separator,’ is placed 

van’ ordinary plate ‘or rod‘of carbon’, having the 

ustial terminal for: connecting ‘purposes frmly ate 

‘tached'to the top,“ Ee 

: * Surrounding ‘ the carbon or graphite - plate ‘and 

the’: separator”: is placed a mixture made up of ' 

' opdinary peroxide of manganese or broken charcoal 

of graphite, also’ a quantity of sulphate of ‘man- 

ganese (known commercially as white manganese). 

‘ Rae safety in transit, the mixture, as at D, may be | 
i iu 

d;" such! hs: 

“marine glue or pitch, in, which arg’ trade 4% 
tions to admit of the escape of gates, which ‘perfora- 
tions will also admit of'a. supplof saturated-man- } 
ganese being poured into’ the outer ‘compartment | 
when the battery is found to be weakening. | 
» In the middle compartment 3!) formed by the 
slotted “ separator” and the porous Cell above men- | 
|) «tioned, is placed a solution’ of shlphuric acid and | 
seater, which ‘penetrates the slots in the “separator,” 
ates the ‘mixt 
cabon en nix ure of manganese and 
‘or the positive electrode, in the porous cell or 
inner compartment, a rod or plate of dine P is placed, 
This rod or plate of zinc is amalgamated with 
mercury, and a small quantity of the latter is placed 
in the porous cell to keep up the amalgamation, 

improved - galvanic: battery :are the, 
. has greater electro..notive force, cand -retains thi 

ae anes : + 
: In compartment c! of the porous cell.c, contain. 
ing the zinc rod or plate, is placed a solution of 
hydro-sulphate of ammonia and water. | ; 
The advantages of the whole arranger nt of. the ; 
following :—It ° 
same for a more lengthened ‘period. (when worked 
under the same conditions) than any: other form of, 
peroxide ‘of ymanginese and ammonia battery ; "it" 
also admits of the removal ofthe porous. cell for, 
cleaning purposes without disturbing. the’ mixture | 
in the outer-compartment, or compartment formed | 
by the “separator” and the outerejar, so that salts 
may be removed, and the zinc amalgamated readily. 
he mixture of peroxide of manganese with the 
sulphate of manganese hasya higher, conducting 
power 'than the peroxido,alonie; consequently, the ; 

resistance'of the battery:ts very low... cca» 

. 7 . & cL) Wee ee 

Piléde M. Niaiidet ati chlorure de ehaux 

thane ae, 

te pile dixposée a pew wee ET Aa pile Secor te mo. { 

: a pour substance dépolarisante du chlorure de chaux mete a; 
: des fragments de charbou qui remptisscnt Hintdéricur du.vase porcue : 
att plouge le charbon, et pour Hquide excitateur, une solution de ‘ 

: shlarare de sodium (cdu salée) dans Jaquelte est immergée la tame 
» de sine. : , 

1 Uhydrogine dé 4 ta décumposition de Yeau, eéaglt sur te chlorure | 

: ile chaus pour former de. Veau et de Vacide chlorhydrique, d'oG il 
resulte7dans 1a solution excitatrice, du chtorure de sine et du chlorure 

de calclum, corps trés-solubles ct buns condacteurs, ce qui rend la 

' pie dhergique ct constante. ‘De plus comine le zine 1% 
7 oD n'est pas attaqué 
d'une maniére appreciable cti présence du chtorure de chaua,la pie 
+ Suse fort peu quand ctle ne seri pas, et Maddition du set marin ta 
read evcore moins résistante. 

La force dectro-motrice de cette pile est dea volt, @ Wien qu’elic 

+ se polarise plus que la pile de Daniell 
7 , elle reprend sa force électro- 
invirice par le repos. Sa résistance cot denviran 5 obs, Mals ¢ 

qui est remarquable dans cette pile, c'est la suspension de toute i 

attaque du zinc quand fe circuit est ouvert, 

Pa que Vodeur du chlorure de chaux se trouve rendu inofe | 
Neive par un bouchage hermetique du vate poreux avec un! 

bouchon entaurd de polx, 

+» -/Pite au Bichromate de potasse de M. Cloris Baudet 

ee } 
Pour entretenie constamment saturée de bichramate de potasse ; 

ce genre de pile, M, Ctorls Baudet dispose des deux cdtés d'un 

. Yave: poreux ov lequel. est immergé le eluc, deux witres petits | 
vito ont un, perct de frous, est rempli de cristaux de i 
mate de potasse ct autre d’acide sulfurlque, Le tout est i 

és qul contient ta solution | 

prot daus un vane’ en verre on on 
schromatée ‘ct le charbon. 1. 

_Disehe irbon. Le liquide, du vase poreax of cot 
Introduit le zine est- de, Peau achdiulee . 7 ar 

@ucide sulfurique qui a. filtré d travers te ¥ 

Aspolarieante, : 
4 laptts M, Mouton, ta force éléct 
Je.3 volts, ct sa rdalstance Intérleure,. wu début, scra 
c pg *, i 
AS hin 3 uprés quelque'temps de servi E ieee tee 
oa e cvs & if 
218 de ces Clements montés en tenstoi dilmentent ane Jampe 

H de quelques begs Carcels, 

ectrique de Vauteur dont ta fami 

Tho Inventor of thia entirely original form of ‘battery, of 
Sywhich we give an Wtlustration, hins endeavored to full all the 
conditions necessary to mnke his battery work for an indefi- 
‘nite pertod, and this ident result is olitaincd—thanks to the 

means of depolarization which he employs, — - ' 

; ‘ On. comprend qu’a mesure ~ 
‘ que la solution sépulaes:le bichromate, suus! Viulluence, d'un erie H 

dis - qui te contient, se j 
Issout successivement, et renouvelle constamment ha solution j 

otrice de'cette pile serait : 


A. porous vase, plerced with large oles, is Axed to mm, 
ebonite cover, which closes sn earthenware vaso Miled with” 
retort carbon, broken in pieces and platinized, The porous 
vase [a traversed by an ebonite tubo supporting a small porce- 


-Tain cup, In. which is placed n emnll quantity of mercury and 
two small pleces of zine, A platinum wire, connected ton: 
terminal fixed on the cover, dips into tho mereury, aud > 
catablishes n good contact with (he zine, : 

Another platinum wiro connects second termina! with 
the carbon fragments placed in the porous vase, The con- 
tucts aro thus completcly.nssured. ‘Thezine1s notattacked, : 
except when the cireult of thé battery Isclosed; itis plunged 
entirely in the quid, consequently it Is entirely used up 
without ‘any loss, ‘ 

Under the influence of the platinized carhon the hydrogen ; 

i of the water, which tends to polarize the carbon, combines 

with the oxygen of the alr, That this novel effect, ought’ 
for in valu for a long tiie, can take place, the carbon should: 
only be partially immersed in the water; the rest becomes 
wetted by captilnry action, and presents 1 considerable eure 
face to the afr. " 
by the combination of the hydrogen 
rtain degree, to replace 
and which the cover 


plsulphate of soda, 
‘An olemont working 
would not require to 

for o vory long time, nad, in this case, 

only be the zine that woutd require roplecing, a¢ |, 

a ite ortiees Tho Asiche ta ia spor YC 
» Tho Nai >) 

ally Gated for electris Dells. AMfaintonance not es 

jolally adap! 

of ‘er est celle 

h wiro in order that it ma, ty | ployer est celle ¢ 
tn ay bo water sa! arated tI" 
or acid sulphuric ¢. 

sontnae Enbtiowa De, 

fray 2th ortictoenumennr meena eae mere td Me, 

effets plysiolagiques sont les mdmes que ceux du curare 
lui-méme. 2 

Erratum, — Nous avons dans notre deenier article at- 
trilud wn ittéressunt (ravail sine les ann cotorés du 
Inerenra, & etn dlave de M, Wurtz». Clétail une erreur 
ailleurs explicable par le nom du présentateur qui cere 
tlainement pas indiqué clairement Pauteur, i 
est M. Adrien Guebhard, 7 feny de physique 
Faculld de indédecite, collabora de La Nature et bien 
comm de nos lecteurs. Srasixnas Mevaten. 



Y letaet 2.9 Kee. S24 
On 4sat ffine pile ou philot ua élémen if 
ile, ou couple vallaique se compose tonjours Je: - 
deny electrodes solides plongeant dans un ou deux 

L'nne des deux electrodes est tonjours de zine; 
ee metal est en effet de tous ceux pratiqnement ad 2 

issibles fe plus avantageux de beaucoup; sion 
@s de lui snbstituer Je fer & ease de son prix 2 
moindre ov Maluminitin a cause ile ses puissamtes 
affinités chimiques, on obticnt des résultats tres ©, 
inférieurs; la lovee Gleclromotrice est nolablement + 
muinire, Get avantige présentd par le zine était 
défi conus par Yolta qui en fit usage dang sa pres 
mitre pile. ‘bas 

11 est fart possible cependant que pac la suite on 
arrive A lui substituer une autre substanee plus 
avantagetse; miatig ce seri ine importante décon- 
verte et une brillante invention. 

Liautre électrode est formée din metal moins 
atlaquable que fe zine; ot ensploie le cnivrey Pare 
gent, fe plating; on peut d'ailleurs au liew d'un 
metal employer du charhon, ins conductrice © 
quoiqu’é an inoindre degré. ot 

Ces deux électrottes sont plo fos dans des liqui- 

a dtre expliqud. Le premier de ces 
sable, agit sur le zine, le * 

il du moins) ; celte action; 

alive de la production da eou- : 
st [a condition essenticlle de © 

nous dit, le zine 

de Voxyde de + 

heure Pimport 

inier linide est suuvent de} pre 
Glenda; on peut faire msage une solntion saline | 
Lune des meilleures qu'on patsse cm; 
fe chlorure de sodium, ou sel mas | 
ys fa pile — zine, eau salde, | 
icralement employee. Des xpd | 
gendorit moutrent qu'nne soltl- 
fe sodium donne dans certitts 

freelle quvon | 

{s \ 
its, ] quetcondue. 

rin, Dans certains pi 
charhon — est lees ge 
riences de M. Pog 
tion de ehlorure ¢ y on 
eas, une foree éleclromotrice superieure : 
obtient acide sulluriqne élenda de q ate fols 5 
son poids (eat H va sans dire qu'il ya interdt & 

if irod, {ts fitnoss aud the cara takon in ite: 
oe rocnetrustion mako it tho most porfoot Dit of 

apparatus of its Kind. ——Z' Bleetricité, 


pS : eee zi : : : : ie raves constr! Cuglh /} ha Oo . : 
2 . jose AND OLEN 4 : : : * i (a eccently suygestod a s “Wp rn Chold s Cntener, 
WORT aya ae at. eae clu, al oPieanted ny Mans GL S97 
~ © vate + q 4 yas a rosul ° 4 a) . ; 
7 avin tof” a re : | Maapeate a thnk Ll tO jeulars.of ho | A Less Ce bans ’ ‘ 
plane of th: ‘ LEOTRIOITY ‘gamo: for the bonoflt of thos Pa, hee t0 [nee 7 ieee! i 
f THE PRODUCTION OF E son sy : moro especial! ood dal : ! L41101.3—Bloctrio Belts.—Tnke your battery | 
Fea [Faz THE BATTERY — DEEP - SEA earerre ce of Y, nitrous fi that ite, rivees, well {rags tn hot wator 12 romor the. 
Mets SOUNDING. - ia eg a | ete ea Oa et feet 
isl t one plate fro! 19260,J—Ttnrsx tho ox erimentof *W,T. B., AKL : | ck: after autting up, give another, 
Poultion of pa ie roauces poroxide of lead: tha tole oT, ndinits of wathor explanation, than ae oon [soast thoroughly protect the deal pape, Tus - 
corresponding Iiydrogen reduces the other plate| that which he, with commendable, caution, say® A. ‘ ener clectric ba! V jalan } ‘ammonia . chloride,—ALDERT 
to alowor stato of oxidation, When the battory | ++ gcems?’ to exiat, Inall such oxperiments, whard ; ODO Cr commit nication, } . i 
is put to work the tendency fe to equalise the two] tho total quantity of olcctricity produced In very’ RG. We Chartes: Met 5 [4110t.]—Elootric Bolts —You are, I think, |. 
conditions of oxidation by transferring. halt the | gmall, it is to be rememberod that the correspond . : one of the many who are losing faith in Leclunché, | 
oxygen across the Nquid. Of course these con+| qmount of chemical action Is proportionstely small, C i'Try n few Arops of sweot oil on tho surface of solu. 
Teas aro only imperfectly realisod; ather ro- | gud in this case, in reference to tho stato of the ‘ton, ta pravent verdigris on binding-scrows. ‘Tr; 
notions occur according to the stato of tho plates. | surfaces of tho plates, wo have to take into account, ia chloride of zinc battery instead of a Leclanche, 
and both tho gases ara to somo extent: held | that oven platinuin hasa certain afinity for oxygen ; and I think you will not repent. I have also used c 
mochauteally, whilo part oscapos altogothor; Ju lignd that there is possibly a, vor slight film o' ‘afecell bichromate fonn battery, with ral-ammo- "1 
bubbles,--S1asta. ee s iMatinum oxide on a eloan'? plate-—i-e, one on ‘ning solution, for bella, with great success—no ia 
eee ENG inns ebook oka Cw. +. whe lupdrogen, has not Deon deposited, causing ; itrouble,—Rxginatp HANvEN, y 
1 LISH. MEOHANT AND at’ iseduction of euch oxido. tees ’ * eer i [A4104.J- Electric Belts. —' 8 fo” shoul 
Mn ey ~ th * ane * .—* Sonnerio " shoul id 
{WORLD OF SOLENCE Oy -] Tels aio to bo ronal Rta a the, cory fore y , avoid. ‘beastirork Olt Leclanehg calles Profersing im Mf 
surctoale =~ SEPT.” sete clean” plate is probably covered with a filen of. : BEY potes on! i ‘its {black Japan varnialy “whieh provonte salle from i H 
PA met — : oxygen from tho air. > Fathor this film, or.ono oF jercoping up and destroying the connections, I t 
[11600.]—Danioll’s Battory.—Tho fault is not} ) platinum oxide, would be negative tothe hydrogen Al ct . cculiar” ipiater wires (blacked over) to lead outside battery- | : 
in your zine-plate, nor is ‘the dopoait copper. 1} film on the opposite plato. i i. ‘ y iT a f 'box, having the terminals for connecting the cle i 
think you will find, if you know how to detect It, Sit, BR. Grovehas shown (Phi. Trans. 1813), , ject . battery ol ‘outtide thobox. A Loclanché svt of six colla hne 
that tha deposit is iron, which resulta from ime || that in a gas-coll, of Which ono tube is supplied ; i log worked for threo yonrs nearly on o bell circuit b; @ 
uuro acid ot bluestone. Ye you use sulphuric acid, |} with hydrogen atl the other filled with al luto , simply refllting mite water aastonail vere ALP IU, y ! 
{tshould be colourless, whilo that gonorally sold, sulpburis acid, oxygen ‘is continually absorbed by: 5 lye . 
especially at ollshops, fs tinged with yellow, duo the liquid, and a current continues, but it atmo [11104,J—Electric Bolls.—What has occurred i 
to the prosenco of fron, Is your bluostona clear, or | Pypheric oxygen bo excluded from the accond tube. to your battery is enused by tho rolution cree ing i 
is tho appearance somewhat dulled, and aro tho}| tho curront ceases, ° oy . up the carbon, and oxidising tho surfaces of the d 
crystals Teo from ‘a whitish incrustation ?—S, G. 0. Sir Win. Thomson's patent soundor, inventod | —Oitinon ay’ , . tote oS ae _., |U ning ‘scraw and inlets, Remedy: ‘Tako out tho 
[11800,]—Dantol!'s Battory.~-Tho muddy de- cortainty in oF before tho goat 15H0, soon batter ‘Cxiinox av'aw Buucrno-Posrrive,—In the second edition! | for any’ roll soak fo heats in melted barafin 
. b * at dest y ‘ Menthe ’ . ates : fin, y a 
posit ina imixture of cop; er oxido and the impurities Date Ttcrs al Hat deserper cena is replaced by! on: ' of the “Trait Blementaire de la Pile Blectrigye? Ay dria ck ‘tha parafiin for aufficiont spaca tor 
ny 8 Fine. ‘ in cane y tho a : Lin re ah a glass tube, and tho silver wire by a strip of . ; Niaudet, th RLAMttertontting ht at And is ofbi-| nd ingeacrews to take on. It yu havo time you 
er sulphate in ho porous pot Wi 0 zine, |} chemically preparod papers ‘The Hane ts of steel .. cally more advantage a tliat i might tlectrotypo the heada aud solder the bintlera 
ceeaand agundings can be taken without stopping pally ¢ advantageous than aluminium,’ or any other! to Shiai Dut in any caso you wilt find tho parafin f 
quickly oxidisos into the black coppor oxide, It. thatiD. J. Brown. électro-positive in all aqueous electrolytes hitherto expevi-! Suntan, w eroeping nctlou of the exelent = 
cand be CY reat j oral er finer-graln —_ é : eae with, adverts {o the fact that magneto or dynamo- [4101.J- Electric Belia,--'Tho cating away of 
|. (A9IBT]—Dy anuver to WT" (re 10281): electric machines ave fur more economical still us generators: [fe lex tone cr Ae carbons is duo to the rishi of H 
the following is, 1 beliove, tha explanation of Aby | ree of electricity, since they’ utili onl hi A | {the ammontum chloride, This cau be pravented by . 
| Exxcrntcan. Thetomeya observed a regen 3 eta tod fitel for tl a ducti 3 a ise.conl, which ix the cheapest Le rte ee i core ee 
i preenb Aes ad | plate coated with a film of bydroge : , ie production of he: 7 . i i. ‘ 
ol Copper, Deposlt trig seid thei With clean platinum plate, wo hava a comple to the qiicllga whether ¢: ne pear ae re bit rea Cae er deaeeo te ceppet : 
* contains nitric acid and, perhaps Bruonie he: the ‘yeally composed of a hydrogen plate and a. , \ f) : hether carbon cannot be utilised directly, (Then molt in somo paraflin-wax whero tho copper im 
Somat you eat, got of eoxna wholesale draggiss, and ‘platinum plato there i, therefore, et in the production of clectricity, he deseribes the experimen “ire, ad to the slocteot yee anion aohiter the « 
i P| {potentialy o currkut ongt - . fi 7 i y H 
; ind abd mab the solution toroeyen put Ie wang :potentombines with tho oxygen of tho water, nnd of Bequerel, in which a platinum crucible, containing fused’ {put the zine rod Iito the solution (iehich aout be = 
ea eee das troubled in thio aneao, way, lut| ‘Jiydrogon fs liberated on the surfaco of the (what chlorate or nitrate of potash, is attached to one ‘unl of joins dale Oe Atal ono de fee ae hn popu i” 
row test tho suspected acid thus—put Aan gat | | as) clean plate. Both plates now being covered | , 1 f potash, ached to one terminal of; amalgamated, and io not Tet it touch tho porous van 
quaulity of pure sulphurio acid et inn qlata| | Wit hydrogen, thore is clectrical equilibrium, TE ; ; a galvanometer, whilst a piece of gas carbon is connected to! cell. = Waren IL, Txcx, ‘ 
Aid ties adil earofally a concentrated solution of | |thosecond p obo now eonmacted with a {rsh ean ? the other terminal, ‘Lhe extremity of the carbon being! i {11101,] ~Zloctrlo Dolls. —Tho defectadessribet i 
sulphate of fron; if auy nitric acid be present, o plato, a similar notion cusugs it eqtibsius 1 a e carbon bemg! fare duo to the chemical action of the solution of , 
blank ring will form whioro the two Hiquils meot— | Stable. Tell eee a mn tscxactly ; } heated to redness, a powerful current is produced by immer.’ fenl-ammoniac upon the leaden tops, brass binding- 
: ‘elm ‘ : rae Peery ery ‘ 4 . 5 "8. irs, T i 
Seommuns OF TIE SORE cree in shown by the two following, equations — : \ Bik it ree the fused salt; the direction of the current indi. (roe any Siete 1 i Seyatale i 
3 ‘ fe ‘1 van : : + eating " fe ane i MACY a 
no | eetke bra the aocond ete | ie se _ a teapes formg the negative pole or positive of ral Tot by evaporation Te eer ento THO 
_Teplaco an by pirogen o | tt bias Wi no her words, the carbon here takes the place of jupper portions of the carbon, zine, and jars, und to t 
j alth i rin | i ¢. Without being aware of the previous experiment, ahieck Ova on rans to cel in Newer C 
Lhopo this will bo pufllctontly stones sotrical i { . eee fused nitrate of soda ina crucible of cast; 40 iitted, if tte dusatatoe Bool, jactancl , THR 
: oa iron, using a fragment of carbon as above; the iron was 5 JDoattories of tho bost maky sill wont tN work 
. * ‘ not; {nny attontion for sevoral years; thut which works 
| ee whilst the carbon was consumed at the expense of : ny own hhouso-belfs ies Bren my daily Te for Of of 
Y i i * : i Jyonrs, during which Gime na been filed up wit! 
i ne Oxy el contained in the nitrate. Here, again, the carbon, {sd water fivotimer, and been recharged ouce, : 
| er place of zine; whilst the iron constitutes the nega-, |! noatatot-all the beat kind of greaso for thle ; ; 
' tive clement. Tt is pointed out that in this case ‘the rolative | beret ent 
} vr ‘ee ie at 41101, —Eleotrio Bells. Evidently tho car- ‘ 
ae ne the electrodes ia inverted ; for, if the nitrate be! vat are mado thats is not rods ofratit gathou. 1 
dissolved in Ww: ¥ 1 : wt . Phad ony, and mye rio BO much trouble, aVO UP 
Siiieak in water, the iron then corresponds to the zinc; {using it. Got Bina now ones, mate out Hy eee 
_ whilst the carbon constitutes the. negative element. | |Fotort scurting as it iscalled, then propaty tho ouds 
oe * ‘ 7 com [that are out of thosolution aa directed by * Sigma” 
in hin book (or in Vol, X, of the B M,), and you ‘, 
will not be troubled again, . 1f you do not care to 
go to thia nmount of trouble, thoroughly scrapo tho “y 
top uf thu carbon, fit nicoly on a pleco of sheet ‘ 

platinum fiko an inverted V, fix tho binding-scraw 

on tigtitly, aud then coat the carbon and connection i 

(provioualy _ well warming both) with shellac, 

Yarnish or Brunawick black, As to the zine con- 

nection, do not uso a Linding-acrow at all near the 

coll, drill tho zing and insert o tlnned-iron wire, or 

twiat it round thorod and well solder it, then warm, 

like you do tho carbon, and coat with tho Hrunse: 

wiek black. I do alt connections with binding: 

scrows fixed to.a framo, say, 10 or Winches away 

froin the cells, where the fumes cannot well reac ‘ 

them. Do not wot the carbons or aincs when 

pulling tho solution in i Lmenn that portion which 

\ ja not intonded to bo in, and do not fill the jars 
above two-thirds ALLSoS. ax AS/LE. | 

peeps aera too 

ee 6 

Tho ingenious French mechaniciun, Mf, Regnier, well-known! 
for hig electric incandescent carbon lamp, in which a small pencil 
of carbon rests on the edge of a carbon dise, has brought out | 
another novelty in the form of a powerful, and, according to | 
accounta,n constant voltaic cell, which haa likewise tho advantage! 
of yielding residues capable of being regenerated by electrolysis 

Tho battery is a hydro-clectric one, and in atrength is com 
parable to that of Bunsen, without the attendant objections of 
the latter. 

The zinc plato is immeracd inn solution of cauatic soda, tho 
negativo plate, which is of copper, being depolarised by a solu. 
tion of sulphate of copper separated from tho aikalino liquor by 
a porous partition, The couple thus constituted ia said be ver: 

constant; and its electromotive forco is high, from 13 tols 

\ } volte, uccording to the strength of the solutions, 
; 4 As the aolutions of sulphate of copper and caustic soda in their | 
WR TF pure state have only a medium conductivity, M. Regnicr dimi- || 
nishes their resistance by adding certain other salts not stated. 
He nleo notably reduces the resistance of {he porous plate by 
fashioning it of parchment paper, as already employed by Sir 
‘William Thomeon, M. Carré, and others, Soveral sheeta of this 
paper are placed sido by side to moderate the permeability of the 
- stance, and made up into.the rectangular shape shown in 
‘ig. 1. 

Theso priswatic vases are obtuined from flut sheets, having the 
edges raised according to a given plan of folding, abown in Fig, 
2. ‘The cross folda are shown by the stronger, and the salient |’ 
folds by the weaker lincs in this diagram. 

With this battery the initial electromotive force, after churg- 
ing, is 1°47 volta, descending to 1°35 volts after a long short 
sf cireuit. The resistance is 0-075 ohms for a cell 0°20 metres high, 

arid three litres in capacity. . 

To compare the behaviour of the now cell with othera in use, 
M. Regnier gives the following table of reaults, in which B is + 
the clectrumotive force, R the internal resistance, 'T the maxi- 
mun external work in kilogrammétres per sccond, as calculated 
by the formula :— . 

f E 

“FRx oer 

viding the valuca in kilogrammétres by tho mechanical 
equivalent of heat wo get tho values of the work in calories 
gramme-degree) given in the last column of the table, 
Consrants, Work. 
B RT 2, 

Kilogram In Calo-. ; 

Volts. Ohms, 

mitres, ries. 
ungen, ordinary round motel, a9 a 

eight 0:20 metre ..... oo ODE... O°F06 
itto Ruhimkorif’s rectungn- - - 7 : 
-Yarmodel, heightO-20métres 1°80... 0-00. ... 1978... F189: 
Daniell, round model, height : : ‘ 

| 0°20 mitre 1:06... 2°80... 0°010 ... 0°023 
: puornsens Ta), i tery. 106 020... OLN... OBL 
Carre’ indrical Battery, wahh 

C “eight 0-60 matro Nea a 106... O22. ... 0238 ... O'b51 
Regnier’s Battery, rectangu- 
iodel, height 020 miro 


Kinp or Battery, 

a Se 

85 0 0-075 1 L0___ | 

Cat eae eee ey tonemelcereec ee 

o-new battery ot 0°20" taStres 
surpasses larger zine-copper butterics in energy. It would seem 

o about twice stronger than the ordinary round Bunsen of 
‘]\the luboratories, and ia only 

Bunsen of Rubmkorif’s design. 

¥° The zinc is not amalgamated, novertheless i 

surpassed by the rectangular | 

is not attacked | 

hen on open circuit by the liquid surrounding it. ‘The conse. ; 

aenee is t] 

theoretic quantity corresponding to tho electricity generated, 

at the weight of zinc consumed ia in accord with the | 

Tho battery emits no volatile products, and therefore there fa | 
no loss of material, though it is transformed into other combina. 


‘Brecelve ao: many: queries avkin 

\ the ‘best’? battery: that wo take advan- 
tage of a list of the princi, 

{) Maes issucd ly; La: Nature to give onco for all a 

1) note.on the subjects Amatour electricians should 

al batteries and their- 

tions. These producte can be regenerated or brought back to : 
their original state. Tho zinc and copper can bo recovered from ; 
the waste liquor by electrolysis, For this purposo the current ; 
from a magneto-clectric muchine may be employed. By paseing 
tho machine current throngh the battery as it standa, ME. 
: thinka the latter could be mado a convenient store for electricit: 

ut we do not exactly sco how this could bo practically carried‘ 
out, M. Regnier has yot to demonstrato this point, As for the’ 
cell itaclf it uppears to bo a very uscful sort, but ia not, wo, 
think peculiarly new. Alkaline dolutions have been employed . 
before round tho zino instead of acid ones, by the elder M, 
uerel,, Wo aro not, however, awaro if the combination of | 
alkali and sulphate of copper has ever been mado before. { 

: (ia, 

A cone itout:ond keop {tins their notebooks. It ' 
j] i {bo seen that our contemporary is frequently: 

askod 1 aimilar question :— 

Wo aro frequently asked which is tho best bat- 

tersy. One may boldly reply to this quostion that 
‘falmost all tho forms of Tattory ure hood, if they 

are properly apphed. We hora give, acconling to 

Mr. Spr te aud our own persona experience, o 

list, which may afford uscful indications in tho 
majority of cases :— 

For Etcetro- Deposition (Gonper, $e.)—Danloll,. | 
m0, bichromate of: 

Calland; Smeo, chromate of I 
| potash, Bunsen, 

Gilling.—Dantell, Bmee. , 
Silvering.—Daniell, Smee, chromate of limo, bie. 
chromate Sf potash, Slater. a 

Exciting Electrs-Maqnets.—Chromato of lime, 
Bunsen, Sater, Smee, Danioll, 4 

afew, hours, tho Bussen battery and its numerous: 
modifleations may bo employed, also the chromate. 
of lime and Slater batteries. ; 

Anduction Coils,—Bichromate, chromate of limo, 
Eleetro- Medical.—Bichromate, Smeo, Bunsen; 

silver. battery, sulpliato of mercury, begeisss 
Trouvé's alretight hatiery. oe 

Long Telegraphic Line-In this caso batteries 
supply wenk currents, [assing through largo resist. 
ances, Tho hest aro tho chromate of lino battery, 
the Leelancht, sulplints of meroury, . Daniell, 

Utcetrie Bells and Teleqraph Lines.—Leclanché, 
sulphate of mercury, antphute of.leal, 

Mining Operations, Torpedoes, §e.—Tho Lo~ 
clanché ‘battery may bo used, but Breguet's ex 
{| ploder is: most frequently employed. ‘Tho small 
magneto-electric meching of: A: SLarcel: Depres is 
also excellent for this application. 

‘ot‘time, bichromate, Dantell, Leclanche. 

1 Experiments: with High Tension. Electricity. — 
The best results havo been obtained with a: largo 
‘number of the chloride of silver colls of Do la Rue, 
andl with tho secondary battorios of M.. Gaston 

| For the enke of complotenoss wa ahould mention 
i Thermos Kileetrie Batterica, which givo good results: 

with which the olectrio light may now be obtained. 
| Wo havo licre mentioned only tho best known bat-. 
tories, It would have takenia. whole number of: 
fa: Natura to refer to all tho known batteries 
hick may givo:good results in tho above appli+ 
cations. ‘ . 

Electrio Light—For oxperiments extendiugover: . 

Pocket Eleetro- Medical Apparatus.—Chiorido of! | 

Measuring Electrical Resistances, §c.—Chromate  : 

‘in deposition of coppers iting, aud eilvoring; and, - 


gt ae 


a ee 

“The ‘Leclauché battery. is ‘now moro generally used ‘tor 
open circuit lines than any other, and its Pecullar adaptabt=: 

of application1a the battery showin tn. tha annexed ‘on- 
graving tho porots cup used In the ordinary Leclanghé ele. 
ment {s dlspen! af with, sind ‘a pale of compressed ‘ prlams, 
containing alldhe materlals formerly used in tho porous cup, 
are substituted for, it, These prisina aro e 
placed: upon: oppositésides <of the carbon  * 
| plate, ind wre kept "In “place by rubber” 
baudse ‘ . 

Tho negattve pole consista of a pencil of 
> amalgamated zine, and the two poles are eus- , 
pended from the cover in a solution of sal 

ainmontae nid water, 
Tho zine being tndefluttely preserved tn (he ( 
anl ammonine solution, and the peroxide of 
* manganese being Insoluble in the solution, no 
-action can take place when the battery is not 
“Te ge, a . 
“Aller thorough tests by the various tele 
phone compantes, this battery has been unt 
‘versally acknowledged to he better thanany 
other for telephone purposes, ns nll of Its parts. 
jure visible, and any derangement may be at 
once discovered. The battery Is readily taken 
‘apart, cleaned, and set up again, Todo this 
retgulres no apeelal knowledge of electrical 
“apparatus, When the eleinents become ex. 
‘Husted from long service, they muy be res 
‘newed by taking off tho prisms, sonking the 
carbon below the head in hot water, attach. 
Ing new priams, and setting it up with a 
snow zinc and ‘fresh sal ammoniac solu. 
: Mon, : ‘ 
+ Barther Information will be furntalied 
“Wy the Leclanché Battery Company, 40 West -Elght 
street, New York, Ps “. ; 





|Our contemporary tells us that 14,300 gravity battery | 
Jreplueed by Siemens’ machines. 

| object by using a single high tension machine. The potentiul , 

1873 the Western Union Company sent 14,456,832 messages, 


‘rience, a liet, which may a! 
1 of cases == 


tery may be used, but Broguet’s explod 

Schwendler, in India, indicated in w paper which, perhaps, hus : 
not received the attention which have been given : 


BB IR bromine wren eaeren ane 


NAMO.. Macurne 

it, how dynamo inachines might be: used for telegraphic! 
purposes. We now find that America is to be eredited with . 
tho invention, which, according to tho Scientific American, is | 
due to the ingenuity of Mr. 8. D, Field, of San Francisco, | 

elements, and 4,600 bichromate of potash clements arv to be 
Tt says:— All efforts 

formerly mude in this direction sought to accomplish the 

is now obtained by connecting one commutator brush of one 
machine with the brush of opposite polarity of the next, and 
go on, and ncurrent of any desired potential may be had by 
taking it off from the different machines in the series. A. 
current takon from the first machine in the series will havo 
alow tension; that taken from the sceond machino‘will have * 
a higher tension, and so on. ‘Tho electromotive force of the - 
first machine in tho series is 50 volts; in the second, 100 . 
volts; in tho third, 150 volts; in the fourth, 250 yolts.”’ In ° 



We tranmlate the fullowing from Tie Nakaves— - ss 

We ave frequently asked which is the best voltaic battery. 
One may boldly reply to this question that almost all the forms 
of battery are good if they be properly applied. We here 

ive, according to Mr. Sprague aud our own eraonal expe- 
Fone ‘ ore. useful indications fi the majonty 

For Biecrro-Devosition (CorPrr, &e.)—Daniell, Calland, 
Smee, chromate of lime, bichromute of potash, Bunsen, 

Gitprna.—Danicll, Smee. . 4 
Sriverino.—Daniell, Smee, chromate of lime, bichromate of 
otash, Slater. 3 ‘ 
Excrrina Evrerro-Maaners.—Chromuate of lime, Bunsen, - 
Slater, Since, Daniel, : 
Bnectrie Liaitt.—For experiments extending over a few 
honra, the Bunsen battery und ite numerous modifications may 
be employed, aleo the chromute of lime, and Slater batterica, 
Inpuction Cor1s.—Bichromate, chromate of lime, Bunsen, 
Exrcrno-Mepteat.—Bichromate, Sunco, Bunsen. Pee 
Pocket ELecTRO-MeDICAL Appanatus,—Chiloride of silver 
battery, sulphute of mercury, manganese, Tyouve’s air-tight 
battery, r A 

Lona Tennanariie Lires.—In this case batteries supply 
weak currents, prssing through lurge resistances, The beat ave 
the chrommte of lime battery, the Lclanché, sulphate of mer. 

cury, Daniell, Calland. : . 
Prectnre ‘Bens ANp ‘TELEGRAPILIG Lrxes.—Leclanchd, 

phate of mercury, sulphate of lead, A 
an INTNO Orenasione, Tonryvos, &e.— The Lecluebé bat- 
is most frequently 

ine of Af, Mureel 

—Obromate of 

employed, ‘The amall mngneto-clectric, ne 

Deprez is alao excellent for this application. 

lime, bichromate, Danicli, Leclanché. 

\ Bxpenurents witht Hian Tension Buecrniciry.—The best 

reaults have been obtained with a farge number of the chloride of 

silver cells of De In Rue, and with the accondary batteries 

of M. Gaston Planté. 
For the sake of completences w: 
Buectrie Batterres, which give go 
copper, gilding nd. silverings aud wi 
may now be obtained. ey ot eas 
’ y ioned only the beat known batteries... It 
Wo havo here mentioned on! tte ae ire te vetsr 10 

¢° ahould mention ‘THErso : 
od reaults in deposition of ~ 
th which thé electric light 

vo taken & wholo. num! ) 
the. ie patleries which may give good results in the above , 

1 —— 

applications. 2. A peeterts 7 * 
vial Zo Lecermornes oO 


e The impr tof batteries is an impo 
trical progress which ought not to be loat sight of in the pro 
ing diversion in favour of dynamo-electric machines, The nickel 

ReicSTS ob 

‘ono of its advantiges consists in the fact that the salts of nickel 
formed during ita action are snlerble products. In this battery 

| plate, the nickel being the oxidised metal, corresponding to zine 
an the ordinary Daniell or Leelanché cells, These plates may be 
employed either in comnection with no single liquid or with two 
or even three liquids separated by a Porans diaphragin, 

Onc kind of cell on the three liquid principleia made by taking 
}a cylindrical vessel containing two concentric porous diaphragms, 
the outer of which is half an inch wider all round than the inner 
one, In the ceutre diaphragm is placed a plate of nickel, which 
may be cylindrical and eithur anooth, crimped, or grooved to give 
a large oxidising surface. This plate is immersed in the oxydant, 
whiel muy be either sulphurie, nitric, ov hydrochloric acid 
diluted with water in the proportion of ong part of acid to eight 
arta of water. ‘The space between the twe diaphragins is filled 

ha solution of menijul-enrhonste of ammonia, and in the outer 
iveaael is placed a solution of suphate of nickel, or the double 
faulphate of nickel and tunmonia with prigins or plates of carbon 

lunged in it, or such metal as will take up the deposit of metal- 
‘Hie nickel yielded by the decomposition of the nickel solution, 
‘after the manner of the copper eulphate in the Daniell cell. 
In order to keep the battery in continuous operation by 
strengthening the oxydant, Mr. Slater arranges two reservoirs, 
one above the battery and nother below it, und both connected 
with the battery by auritable pipes, The upper reservoir is par- 
tinlly exhausted by an air pame on Alling it; and. the oxydant 
flowa from it to the cells and thence to the lower reservoir, There 
it ix strengthened by the addition of fresh acid, and returns to 
the upper reservoir in order to pnas to the cell as before. B 
simply exhausting the air from tho upper vessel Mr. Slater is 
uble, through, the atmospheric pressure acting on the fluid in the 
lower reservoir, to cuuse it to flow into the papper one of itself, 
and thus he avoids any spilling or wasting of the excitant ; and 
by means of a stop cock nttnched to the upper res 
nt will allow. the atmosphere to ent 
way tothe ‘cells. ‘This plan is» modification of the “ perfluent”? 
arrangement patented by Mr. Stuite in 1848 for the production of 
constant currents, : as 

Another battery, invented by Mv. 'L. J. Howell, consists of 
three separate chimbera likewise, There is first an outer esacl 
of glass or earthenware, next a vitreous cylindrical chamber pers 

ed with parallel stots vertically, and termed f geparator, 
then inside that a porous chamber or cell, thus forming the three 

t The outer compartment, or that formed by the walls of the 

aren ae mere 




outer jar und “separator,” contains a rod or plate of carbon, 
aurrounded with ordinary peroxide of manganeso und broken 
pieces of charcoal or graphite, ng in the Leclanché battery ; 
in nddition to this there ia udded a quantity of aulphate of wan- 
ganese, commercially known us “white manguncee.”’ For 
purposes of transport this chamber may be sealed over with 


escape of the guses generated, ue in the ordinary Leelanché, 

Trt the middle compartment, formed b 
aud the porous cell, n, solution of aulphuric or nitric acid and 
water is poured, 
the mixture of carbon and manganese in the outer 

te middle cell. 

manganese from passing into th P 
plate of zine provided, 

Within the inner cell ia placed n rod or ¢ 
like the carbon plate, with suitable binding screws for connecting 
purposes. ‘This rod is amalgamated with mercury, and a poot o} 
the merenry is leftin the bottom of the chamber, ‘Po maintain 
the amulgiimation, a solution of hydro-sulphute of ammonia 
and water ia filled inuronidthis plate., Or, inatend of placing the 
sulphuric or nitrig neid solution in the middle compartment, it 
; may bo placed inside the porous cell, and the solution of hydro- 
sulphate of atmmonin placed in the middle compartment; but the 
former nrrangement is preferred. aNas 

Mr. Howell’a battery ia, it will be seen, a modification of the. 
' well-known Leclanché ‘ecll; but apart from the novel abape, and 

tho use of the slotted “separator,” it differs from the usual 
Leelanché in employing “ white, manganese * in combination 
with the black, a civenmstance which is held to keep the con: 
| nection between the carbon plate, and the surrounding packing 

{more perfect ‘than in tho cnae, where black ung: 

il. f 

battery of Mr. Thomas Slater is one of the latest novelties, and ¢ 

a nickel plite is used in combination with « carbon ora platinum § 

ervoir, ‘he can ‘ 
er and force the liquid on its. 

but | 

imnrine glue, or pitch, tuking cave to prevent a vent hole for the | 
thoalotted '' separator ’’+ 
Thia pasaea through the stota and permeates; 

compart. 1 
ment; but the: slots ave fine cnotgh to prevent the carbon und 

nese Alone 18 

eae Lah S wed ae 

igo Of tho arrangement is that the poron, 
un be removed for cleansing purposes more readily thi 

. Whon it ia embedded in the mangancee and carbon fragme 
By thia means the sults can be washed from the pores of the cell 
and the internal resistance kept low. : i 
, Some yenrs ago Dr. Alexander Muirhead patented ’a mnodifica-} 
tion of Leelanché's cell in which the porous diaphragm was! 
replaced by a vitreous diaphragm pierced with smull holes; but, j 
if we are right, this device did not succeed very well, because of 


the particles of carbon washed by the solution into the inner 
chamber, enusing a considerable amount of local action on the 
zine plate, By the use of the porous diaphragm in addition to! 
the slotted partition My, Howell entirely prevents this defect. > 
| A somewhat curious battery has been devised by Colonel TF 
Charles McQurty, of the Hue Lafitte, Paria, In thia cell th 
| positive plate in zine, and the negative plate is composition of 
| 20 per cent. by weight of iron filinga, 25 per cent. of plumbagy, ! 
und rbout 55 per cent, of powdered coke ov cout. ‘These three} = 
ingredients are well mixed and moulded into proper shape, H fi 
‘The plates ave immersed ine liquid composed of about 75 perp. 
| gent. of sult ater by weight (sen water will anew 3 to 5 per 
cent, of bichromate of potash, 10 per cent, of vinegar or dilute 
sulphuric neid, and 10 per cent. of mineral oil—aay petrolonm. 
The mineral oi! awima on the top, so that when the plates aro{ 
phinged into tho liquid they receive « conting of oil which peno- 
| -trates’ the pores, and, necording to Colonel MeCarty, prevents 
| the hydrogen from entering the latter.” 
Another bichromate of potnal cell is worthy of mention, It is 
the contrivance of M. Adéle Ergatrém, of Paris, and consists of 
two nearly semi-cylindrical cells placed face to faco at a. little 
distance apart within a cylindvicnl vessel of glazed earthenware, 
which contains the exciting liquid. Each of the semi-cylindrical 
cells is divided by a partition parallel to ite straight face, which | ° 
fnee, a8 well as the partition, the front part of the sides, and the 
bottom of the cell, is of porous earthenware, the cylindrical back 
‘portion behind the partition being glazed, but pierced in tho case 
~ nd in the ense of the 
The portion of ‘the 

water.’ The bichromate is placed in the feeding- compartment 
‘behind the zinc, and the acid in the feeding compartment behind 
! the curbon, not quite op to the hole which hasbeen mentioned, 
i Instend of a alnb uf zinc granulated zine may be employed, 
- portions being fed into the cell from time to time ag required. In 
Thi cage n little merettry is placed at the bottom of the cell, and 
the conducting wire is carried duwn to the mercury, being insu. 
Jated where it passes through the zinc lying above the mercury. 
i For the production of a constant current of moderate strength 
-|-the elements are placed aa nbove described—the carbon close to 
the acid nnd the zine-at a distance from it, and separated. by the 
partition from the bichromate, | When a current of considerable 

a ats = 

f the zine and cnrboit are ex: |’ 
ht close to the acid. . When's t 

strength is required the positions o| 
changed, the zine being thns brought, N oat 
weak current of long duration is required, only suit! portions of | 
the surfaces are made porous, The power uf varying the, strength { 
of the current nt will is one of the special features 0} this batter, 

aA nore novel battery is, however, that of Mr. Adolph’ Guten- | 
soln, in which « solution of the sulpbute, nitrate, chloride, or 
chrounte of tin is used in the chamber containing the neyative 
plate. ‘Thus pure metallic tin is deposited which may be reduce { 
to ingots by melting in the ordinary way. ‘To ensure that, iu 
tin ig deposited ina crystalline and nota “* spongy form ; ° 
sulntion shou ngth, One advantage o 

Id be of considerable strength, 1 
this buttery is that some of the residue of tin mines, now CconBl- 
dered waste, muy 

be utilised in forming ui negative oot ta 

‘a cuse Mr, Gutensohn prefers to employ chloride of Uni. 

the cadticala form given to The cell differ little from the ord. : 
nary one, An outer jar contains a aylindeit porous chanil ne { 
Surrounding the porous clamber ia the carbon plate made int! eh 
form of a split cylinder. The solution of chioride of a ing 
both compartments of the cell is fed by crystals’ of t ie salt) 
contained in the porous chumber, and a deposit of pure tin is 
formed on the carbon plate. 
f » 



. Uj 
£-Tie Improvement of batteTies Ia an important branch of 
electrical progress which ought not to be fost sight of In the 
‘prevalling .diveralon -in favor of dynumo-clectric machines, { 
‘Tho nickel battery of Mr. ‘Thoms Slater ig one of the latest 
noveltics, and one of 1s advantages constats in the fact that | 
the. salla’of nickel: formed ‘during {8 aetlon are salable | 
nroducts, “In this’ battery a..nickel plate fa used In com. 
bination with a carbon or a platinum plate, th ickel being 
the oxidized metal, correaponding to zinc 
Dantell or Leclunehé cells, ‘These plates mu 

* Amount focal action on the zine plate, By the use of the 


tuanganesc and carton frigments. . By this means the sults 
ean be washed from the pores, of the’ cell and. the internat 
resistance kept low, . 

Pig Tirposes iiore Fondly than when IC ts ‘Smabeddat wrthey 

Some yenra ago Dr. Alexander Mutrhead patented ai 

modification of Leelunché's cell in whieh the porous dia- 

phragm was replaced by a vitrcous dlaphragma plerced with; 

very well, because of the partleles of cnrvon washed by the 
solution juto the inner chamber, causing a considerable 

holes; but, if we are right, this dovieu did tot succeed | 

: H porous dioplirugm in addition to the slotted partition Mr. 
either in conneetion with a elagle liquid or with two or even fowell entirely prevents this defect, 

threo liquids separated by 0 porous daphragin, A somewhat curtons battery ls heen devised by Colonel 

One kind of .cell on the three quid principle is made vy * Fitz-Chacles McCarty, of tho Rue Tatitte, Paris: Ta this 

taking a cylindrical. vessel contain nF two concentric porous, cell the positive plite is zine, and the negative plate f3 a 
‘Maphragnis, the outer of ‘which is half an inch wider all composition of 20 per cent, hy weight of tron Mings, 25 per 
round than the Innerone, In tha center diaphrigm is placed" cent. of plaumbago, unl about 65 per cent, of powdered coke 
ate of nickel, which muy be cylindrical “aud either — or coal. ‘These three ingredients are well mixed and 
——: ee Molded itd proper shape, 

TW aniositc erlmped, or grooved lo give a large oxidizing. sur. The plates are Lamersed fn a Uquld compo: iVOf nbout 75! 
@ lface. ‘This plate is Immersed tn the oxidant, which may be per cent. of sult water by weight sea water will answer), 3: 
ether sulphuric, nlirle, or hydrochloric acid diluted wi to 5 per cent. of dichromate of potash, 10 per cent. of | 
water in the proportion of one part of acid to eight parts of vinegar or dilute sulphuric acid, tnd 10 per cent, of snineral 
water,” The space between the two diaphragms is tilled with vil--say petroleum, The mineral oll ewlns on the top, g0 
u solutton of sesqui-carbonate of ammonia, and in the outer that when the pltes are plunged tuto the Hquid they receive 
vessel is placed a solution. of sulphate of nickel, or the | a coating of oll which penctrates the pores, aud, necording 
double sulphate of nickel and ammonia with prisms or plates | '° Colonel McCarty, prevents the hydrogen from entering 

of carbon plunged in tt, or euch metal ag will take up the latter, 
the deposit of metallic nickel yletded by the decomposition ; , -\nother bichromate of potash cell is worthy of mention, 
ire Hl wtekel selution, after the manter of the copper sul. ; It is the comrivunce of M. Adéle Ergatrdm, of Parls, and 
platein the Daniell e : eee | consists of two nearly semb-cylindrical cells plveed face to 
In order to keep the battery tn continuous operation by face at a little distance apart within a cylind rica vease) of 
strengthening the oxidant, 31r. later arranges two Teservoi vlazed earthenware, which contains the exelting quid. 
one-above the battery and another below it, and both co ch of the semi-eylindrical cells is divided by a partition 
neeted with the batiery: by suitable pipes, The uppe parallel to its straight face, which face, as well ns the parti- 
reservoir Is purtinily exhaousied by an alg purip on filling it; ; Sion, the front part of the sldes, and the bottom of the cull, 
and the oxtdant flows from it to the cell? and thence to the | is of porous earthenware, tl eylindrical baek portion Mi 
lower reeervolr, « There It is ytrengthened by the addition of | bind the partition being glazed, but pierced In the bata Mf . 
fresh acid, and. returns to the upper reservoir in order to the one cell with a number of holes, and In the cuse o| he 
mus -t1 We: cell as, before, . By elinply exhausting the alr | other cell with a single hole at a high level. The portion - 
rom the uyper.vessel Mr. Slater is a le, through the atmo- the former celt in front of it ya tion receivers sah of 
spherle pressure acting on the fluid in the lower, reservoir, | Zine, and that of a ofhee 7 site a8 a bof earl on 
tp eatise It to How into the upper,oue of St hus he _ the spaces in the cells behind the partitions hold the mate 

ee gy ree > 4 rats for feeding. 
avolla any spilling or wasting of the excitant; and by: The usual materials are employed to exelte the battery 
-meung of & stopcock attached to the upper reservoir, be’ pamely, bichromate of potash solution snd sulphuric uchd 
‘ cun at will. allow the atmosphere to enter and force the| diluted with water, The bichromate fy placed in the feeding 
: liquid on its way to the cella. This plan is a modification} compartment behind the zine, aud the acid in the fecdin 
: Siete ue . feriivent m arring ann patented by Mr, Staite in] compartment bebind ths carbou, not quite up to the hole 
setetiptepiein earnee ' ‘ ‘or the prediction of constant cprrents. which has been mentione 
ORNs cn a Another battery, Invented by Mv. "f, J. Howell, consists] Instead of a slab of zine grinulated zinc may be ent- 
P as % ‘ i of threo separate chambers Jikewlse, ‘There is first an outer! ployed, portions being fed into the cell from thne to time as 
vessel of glass or carthenware, next 9 vitreous cylindrical; required. In this case 9 little mercury is placed at the bot. 
~ chamber perforated with parallel slots vertically, and termed {tom of the cell, aad the conttucting wire 1s carried down to 
asepurator, then Inside that a porous chamber or cell, thus} the mercury, being insulated where it passes through the 
| forming the three compartments, sbove she mercury. ' 
‘he outer compartinent, or that formed by the walls of f° fs constant current of inoderate! 
‘ tho-onter jar and “separitor,” contains rod or plate of faced us above deseribed—the® 
+ carbon, surrounded with ordinary peroxide of manganese and acid ant the zluc at a distance from It,’ 
' broken piecey o€ charcoal or graphite, as in the Leclanche xurtition from the bichromate. When 
battery; but In addition to thls sthere is, added a quantity; a lis required the positions of 
of sulphate of manganese, commercially known as “ white! anged, the zinc ving thus 
manganese,” Fur purposes of transport this chamber nn weak current of long 
“may be sealed over with marine glo or plteh, taking care faces ure 
to provent 1 vent hole for the escape of the gases generated, th of the 
ng iu the ordinary Lectanche, 
In the middle compartment, formed by the slotted “ sepa. 
: rater” and tho porous cell, a solution of sulpburic or nitete 
. eld and water K poured, ‘This passes through the slots and 
permeates the mixturvof carbon and manganese fn the outer 
“coinpartment; but tho slots aco tae enough to prevent the 
carbon and manguness from passing into the mildly evel, way, 
Within tho Inner cell ts placed a cad or plate of glace pro- and not a © spot 
vided, Ike the carbon plate, with sultatla binding senws. 
for connecting purposes. This ral fs amahauuated with 
: mercury, antl pool ‘of tho merenry ts feft in the bottons of 
' the chamber, ‘To malntatn the annilgamation, a solution of 
| hydrosulphate of ammonia and water, is tiled ta around 
1 [Mis plate, Or, Instead of placing ‘the sulphuric or nitric 
feld solution in the mitdle compartment, it may he placed i 
fnstdo the porous cell, aul the solution of hydrosulphate of Tho solution of 
ainmonta placed In the middle compartment; but the former of the cell fs fed 
arrangement is preferred, 7 tw eryst ‘ aud 
~ Mre Howell’s battery 13, it will bo seen, n meditteatton of! Uy ct Iie carbon plate. : 
1 the, well-known Lechinehd cells but apart fromthe novel sane Ge ade vats, ict 
| shape,.and the. uso of the slotted “separator,” it diters © : SS 

YD onesie ee 

PRR pe ee 

from the usual Lectinchd In ntuploying “.white tanginese " 
in combinntlon with the lick, elroumstanes whicl Is held 
Eto keep tho connection between the carbon plate and the 
surrounding packing more perfect Van li the caso witera 
Diack manganese alone iy useel, . ‘Auothdr atlyautage of the 
-gtrangement Je that tho porous cell can ba removed forcteaus- 

wh eh pen ee! 

a ole ia 
NectricaliAdvertisements.—T re- 

gret that prossure- upon my;timehas provented my 
answorlng your query earlier... I.eeudl: herowith 4 
§ 7 

aketch’of tho battery. The jar is Gin, in dinmeter, 

by Sin. deep, and contains'a leaden fannel, marked | 

Hand fv cantizino plate, or ring, as. shown at Z. 
6 zing is suspended from thecoverof the battery, 

’ marked OC, by two'brass rods (inauldted to pravent 
Tocal action),-ono'of. whichis atterminal, A’ stri 
of copper; soldered to the top of the leaden‘funnel, 
w f@ profonged, throu h.the:cover, has a tere 
minal attached; forming the other pole of ‘the 
battery.’ Tho flldd: nbont two-thirds of its 
height with water, in which! fins been dissolved toz. 

‘of: aulphate of-zine, Tio: leaden: funnel ‘ia then 
paced “in. position, nnd” filled to. about’ tho: same 

height with sulphate of copper, Aftern few hours 

: the battery ia ready, for nection. Thio power will be 
found: to-{nereasé materially after a:day or two. 

_ Caro rout bo taken not’ to disturb the 

i mel‘after tho: battery: hasbeen charged. It ‘is 

: negessary to clean the zinc‘occasioually,—Nimnast, 

Rrasptahade 09°? 

A very promisingé“new yvoltaiétatyory fa 
{devised by M, Emile Regnier, the young Pacis) i 
electrician who invented the incandescent electric 
‘ Jann known by hia name, It may be generally de. 
scribed ns a Daniell cell in which the sulphate of 
zine solution is replaced by a solution of ennatic 
potash, In detail, it consiata of a zine plato im- 
mersed ina solution of tho alkali, anda copper plate 
inunersed ina solution of the copper salt; the two 
solutions being separated by a porous partition of, 
parchment paper mado up in the form of a square 
bag. ‘Nhe electromotive force on charging this cell 
in 1.47 volts, falling to 1.35 volts after it has been 
on “short circuit” fora considerable time. ‘I'he in-’ 
ternal resistance ia 0.075 olima, for a cell 6 in, high, 
Jand 12 cubic inches in capacity, According to teats: 
made by M. Regnicr the power of the battery for) 
performing work, cither by producing heat, tme-; 
chanical power, or electrolysis, is twico greater than | 
that of the ordinary Bunsen cell of physical Inbora-: 
torivs, Moreover, the battery emita no volatile 
products, and its waste liquor may be regenerated 
jby electrolysis into tho original materints, 

: GA /BATTERY.-A*_ new gal 
battery with cireulatig liquid, described -by Signo’ 
Ponet in Natura’ G, p. 402, 1870), has the following 
form ;—Rectangular tead channels, beak-shaped at one, 
end, are so placed over one another in slanting position 

~that the beak of ‘the first is over the broad end.of ‘the 

second, and soon, In cach chantiel is an amalgamated: 

: zine plate, and above this a carbon plate insulated from: 

it by two rings of caoutchouc; the carbon ‘plate is per- 

| forated under the beak of the lead channel above, “The 

> lead channels have wires, and the carbon plates, at their 

upper ends, binding screws, with which they are alter-. 

: nately connected. By means of, a, caoutchouc. syphon 

a solution of chromate of potash is conducted. through 

! the system—200 gr. K,Cr,O,, 21 water, 11 commercial 

: murilatic acid; for long use, 3 to 6 litres water and 100 

to 1g0.ccm, muriatic acid may be added to each litre of 

"the ‘solution, A battery of 99 such elements gives a 

light equal to that of a battery of Go Bunsens, and is 
constant in duration. —Nature, 

ol thle Lica nn cea | 
AVinr,—J. 11, B writes 7 * Mn Anierican OCT koe ‘ 

Instead of uaing oil in battery cells I use tallow, which 1° 

iguink much eleanor and better adapted to the purpoac. The 

{tallow should be melted, not sizzling hot, but just enough to} 

:liquify it. A sufficient quantity, to form a crust half an inch | 

i thick over:the surface should be poured into each jar, As; 

j tallow hardens immediately upon coming in contact with water, 

| the jar is nt once sealed up with a substance ensily procured,! 
easily handled, and, if necessary, easily removed. A pound of} . 

| tallow, costing five or six cents,, will seal up half a dozen jars,’ 

; and when sealed upin this way they will require vory little atten. 

; tion, If it be necessary at any time to add sulphate of 

| copper it canbe introduced by merely making a small hole in! 

: the cruat, which is casily filled up with a little melted tallow.: 

| Acell should not bethus seated up except when in good condition ; 

| —work it up to its proper stage, then sealit. Ono great’ 

; advantage in thus sealing the cell is that it keops tho edgo: 

| and sides of the jurs clear of the crystallisation which is 80°” 
annoying, and keeps them elean and nice, I set my local. 
“cella alongside my instruments since they have been sealed | 

"| up, and find them not atall objectionable. Mutton tallow is | 

| preferable, but beef tallow will do nearly as well. Of course 
ithe cell must have sufficient water to ullow of the formation 
.- of the crust without its touching the zine... ac 


es , 

eM oot als eb OX | 2 et 
» THe Dopuax Syerem—(continued). 


‘Titiz actual form of switch for changing from duplex. 
to singlo working or'vice versd is shown by fig. 59. 
: Tho samé form is used both for direct and. for relay 
iworkings raw ye 
Scag) BATTERIES, 5 li: 

Having in the Inst twelve aiticles considered tho} 
principal. ‘forms of". hand-worked | instruments 
employed inthe British Postal ‘Telegraph Depart- | 
ment, it is, noi. proposed, before proceeding further 
in’ the’ description’ of the~ apparatus,:to draw 
attention to the various forms of..batteries em-" 
ployed to work ‘the 'same.. At .the, present, timo; 
thero'are three’ description’ of batteries in use, viz.:. 

: would be a matter of. some, difficulty and expense, 

“message work done. Tho clectro-motive force of 

. Daniell, or, in other. words, 10 Leclanché cells will: 

‘change will be observed on the metal ; and, further, 

OF Behwscs bustainolalocecamaeereneeeet Lecmcmaeraneeet 

tu Wes hilly . 

the ‘Daniell, the 'Bichromate,’ and’ the Leclanché; 
cach kind has its special value, which ‘experience 
has pointed out.” ° ; Uk ee eine eee 
‘ “The Daniell which, as is well known, is the oldest 
description of battery, has been made in several 
forms, but the essential principle is the same in all, 
Its great point of utility consists in its being able to 
give a constant current inder all conditions, that is - 
to say, whether it-bo worked through a high resist: 
ance, or on practically short circuit, The clectro- 
motive force, or power of overcoming resistance of 
the Daniell per cell: may, for ordinary purposes, 
practically be taken as unity or 1. 

Tho Bichromate battery, which is now largely 
used ‘for telegraphic purposes, is, in principle, an 
old invention ; it has, however, been so modified 
that its employment, which was discontinued after 
trial some years ago, has been revived, and with 
oxcellont results, “The author of these fmprove- 
ments is Mr. John Fuller, < “The ‘great' advantage of 
the’ Fuller battery lies in its high clectro-motive 
force,' which is practically double that of a Daniclt, 
Tho internal resistance of the cells, owing to the 
high conducting power of the fluids used in them, is 
also very low; this latter fact enables a strong 
current, under certain conditions, to be given, when 
batteries of a high resistance will not do so, 
‘Although the Bichromato battery is not as constant 
as the Banielt yt it does not polarise to any great 
extent unless absolutely on short circuit ; under the 
latter condition, the polarisation int minute may” 
be only about 10.per cent. but this latter value 
varies with the condition of tho battery. The 
Leclanchd battery, although it has not the constancy . 
of the Danietl ortho power of the Bichromate, is a 
most valuable battery in cases where a continuous 
or nearly continuous current is not required, and 
where tho “refreshing or cleaning of a battery 


Juty 15, 1880.) 


Fic. Gt. 

A eB 


from the fact of its being placed at stations difficult 
of access, and where the cost of a special journcy 
to sct in order a single battery, it may be, would be 
a heavy item compared with the valuo of the 

the; Leclanché battery is about, 16: that. of: ai 

ive. about a similar. clectro-motive force :to: 16 
danicils,. . The battery when: usc:docs not: 
waste to any appreciable extent, or, in.other words,” 
is almost entirely. free from ‘local action ;" this-is: 
not, the. case. with: the. Daniell and i Bichromate: 
batteries, which, .if-left. to themselves for any con-: 
siderable length of time will become exhausted,’ 
although no current is generated ; this local action, 
however, probably ccases \when: the batterics.are. 
working, that is to: say, the: wholo: of tho: material’ 
consumied goes towards producing the current... 
. If wo take a vessel containing a solution, of sul- 
phuric acid and water, and place in this a rod or 
plate of cither, pure. zinc .or, zine which: has been 
amalgamated. with mereury,. then: no action or 

FG 6o, 

if-a plato of copper be. likewise immersed in the 
Hquid no action or chango.will take place on cither 
metal provided the two do not touch,:; If, however, 
tho metals be connected. together, by a short piece « 
of.wire, then bubbles of .gas will be copiously given 
off, from the .copper or. platinum . plate, and at tho. 
same time the zinc,will be attacked by the acid and : 


“us : 
a ENT. POSTAL TELEGRAPH © a inches high, sh inchos broad, and 19 inches from 
: EPs EN}. ‘ ai 

oor ; back to front. ‘The zine plates'are 43 inches wide 
RIVE : “and 24 inches deep without the lug, W ior attr i 
Bat . tinued) : ae 0 ee rineh tong and rf inches wide, the latter dimension 
fats Barrenses—(continued). ; corresponding to the width of the copper strap cori- 
Tus ¢ Chamber” battery, which was described in’, ” - necting the plates. The copper plate is 4 inches - 
the last'article, although very convenient, Is not all. : wide and 44 inches deep. A , er tap. The ‘whota 
that can be desired. Fronttthe fact of its being. - The action, charging, maintenance, &c., of the : or with the de ale, 
made in so many parts itis liable to sustain damage, , new pattern battery ara precisely similar to thoso i the:mereury sell 
especially during ransit, and, moreover, it cannot : escribed for the other forms. : : tnd -tho: outer far 
be packed for the latter purpose except in consider- : be 7 tthe; battery ar 
able bulk, from the necessity of packing material ‘RE , te U, K. Battery. tals that remain ia 
being placed between each porcelain chamber. This battery, which is still extensively used in an be used again 
Now, except as regards the porous partition, the te Postal Service, is so catled from its having ~The zine can be 
« Ordinary" sulphate battery is very substantial in Been the form employed almost universally by the | advantage for ce Pa lenhts ‘ns. ‘ —_— 
make, and is not: liable to damage from rough nited Kingdom" Telegraph Company previous ‘Although a very in purposes. nee Pn pepsin ay 
usage ¢ 3 form of battery, therefore, which would ge number of U. Ks are at & b> 8 Qe, 
combino the strength of the « Ordinary" and the’ ; : : ‘ / oe . ely 
conveniences of the: Chamber,” woul obviously” t ee a re ce : \ : 
Be a good pattern. These facts have been thoroughly, ‘i : ‘, - , aac : ¢ q 
‘ appreciated, and at the present time 2 battery con- q q i i: ny j 
_ structed on these Hines as, comm be cin 2 7 an " 
sloyed in the Postal Service, and wi! form ‘the : ie at ed B i ? Mai tee 
+ standard sulphate battery in all cases where the x ; . : : Ace| oe ragipe : Fanon 
at See lH t ee ries » le zinc est 

| Daniell description is necessary. qi 
i The new vattery will be called tho ' Danicil" 5 3 ” = f ae 5 ; Acamumonine Gt le 
Lsimply 5 its cells aro oO! dimensions : TE WE tS Al oop aa Hane, Hiya pasa 
‘than, those which have i " a As ; ; } oes teuin babe ; : : 
i from the: consequent 1 2 h d . eee ; a $ oe ae eo as ae perforé 
‘ copper plates, their in i. : ae { ti, nag } ichromate de; 
eke the “Ordinary : : : ts Ie Eien : os sos et de potasse, En} 
: consists of a teak troug) rh 3 ets ag profondeurs, ia i 
{ partitions, an whole o cd ; . ; ae  Flale di canals ; 
‘ with’ marine gluc, so cl y f : , ae o ; vet 
watertight; 8 small partition : a oa og BETS vat employer ces 
' igh is set at the bottom of eac! i a bie he a are ; » nploie que ta der 
‘ the porous pots in their place. ‘ to 4 . fa : vs ‘+! tinavee ide Thuile, 
_ pots is similar to those shown by fig : < ee Seen, Fans > pour ebsorbar los 
article, and the zineand copper plat i. ‘ aie ; 5 z mT. 
indicated by fig. 60 in thesame i 1 2 Le aN. ; : roar 
“arrangement of the cells will b : y : ; Zz : BIN Ee ete eines 

ig. 62. . : 
She trough of the battery is 18 inches long 
9 inches wide, and 9 inches deep, including’ the lid ; 

itis divided into five cells.*‘The porous pots are | 

» Bie. 63. 

Ses ‘ 
to the transfer, of the latter into the hands of the | present in-use, it is intended that they shall bo 
State, : a stiperseded by the new “Daniell” battery. 
ig. 63 represents this form of battery. Each : . : . 
cell consists of round glazed brown earthenware Faults prevalent in Daniell Batteries. 
jar, 5 in. high and 44 in. wide, holding ono quart. Tho marine glue coating the joints in tho slate 
A zine cylinder, slightly gmaller in diameter than |- partitions sometimes chips off;: this causes the zinc 
the inside measurement of the cell, js contained in | and copper pair hanging over tho division to boon. 
the latter. ‘This cylinder is ‘of cast-zinc, and weighs short circuit and to exhaust the sulphate crystals.” 
about 2} Ibs, ; it is not continuous all round; but is | and solution in which the copper plate is immersed. | 
cast with a gap; If this wero not the caso it would | ‘Tho fact of this exhaustion once enable the : 
be impossible to remove any particular cell without | faulty partition to bo detected,’ A fault of thiskind’ ; 
dismantling: large number, perhaps all, the’ cells practically throws lwo cells out of use, and can be : 
in a set. «\ porous pot of white unglazed porcelain remedicd temporarily by connecting tho ‘copper | 
is placed: concentrically within. the zine cylinder, | straps of the next and tho preceding cell together: . 
— Reena ee ey eerie want a PT I soem suse att” UIE CIS a : Ag RES i 
| great care should be taken not to waste the mereur 

Tage eS on 

either in the pot or on the zinc. The best plan is 
to insert the pot and its zine undisturbed in an open 

17707.]—Kxowina tho interest somo of you! 

4 rol in electrical subjects, I send ou an 
accountof an improved gaivanic batters, whic L has 
been patented inthis countr, “by, T presume, on Ene 
‘glishman, a Mr. R. OC. Auderson, of Wood Greon, 

4 England. Asyou will see from the illustration sent 

ty rene ME RI a 


‘| herewith, tho ordinary zinennd carbon elements aro 
employed, tho zine being. placed in the porous cell 
and iemersed in a solution of muriite of ainmonta, 
‘| and the carbon fu oxalate of chromium and potash 
in combination with free bichromate of potash 
and muriatic acid. ‘Tho negative portion of the 
feell may be charged in various ways, a8, for in+ 
tance, by placing in the muriaticacid auy oxalate, 
uch aa oxalate of copper or of ammonia, and 
,adding ichromate of potash, whercby oxalate of 
‘chromium and potaeh is more or less quickly 
formed in the cell; but the mode the inventor has 
found advantageous to adopt is to add oxalic acid 
‘ton solution of bichromato of potash until effer- 
i ¥escenco ceases, and then to slowly evaporate the 
‘solution, whereby cryetuls of the oxalate of chro- 
“injum and potash will bo obtained. A suflcient 
quantity of this salt is then placed in the bottom 
of the carbon cell, together with about an equal - 
quantity of crystals of bichromate of potash and 
tmuriatic acid, either puro or moro or less diluted 
with water, necording to tho strength of the soju- 
tlou required, and tho carbon fs then placed in’ 
this solution, Instead of dropping tho cryatals 
or other agents loosely {nto the cell containing ; 
tho negative nolution, as tins been goncrally the 
practice, tho strength of tha battery is regulated 
y Inclosing tho crystals of bichromato of potash 
vin an adjustable glass tubo, open ut the top, and 
having a bottom of perforated platinum or of 
Jpletinum wire gauze, or tho'tubo iteclf may be 
‘perforated, elthor at the bottom or aldes, “This 
|tubo is immerred in the negative solution ton 

+s greater or less depth. ‘Tho greater tha ddpth of: 
: ilmmersion of tho tubs the stronger the power of tho: 
_ }battery, as moro crystals aro then oxposed ta tho 
‘* action of the solution. In this way, by adjusting 
itha depth to which the tubo is immersed, tho 
jttrength of tho battory is rogulnted., For & ond. 
‘Huld battery, the oxalate of chromium solution ta 
common to both’ zino and carbon. Arranged in 
this way, thonction of tho buttery, although of 
much shorter duration than whon two fluids aro 
used, tho battery will bo rendercd anuch mote in+ 
tense, aud tho internal resistance of tho coll will 
bo teas. Tho two-fluld form of battery fs em-' 
ployed whoro great constancy, combined with o 
tcertain dogreo of porter extending over a con- 
‘ taidoradte periot of timo, Is required, as, for ine 
, [stance for tolograph work, tho ringing of olectrio 
Lolls, and for tho driving of electro-motora, and: 
the production of tho ‘cloctria Nght, On tho 
ther hand, tho onu-ftuid form of battery may be 
jused, with. advantage for purposes whoro a short, 
Atendy, and powerful uction fe required, To Pros 

{] Vent tho escape of tho fumes usually arising from 
tho acids, the solutions aro coyprod witha ‘fn 
oil, or with a layor of Anoly-powdered charcoal, : 

; Ed. ee 
‘Washington, D. d | Zd. Sanborn. 

im of 5, 



dd b. 19 50 


A ah. COA 

mag nh 



Sata a 


st aera 

eM AR Tac AOR 




ae Ee 


9. StPAa TE LEE 
peer mee ee 

tai at SORA EAE 

Sa see z 

sag cnt 



ing : hie reels 

Wi pees 

i lL 

M. Reynier a fit fonelionner devant ku Société 
de physique einquante couples qui cient montés 
dans Ja salle méme de lv réunion; ona pu constater 
ainst que fa pile ne répandait: aucune odeur at ne 
pouvait géner en ancune facon. Cette pile a fourni 
un are vollaique eb fait marcher une lampe Serrin, 
de maniére & établir que la pile Bunsen n'est plus 
nécessaire pour les expériences de projection, 

Ona pu également avee ane partic 
faire tourner des moteurs dleetro-magnetiques, mo- 
leur Deprez, machine Gramme, de man i thive 
penser que le moment n'est pas éloignd oit les mo- 
leurs perlectionnés pourront étre ulilisés duns la 
petite indastrie, grice & Tinvention dune pile qui 
fournit, dans des conditions d'un emplot conunade, 
de Méleetri tn prix pen Cleve, 

A. Niauner. 




Lorsqu’on trace te diagramme dynamique d'une hobine 
emens en ti MH opérer une _révolution compléte 
nctiqtes qui réagissent sur elle, 
que le travail est presque nul pendant deux 
perio vz grandes de la rotation. Ces deux périodes 
corvespondent aus temps pendant lesquels les pa 
dries de ta hobine nt atteint les pal 
deéfitent devant eux, It tons de hi révo- 
lution, qui sont c cute dle fs environ, les 
surfaces magneliques 

at mene distance robine n'est done pas 

tourner, le une perte notable de 
Sai supprin : les Windilference et aceru 
Pelfet atile de ‘cae matifiant ainsi Ia hoe 
Dine. Les frees polairey Aru lien Metre des portions d'un 
eslindre dout 1’ Hide avec celui du systéme, sont en 
forme de linagon, df telle sorte quer tournant, elle 
prochent graduellegient leurs surfaces a 
Imant jusyu'au nynenf ot le bord postérieay éehappe te 
pole de Vaimany/ Laction de répulsion commence alors, 
dle sorte que IZ point thort est pratiquement évil 
‘Limportagee de e¢ perfectionnoment it éd¢ anise: en 
dvidence pA une expdrience tris simple, Chea consteuit 
+ deux hobifes SiemensHle indie dinuétee, mene di 
et F enroulement, dont une senlement ait 
modifigég de da manitals indiquée son les . 
emient en tes si\bstilvant Mune i Manteo dans wn 
ir Cleetriqne et ada consta quavee une mene 
fa hobine modifi¢e fodrnit un averoissement de ty 
| considérabte, \ 
1a bobine peut fonctionndy en présence d'un aimant 
permanent; inais je préf Menta comme rdacten 
magnétique fixe un éleetro=aimdat plied Adins fe née 
wit, co qui permed de Seren da courant 
entre des linnites loin hs que les intonsites inside 
lignes respectives de Vorgane fixe et de Vorgane mobile 
cessent de demeurer dans la rotation voultte, 
Le petit moteur que j'ai Chonneur 
yeux de PAcuddinie ost consteuit d 

a coploydes 


de metlre sous tes 
apres ces principes. Un 

Tennent nanan ten bit hilt aca SRY ANE 

seal couple de Ja pile Reynier fajimprime un mouvement 
de rotation rapid red (rais couples on fait tow une 
machine & condre, Ainsi complétée 
conslante et inodore de M. Reynier, 
im moteur dane: 
inestires dynamonéteiques prises diy mon moteur action 
par cette pile donnent des résultats qui s'approchent d'une 
manidre satisfaisante du rendement théorique indiqué 
par M. Reynier ; 

Est-il besoin dajouter que cel moteur est reversible et 
pet, moyennant de légéres igodifications, étre employe 
connne génératenr d'dleetrici 

G. Thouvi. 

inations dans Vordee de ki 
e unois ernie 
gistrer ict cell 
tare Mode docte 
scum Mhisteir 

is, qui ont}ele nomuafés eh 
la Légion d‘homnenr. 

Un steamer moddle. —|L'Uninfrsal Engineer de 
Jun ttseau navire 

‘ivapenr, la Columbia,*qni doit mittee San 
Francisco et Porthind, L’apparende st qitelqne 
peu différente de celle des y; aires de dens 
“inlérieur, néanmoins, 

cantréle des cect 
frvidié pendant Ve eetrique est employee 
‘ differen ities di 
ail, Quatre machines dynang=Edison, fi dans la 
chambre de ta machiné, fornissatt ta dunti¢re. Les Ine 
i ntrdlies de ‘ 
tapes, qui sent place 
de verre, donnenta Ja chante 
et blanche, Une forte Inniére Ofeetrique est aussi placde 
ant dit re et delaing be mer sur une grande 
stance, Les cahines principalys sont dépourvues de sone 
netles Geclriques, le fimioir ft les salons sont mis en 
communication avee It chambte des. officiers. au moyen 
(un téléphone. Un clriqne sur le pont permet 
an capilaine de noter dans quelle direction le navire se 
dirige ot 4 quelle vitesse les machines marchent. Les lits 
des cabines de [** classe sont consteuits Waprés le systtine 
de ceux des Pullan-ears et peuvent se plier penttant te 
Jour, L'ean est fournie par an systime ys iound d'ali- 
mention, ef une quantité ea considerable est tou= 
jours en distillation au moyen dun alambie. La Columbia 
mesnre 354 pieds de long et jauge 5200 tonnes, 

Production de nignaux par Véelalrage a la 
vapeur, — Ladiministration des Phares (Trinity Board) 
vient de faire en Angleterre des experiences sur une nowt 

' Comptes rendis, séance di 28 juin 1880. 

* Note prosautée a VAcaddinie des seienves par Moda Moncel, 


‘ r pene tg one erie nr fe TTY 

» 1, REYNIER ‘r2corfidend ge 5 powerful arid constant battery | 

“fs for electric: light work a ‘modi fed Wahitite cl fis pel he 
* ina 


zinc is immersed ina solution of caustic sod spi it arectan: | 
gular porous'cell of parchiment paper, elebtromotive force | 
of this combination varies fram ‘1°47’ td“ 1°35° volts, and the | 
resistance’ may be less 1 Thomson's tray battery: ° The actual 
energy which a‘cell of this battery would furnish is calculated 'to | 
be twice that of the ordinarg round Bunsen cell. ad 

Awnotiten improved bichromate: battery is announced, this? 
time by the Silvertown Company, In no, essential respect does ! 
this battery differ from the form known as ‘ Puller’s battery,” | 
save in,the'addition of certain J exciting powders” to the liquids, | 
a {grey compound” being dissolved ip: the: inner cell in which 
the amalgamated zine is plated, anda. “red compound" in the 
outer cell with the carbon-rod, The use of dilute sulphuric 
acid is avoided’ by employing the “grey compounds” the; 
avowed aim of this change, is the increase of internal conduc. 
tivi ‘Th It is certainly an increase of cost, 



: «a 
siya Dated October 29 
Sa on tet 

| consisting o} 
: différent diameters, 

: and surround the carbo 

Hefei aan ete CEN IIA ACNE ra 

2p St seem anere 

} f ELL ‘CELL. 

Sas ae : 
Mr. 8. J, Browning, of Ports 

acell he bas eolnlitinted. ots A. (es — : 

. “While using the same mitérinls ; 
: i hie, and the same strong: 
solutions us those of the ordinary Daniell, it Tee lee the ' 

amount of current, 

“Tt can he elearly perecived th in obj : 
vat f at my main object haw hee fo 
reduction of the internal resiatance, which 7 believe 1 pee 

‘accomplished to the ulmoat without reducing its eoustancy,”” 
The accompanying dingrama illustrate this ecll. 

ty 5 Outer capper cylinder. 
oa Inner copper cylindor, which oncircles the porous cell within }-inch 
3). ‘Tho copper aholf surrounding No, 3 for holdir ph 
(4). A woo lon cylinder with atep turned Grutile. to Keer pee in 
contra a No, 2, nnd with threo wooden pluga, to keop No, 2 in centre of 

(5). Ordinary 8in, porous cell. 
(6.) Cylinder of cine. on 

Mr. Browning uses small blocks of il ised indi 
ownit canised india rubber 
eae in ie eentte - ube porous jar, and ‘ei tiki 
8 jar in the centre of the cylinder. : ise 
of felt for the zine to rest upon. ee ene tee ae, 

/§%o i 
aba us photographs of | 


Le mérite de eos sourees d'électricité est en effet 
trés grand; lélément a en meme temps une force 
électromotrice considerable et une résistance propre 
trés petite; c'est de plus un couple complétement 
dépolarvisé et qui réalise un des lypes les plus partaits 
de pile constante dans le sens qu'on attache 4 ce 
mot, Avant d'aller plus Join, il convient de bien 
ddfinir co terme et de ne rien laisser de vague dans 
Fesprit du lecteur, La pile de Grove est théorique- 
ment constante, c'est-iedire que, si activement 
qu'on Ta fasse travailler pendant cinq ou dix mi- 
nutes, on ne Maltaiblit pas, Mais cette constance 
théorique n'a qu’ assez courte durce pratique, et 
a hout Mune leure ia travail non exagérd elle a 
défi perdu de son’ ch 

Parmi tes innombrables combinaisons dé} 
sayées, une seule, 1a pile de Daniell, a une con- 
stance théorique aussi pariaite que celle de Grove 
eb une constance pratique de beauconp plus longue 
durée, : 

La pile Daniell, la premiére en date, est encore 

Fig, 1. Elément comptet de 1s pile feynier. 

aujourd'hui le prototype de la pile constante, et les 
efforts n'ont pas manqué pour racheter ce qui lui 
manque en foree. Le couple a sulfate de cilivre a 
en effet une foree clectromotrice 1,06, presque 
moitié de celle de Grove, 1,80, ct sa résistance 
propre, a dimensions égales, est beaucoup plus 
granie. . 

C'est cet excellent point de depart qu'a pris 
M. Reynier. Ha gardd, le sulfite de cuivre comme 
agent dépolarisant, mais ila substitud dans la cel- 
lule du zine, & Vagide sulfurique étendu ou an sul- 
fate de zine, une solution de soude suustique, eb 
il a ainsi porté la foree dlectromotrice a 1,4 
ou 1,5. [s'est préoceupd ensuite de diminuer ha 
résistance propre de In pile, et est Mi surtout qu il 
a fait une chose originale et importante; pour aug- 
menter la conductibilité de ses dete ‘liqueurs, il a 
ajouté des sels solubles et conducteurs par, tesquels 
Ja résistance des liquides est beaucoup réduite, Ha 
daillenrs adoptd des vases poreus de papier parehe- 
min, qui ajoutent beaucoup moins 4 ka résistance 

Hy que des vases porenx de porcelaine ddgourdie. 

Venons maintenant & la description matérielle de 

156° "LA NATURE. 

Vobjet. L'clément complet est représenté par da 
figure 1. L'dlectvade de cuivre (lig. 2) est placd 
dans la cellule extéricnre, c’est-i-dire en dehors du 
vase porous; elle Menveloppe, te touche méme, de 
sorle qu'elle est aussi prés que possible de l'élec- 
troile zine (fig. 5). 

fb Ces deux fenilles métalliques ont ta meme forme 

Fig. 2, Electrode négative cuivre 4 Vintérieur da vaso poreus, 

replige et présentent toutes denx une grande sur. 
faces: les figures font comprendre comment les 
queues saillantes hors du liquide sont coupées dans 
la lame meme et comment on évite les attaches 
soudées, qui sont généralement  pratiqndes et qui 
sont nuisibles. 

Le vase poreux est fil de 
figure 4 le montre achevd; |: 
prendre comment if est ablenn par wn pli 
venable d'une feuille carrée; le pliage epéré, on 
atliche avee des épingles de papetier les gros plis 
amends sur les petits cdtés; ef Ie vase ne présente 
sur ses grandes fies qu'une seule épaisseur de 

Lfidée d'employer le papier parehemin n'est pas 
nouvelle, et sir William ‘Thomson avail reprise 

papier parehemin ; ta 
figure 5 fail com 

Fiz, 5. Electrode positive zine & Cintérionr di vase poreuy. 

dans sa pile Daniell & faible résistance; t ais Vide 
du pliage est nouvelle et heureuse, ct les vases (le 
papier de M. Reynier pourront dtre utilisés par les 
chimistes en dehors de lapplication pour laquelle 
ils ont ce imagines. a 

La porosité de cette eloison, sera peut-dtre trop 
grande pour cerlaines applications de Ia piles it est 
aisé de In réduire en pliant ensemble deux ou trois 
gpaisseurs de papier. It est interessant de remarquer 
d'ailleurs que, par cet artifice, on double ou tripte 
la résistance éleetrique du vase poreux; mats on 

EMM reistonatatuntarsriseriasonsn ccc EINEM 


r ad 

1" PROVEMENT OF Ee nites \s 
i, \ 


TERIES.—European : journals: note’ two recent Mr, i 

‘improvernents Tn electrio battories, one of which Afr, Azants, sonata chlefly 
bout tteen e ane yi 

ia snodification of the well-known Bunsen, dao mt.’ eres 
+t to BM, Acapla. iti in-stated that “he, has ane; The Ih of cautatl Tall ae? rnc! Th C reial 
aa sed i cooromplion cf scan en k of itis \ ‘ : . The Commercial Treaty with Chi 
nft Fea wally a y ina, 
sede fear the coneumPthe. current by no 08 Ustad w Heh contatns AITE text of the two treatles signed nt Peking on September 17, 1880, by the 
i while the prove.’ Commissioners Plenlpotentlury of the United States aud Ching, res wwetivel as 
was-recently subinttted to the United States Sennte for approval. The thiport kent. ' i 
by the Sceretary"of State in relation to the negotiations with Chinn gives detatted | 2 

‘using # solution of cyanide of,potassium, cauatio 
‘potash ebloride 7 scodinit or sal ammonite is id a gen ele elt if the, 
; 0 jute aulphurio acid generally) gananteds atid consn ete s 
insed ie the ping seal ene. second battery res fi y and ie 4 7 rite meounis of the several meetings of the United States Commissioners and the \ 
‘na follows: ‘A roll of shoot aN + loner a) manner, wh river hn ty ol ; Commissioners of the Clinese Emperor, and of thesteps hy which the latter were . 7 
ian fllowas, A roll of sho. taminum is Place —whilelh ordi 5 ete such a led to recede from the position first assumed, ani to come toa sutiafuetory under: 
aw roned, ge weasel contain ng very a to | © enuplo ene th * standing with the Americat representatives upon the question of ‘Chinese imui- 
Tapdsecha wold or dilate ou are il : ar days in suce - rad used gration to this country, ‘The tlret treaty is confined in iis provistons to the future 
‘cell containing concentrated nitric acid and a atte yo eucling an electri nt I Ce ee i me i Galt Blanes, resend te 
8 ec elit. ErCl paty, 2 te. vhich Is as WH 
7 Mant It gives out Heit “The President of the United States undNifs Imperial MafGt the Emperor of 
a ah China, because of certain points of incompletencss Te exit reaties between 
‘ iss) aN enipotentiney, that . 

‘araaller roll of slorinara. Each roll has a log 
‘or projection, which ia inserted into a cironlar 
f i: é 
f obo! thelr two Governments, have named as 
. Ange, bf Michigan ; John 

is to say, the President of the United See dak 

obonite, and thus in placo, 
: F; Swift, of California, and Wiliam TRpry TrHNott, of South Carolina ; his In 
perial Majesty the Emperor of Chinn Yao Chijny, i membPyof is Tinperlal Majes ol 
ty’s Privy Council and Superintendayft of the ard of <Nvil Ollice, and Li tung ¢ ‘ 8 ‘ be 
: ig 

oA sew DaTrERy is being ‘produced; having“: / { 
ane of its elements composed of sheat iron lesx H 
than the fiethousandth of an inch in thick ! 

Poubfcr- sss for 5 Yn 

‘Teno, a member of his Tunpertat M nH who have agreed upon 

and concluded the followlng artl 
“ Antiche ‘The Govern, 

esty’s Pri 

nl China, recognizing 
ur still further to pro- 
Subjects oNd): two powers, mutually 
rhid attention (0 the representations of 
f commerciat intercourse as elther may 


Ant. IL, ‘The Governments of Ching and the United States mutually agree + 

and tndertake that Chinese subjects stint not be permitted to import opium inte 

4 any of the ports of the United States, and the citizens of the United States shall 
not be permitted to import optim into any of the open ports of China, to trons: , 
muy or sell opium in anyt 

port it from one open pert to Ay other open port, or to 
of the open ports of Chiva, "This nbsulute prohibition, whieh extends to vessels : 
owned by the citizens or subjects of either power, to foreign vessels employed by 
them, or to vessels owned by the citizens or subjects of either power and eniployei ; 
by other persons for the tratisportation of opium, shall be enforced by appropri- 
aie legislation on the part of China and the United States, and the benefits of the » 
favored nation clause In existin, treaties shall not be cluimed by the citizens or : 
subjects of either power, Hen nat the provisions of this article. , oa 
Ane. TE, Hls tmpertal Majesty the Emperor of China hereby promises and | 
grees that no other kind or higher rute of tonnage dues or duties ‘for imports or 
exports on constwise trade shail be Imposed or levied in the open ports of China | 
upon vessels wholly belonging to citizens of the United States, or wpowt the pro- | 
duce, manufactures, oF merchandise Imported in the same from the United States - 
or from any forelgn country, or upan the produce, manufactures, or merchantlise- 
exported In the same to the United States, orto any foreign country, or trans; ported 
fn the same from one open por of Chinn to another, thin are tmposed or levied 
on vessels of cargoes of any other nation or on those of Chinese subjects, The 
United States hereby promise rnd nygree that no other kind or higher rite, of tone 
noge dues or duties for Imports shull be Imposed or fevied inthe ports of the 
} United States upon vessels wholly belonging to the subjects of his Imperint Mas, 
i jesty, and combny either directly or by way of any forelgn port, from nny of the 
ris of China which are open to forelgn trie, to the ports of the United States, or 
returning therefrom, elther directly or by way of any of the open ports of China, 
manufactures, oF. merchandise imported in tle same from, 
forelgn country, than are imposed or levied on vessels of other 
rnint the Unite States In tonnage duces 

wo trade, or thin are limposed or levied 

or duties on Sinports, exports, or const! 
ieee Feitizens of the United States, 

" i b NTS.—L. Beils 

and F, Jawein. In order to prevent the ovidation ot 

the conductive wires, binding-screws, Ke, they ar 

rubbed over with oleonaphtha prepared from Caucasian 

petroloum. The resistance is not perceptibly increased, 

Other mineral oils would act in a similar manner, : 

< Tuenwo-Cummtcat Researcitts.em alius Thom 
The author. gives in, Kolbe’s :.fournal “fie. Praltsehey : 

aligns hehe eianniiclas ns . ‘ 
fom 1 TEE ae | 
are wena Yon ww AGS, : 

of the United States and subjects o : 
mined and decided by the public oflicers of the two natlons, it is agreed betweett 
the Governments of the United States and China thnt sucht cases sha be tried by 

The properly authorized 
hall be freely’ permitted to ‘attend the trial, and 

shall be trented with the courtesy’ Hy ghul} be granted al] proper 

vatching the proceedtn; vy in the interests ofjuattee, If he so desires, 
facilities for vite rial t Nf xamine, and to cross-exumine witnesses. 

he shall have the right to present, to ¢: 
rocecdings he ahall be yormitted to protest aggtinet them 
He dient aw truiistered fit be the law br the nationality of the ollicer 

indetall, ‘The law administered will 
ed and seated the foregolng, | 

ring the cuse. : 
im 0 faith whereof, the Plentpotentiaries hive sign: 
at Peking; in English and Oliineses ete. - 
‘ sston, 
« Signatures of the Chincee omission. wqammaT. ASaBUt, 7 
‘ un BY SwiFty : 
. . ice emer | 
Y President has also sent to the Senate: 
In addition to the treaties with China, the Presive ne ae eyuracnicht of Cer 

" . viding 
the text of atreaty negotiated it preueredl BY Kher country in consequence, 

tain apecitied expense’ aly smite vessels of the other. 

SEL ele inh etsynae eromansnern if nbs, 

e desiderata In'a'g 
compactness and abil 
trent of electricity, cheaply, 
a Lafsonous or corrosive fumes. ; 
ee OPS The form. of battery described ‘below was designed to; 
: Sem leaply overcome gomo of the annoyances commonly attent 

Int upon the use ‘of: Inrge or énfenss batteries us well as to’ 

RST acme PETE g SoS he 
~~ Pwo terminal and ail interinedinte ‘statlons are shown. 

The index stows Whe yunber of subscribers to stations on | cours 

x er | 7 is 
the circult, and the poston of, the poluter indicates the This 
sie ealled. ‘The al ismade by a push bike an electric | Fo 

bell push. The pual cages the pointer to go forward ‘one: 
Pane the rel ase cates it to go forward another hall 
step; and this action is butinued GIL the number of the 
station required ix reackd, when attention Is roused ni 
the riuging of the bell. De nelion of the instruments wi 
be understood If we skite how the connections arc mw 
‘Ava central station the poitive pole of the local butte 
connected to terminal, 14, Fig. 1; the negative pole 
LZ, Fig, 8 the termimd,3, is put to earth, Ong Nne—say, 
the up Hne—ls conneetd bp 1, and the down dine to Lt 8. 
The terminals, St TC, areconnected as shown, At the ter- 
minal stations, what ve inve called thy up wire is con: 
nected fo the zine pol ofthe line battery, the copper pol 
being put to earth, Thodetails, although they may seer 
complicated, ure not go, bt will he readily understood. 
The conncetions are ther as follows: A wire leads from 

the Ine 1, marked Ty, or upper left-hand terminal of the | po 
signal, looking at it fromthe frout, to the electromagnet, | me 
D, the other stde of thk coil being ‘attached to the maln | batter! 
framowork, The current {len goca by the terminal, marked | the 

- { 

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01 WOT FEY Modnasayar fapitsy OO) BE I] KU “Syugapuy wa: 
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pUw OppOTTD wEyOUUEN OUUtUEAT COD. ITAL paanposd ot 
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you sy dadud orf sue ‘patuaten acy Lut syttopio BI] DLAs aLTIOG 
OUD ‘AT UNYTOUTT oI) JO HORsoduoodp, a4} WoIRUI, OF 
sapio ty “aqyidaosad Ajypuat o8 you By pot OF oFuurya Aly pus 
TaINyQ GaUId9q 1] portaysjour sf 1] GatTAs oMNUdAG ‘aquys Lay “y 
sf Ip Go aodud aqy Aypdusa oF 199q Sf IT saadduys Ol) JO 42 
AOAMOT At]R OF PAYOITIT ya} OF JO_99a]C U {IIs PARO]D 8} 1409 
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8} PIs} 04 OF OOUMEQNS Of,L ‘FAYPUUND Yurue vf ‘atragoad 
jo spaodud sppy, ouysony pyoveour v opus oujtjuusor— pou 
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jo tuaog ory Up sp af ttoHAL BfuottAL Aq ONyUTIND pasofoo At U9u 
tidaad gy santuut pag |sofop-oaone oy up posudoad aadug 
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avaddy yas fot) *popsp pul ouyyansos yo Wood ON]IP GOT 
jou tv up poddyp oq sodud pozjaun jo sodysyy JT oyuydnys 

[2} so. Tp ott OVE. paysaatiog samoddq pjow OUOUE ILD) tArosd | 4 

YspMOTae v. or poHauys oq [I] tooo por syf ‘Pappy pju 
OLngdyne oP pur soytss UT PIApossyp 9] ONIN, NATAL 

‘yvanouyy Avaonp Aq 

: ‘ox09 pazyoudan 

punoar samy) Aaeur yvo23 w punoas By oy oly A194 O6OILM 
On0TT) BU tots ‘Aug OF ay AUNT) ‘ROUONdITO) yIUKyEOL Ana puu 
“wopsnD 40} PayuNouT HUIUI[O QSUpO"L 19} yHOQN poanbas 
O18 OsdI[) BNGOI. Pood upsyqo OF, — “MMO OPT Os Wasa 
“an Spoq g]yy Jo sopjzadoad 042j99]9 auynSuys ou) pajyusisuowap 
ALU O]YAL Jo suudur £q eNdWPLIdxXo sNOLtUTIeL Oy OF BU (TIM 
au ‘snyuundde opuoydotoyd puy opaorydoypur qn or paydupe ay 

| AOAfO091 LUNMO[OT JIT) ‘Poq{owOp OAT OAs BU PorONspsI0D 
‘ : “ala ‘uopwwudoad Jn apout ofs “urnyuopos 
OL Ju ostgat ot) ‘BaopstatUD OL) YITAL AuaAT Aawa squaua[a 
OU) JO SODUUIHIHOS OT, “LOPO Pood uy ap ind 0} fuinyuapos Jo 
Juyiwoo satyous ppu pus yy qsyodos ‘ujudu oouzing ony oly OF 

~ oxygen of which and w 

zinc, ‘Trial proved the Iden-to be strictly correct; ny 
tron, but nickel and cobalt, as well as gold nud stly: 
the nietals of the platinum:group, were found to’ be 
+ cally as electro-negative to zine ns carbon itself. Cau 
at first litte more etrongly electro-negative than irp 
owing to the ubsorption oP hydrogen in its pores as’ 8 
the circuit ts closed, it ts In practice in no wise super 
Silver ia the most electro, vegntive of all the metals 1 
solutions, The use of fron, tf practicable, has oby 
keveral advantages, The cheapness of the metal ¢ 
freedom frot linbillty to fraettire as compared with 
are strong polas in Hg favor, and it afarts besides tH) 

silitity of making a perfect nnd persianent connect it 

the negative plate for the binding screw, an end so d 
tontialn when carbon is used. It waa discovered, ho’ 
that a simple iron plate polarized very. rapidly, the 
gen sct free by the action of the battery clinging (6 
greatly inercasing the resistance. By aufroundin, the 
with a packing of small fragmenta’ of iron, such as 
turnings or borings, In the same sinner ag the carbon 
in the original typeof Lechinché, is surrounded by fmp 
of carbon ant manganese dioxide, this deletertons acl 
considerably moditled, and diy cell nequires to a gre 
tent the power of keeping up its clectromotive force 
working continously throhgh a tow extecual resis 
The number of potnts presented by the tues or to 
is probably Ghe cause of this, ng it Ts well known that | 
gen escapes with much greater freedom from a roug} 
from a sinocth surface, - The packing of fron frngimies 
in fact, the platinized silver plato of Smee in wnother! 
The greatest cficiency ts oltataed when the fron frag 

are thoroughly damped by the solution, but not innit 

fn It, the obstictes to the exenpe of the hydrogen being 
at their minimum, ‘ 
Although not quite constant when working throw 
soxternal resistance of 20 ola, the battery recovers | 
ginal electromotive force when allowed to rest: with a 
ty suficient 10 allow of its employment on the busiest 
graphic circuits and for most other practical purposes, 
* electromotive foree of the tron battery varies soamewhu 

the onturg of the Jron and the purity of the exciting sala 

ployed. Also with the degree to whieh the Tron fra; 
are saturated or covered by the solution, ‘The Danie 
1, and the Leclanché at ita best 130, the row varies 
115 to 133. Tho last wagan exceptionally good cel 
the average may be taken at 1°20, or 0°07 less than the 
Leclanehé, Bat after working for some days continu 
through w low external resistance, the iron keeps 1 
romothve fe much better than the Lech 

is proved Intely, at the suggestion of Mr. David 
who thonght it kely to demonstrate the comparative 
clues of the two batteries for actunl work by setting a! 
spechnen of each cell to ring an clectro-tangnetie trem 
bell of precisely slinilar construction, and ench ofa 
wee of 6 ohins, day nod night, until they failed. | 
were started at 110 ALM, on December 23° Inet. | 
four or tive days the Leelanehé beesme very wenk; 
although it did not nctuatly stop untit January 13, £ 
terly slmply vibrated the hammer of the bell without | 
jng the gong. ‘The fron cell rang the bell powerfally: 
January 15, and did not stop unl January 23, exact! 
month, or 741 hours, fromthe date af starting, 
+ Pho chetateal reaction of the tron buttery is probat 
follows: there belng present wheo a solution of potas 
hydroxide ty used, 

: Znr4+-KHO-+11,0-+4-Fe, 
the closing of the circuit produces first, 
2Zn0-+K-F 1, 4-Fe, 

That ts to suy, at the positive plate the oxygen of the V 
slum hydroxide and of the water fs given off, nud com| 
with two gtoms of zine to form zincoxlde, At the neg. 

. plate, the potassium and the bydrogen of the potas 

hydroxide, and the hydrogen of the water are set free, 1 
metallic potussium instantly decomposes an additiunnl 

culo of water in tho neyntive portion of the cell, wit| 

th one of tho free atems of hy 

yen t comblucs to reform potassium hydroxide, leavlug! 

four atoms of hydrogen duc to the decomposition of w 

_ free, -. This makes tho final stage, 

ses ss 

In Fig. 2,'A fa, sheet of copper, about elghtcen inches’ 
bug and ten and a half. inches In 
idth, bent U-shape lengthwise, and 
rovided .with na short copper strap - 

Mbtoasium hichromate and: about onc pound 5 

onomize space and Inbor of matntenatice, 

car ata, B, Fig. 2, isnstrip of zinc, 

Pout fifteen inches long and four 
fait dirée-quarter inches wide. The 
fannie! envelope, C, ia mude of one 
Heee, ning inches wide and twenty. 

o iuches long, doubled upon itself 
d stitched together at g and J, 80 
‘to snugly envelop the zinc plate. , 

h setting up the battery, the copper 

coated thickly with a paste of 
Icitied tampblack and dilute sul 
urle ackd; the plate of zinc is fit: 
V Into the cloth envelopo, pre- 
ously motstencd with dilute sul- 
uric acid, and this in turn fs put 
to the copper, 60° that. the cloth 
ejects an Inch or more above and 
low he Intter, Tt is necessary 

bat the copper. should finnly press 

on thectoth cavelope, but it must 

Dt touch the uncovered zine plate. 

yo couples thus arranged are 

neked tightly togetherin a wooden - 

me or case, with a sheet of paper 
turated with parafine between 

Ach, as shown tn. Fig, 1. The 
Bates are then joined in serics—tho 
Bnc uf one, with the copper of the 
ext, and go on—the cars, «and 4, 

ig. 2, serving for connections, Tho 

Ale, PP’, Fig. 1, is made of glass, 

of pieces of glasa tubing jolucd 

& vulcanized rubber tubing, and fs connected with 9 reser-{ °° * 

bir, D, At polnis, ¢, 4, 8, along this tube, and just over the | 
panded ears of the projecting cloth envelopes, aro arranged | 

Haas dropping tubes, so that when aliquid fluws from the 

servolr, D, through PP’, an equal quantity of it escapes 

Brough ench of theso upon ‘the cloth velow. The flaw of 

Fuld from the reservolr can be controlled by the stopcocks 
Eand T. 

The battery is operated ns follows: The reservoir, D, hav- 

Ale been filled witha colution of three-quarters of a pound of 

sulphuric acid ina gallon of water, the, 
p pcock, E, {sopened, and thesolutionallowed 

BM trickle ‘slowly upon and down through: 
Age cloth cnvclopes, escaping at the. bottom 

alendon or enameted tray, Tho batters’ ©” 
5 attanged develops a consideraule elec: - 

motive force, and, when the reservoir is 

operly .adjuated, is: remarknbly constant, 
wkd ‘it become clogged up with chrome. 

Bbm (and. this docs not often happen), or 
Mhen. tt ts not required for uso, it can bo 
Poncd without discounccting it by allowing 

Warm water, instead of the solution, to tlow 

Mrough the pipe, P.P’....The zinc plates can 

casily taken out without removing the 
velopes. A’ battery of this. kind of onc 

Miindred cells can bo put up in.a box three 

t long, ono, foot wide,.nnd two feet deep, j 
‘can be fed from a singlo rescrvolr, and will 
‘avery fate are Nght... 

CSeienfitic American, 
SEPTEMBER. 3, 1881] 

cease ae 

vetoes tah S Ema Sec TELS 


Menlo Park Scrapbook, Cat. 1002 

No. 2. "Combustion of Coal; Theoretical Heat from Boilers and Steam < 
Engine Cost" 

This scrapbook covers the years 1879-1881 and contains clippings 
about boilers, engines, and coal consumption. There are 138 numbered 

Blank pages not filmed: 36-138, 

Sette ey 

> Si nm Esty 
oye F i —O—— oo smi 
"U7 Broad St, Nowark, NJ," 


“: [the preceding paragraph,” -\:.": 

MA ne rom 

realiso_ on. the: Combustion 
Wm. M. Barr,'a recent war 
vowed In‘our issue of June 28t 

of fuel, is the proportion which the: 

Habte heat: bears to tho. total heat, when 
iven sort of fuel ts burned In the given {i ° 
is here to he under. 

‘ary analysts: being known;.. bit 
ailablo beat ia not so casily arrived at;;and 
-can only be determined, by a, series of more)’ 
oF lesa : elaborate. experiments: or, trinla’ in 
actual use.:.In steam: bollers tho, efliciency |, 
of: tho furnace Is measured by the pounds of: 
‘water evaporated per. pound of coal burned 
‘on tho grate, under known conditions. ‘This 
‘will always bo found to be below the theo- 
retical quantity, and may be accounted for 
in many. ways... 2 fe 
sf Heat, ike water, or steam, must flow 
fom,n highor to a tower Ievel in jorder to be-y. 
ome available, and: in this flow, or transfer{ * 
hero Is n Joss, which is explained In tho arti- 
1a. on the dissipation of energy. |)’ 
‘hora fa'.a logs’ duce to ; tho ‘radiation | 
{heat from the sides of: the: furnace; this 
may be prevented in part by building hollow 
‘walls around tho furnace, <0). , 
ot! Thero ta o loss in the use of cold instead 
of heated alr for supplying the oxygen to the 
burning fuel. .: This may be remedied in part 
by forcing ‘the alr: through tho hollow spaco 
loft between tho two wails, as suggested 


‘There is;a loss ‘occasloned by the aiffer-! 

of temperature: betweon tho escaping 
gases and. that of: tho'atmosphoro. necessary : 

“Hto! produco’ naturnlydraft, : ‘This may. bo) 

argely,: overcomo. by. using a. forced draft, 

“@There is, losa by Imperfect: combuath 
that is, loss. by..tho formation of ‘carbonic}: ; * | 
oxide Instead of carbonic acd. 2 + ss. 
.: The constderation of cacti of these forms 
‘fof: loss has: been undertaken elsewhere in’ 
this: volumo, and need not be repented hero.'} 
There is no method ‘by which the efficiency / 
‘of.n furnace can bo exactly determined, ox-| 
cept by an experimental test in netual ser: } 
vice. ' 
' “Tho quantity of water evaporated from : 
jand_ at-212° per pound of coal, varics in ore! 
inary practice from six to 2... are 
jten pounds ; ten pounds is 
<lconsldored a very fair evap.” 
ition, “and Is" probably, 
“Imuch ‘above the ‘average ; 

" Ithis Is about ‘seventy-one per’ ‘| 

cent: of the theoretical, if wo 
Inssuine fourteen pounds ns 
the average theoretical evap- 
oration power of good coal |" 
and coke, 1a leat eg 
“ With inforlorcoal tha ro-''.:: 
{sults would be far below this; 
ithe quality of the conl orcoke 
used must be taken into'nc- 
count, ds well ag the con- 
struction of the furnace, and! Sy :--+-gemr sr; 
fo obtain the -highest ‘results, ‘the furnace. 
should have ita details arranged with special, 
reference to the burning of a particular fuci,! 
as may bo found after'a trial, the best and" 
-{ eat economlenl arrangement for that fuel.” 


ERR KRUPP, of Essen, has recently taken! 
“out patents for an Invention intended to} 
‘provide foritho safety of steam-boilors when; 
noylcoted by tho attendant, It is of tho fusible: 

“julloy class, and, as will be econ, differs materi-; 
Jotly from tho woll-known fusible plug. .M{any; ’ 
attempts have: been mado to: produce safety! 
‘apparatus for steam-bollera with fusible alloys,; | 
thut tho contrivances hithorte employed as safety | 

+ lapparatus for steam-boilers have Indicated tho 
‘scarcity of wator in such manner that tho alloy; 
‘fuses or inclts Away whon the tompornturo un-; 

» duly rise, thus frocing tho oriflee ol structed by; 
‘the alloy, aud tho ateam escaping indicates tho, 
searcity of water either by ita nolso or by its! 
‘action ona whistloor other contrivance, Irupp's; 
Anvention differs from othera in that tho alloy is: 
‘shut up ina vessel, iu which it fuses or melts, 
‘when the temperature riscs, so that a signal is 
‘given or appliances are brought into action! 
jwhich influence tho production of steam. “In all’; 
‘eases thoro is no loss of alloy; on the contrary,! 
{tho samo metal can be used over and over ngain,: .. 
jand tho apparatus rescts itself. According to} 

lone arrangement tho alloy is placed in a valvo, 

which can bo pressed strongly upon ite: 

‘seat «by =ncrows, tho pi lending toi” 
tho valve being so aorangol that tho tems 

[Beraturo of tho wnter in it will not molt tho’ 

= ee ay 

Phew Leb UE med ke, OPE 

steam gauge on-No, 7 Loilor, ‘and also one wrought iron 
Efreceiver whioh Joins tho stoam pipes, but no gau Baty 
0. other soven boilers, which wero all coupled 
anght tere gaa Pipes : taal ti : 
a teated that the exploded boiler was mada twantysalx 
cars ago and has been at work ever since, and paper, Mille 
‘PRenerally. work night and lay, showing that thia boiler has 
}gona through 9 reat Binount of. wear and tear, : Iho rivet vi 
heads wf tho shell and those of tho hand-made portion of the h before rupture 
itacs only Pyvleet from juin, to Jib. abovo tha aurfaco of tho thia Loitor would 
sop plates, and thoir form is conical and about Min, diameter at | of 1011b, on tho sqsiaro inch, 
ho Inao, leaving not more than y4in; in thickness of autal of fof only three instead of six to mect 
Tivot head at tho circumference of to body of the rivet, and | accounts for tho tearing of the shel 

alloy. Tig. 1 is a vertical cross scction of a 
safety apparntus or fusible plug for atenm-boilers! 
conntracted according to this arrangement, A! . 
is tho alloy; B tho valve in which tho alloy is! 
placed; Gand D aro scrows for operating on tho! 
‘Valve B; and Fis tho water pipe, ‘Tho valvo B; 
jean be shut by prossuro on tho solid alloy A by; 
‘means of tho scrow D; but in tho event of the 
valloy A melting in consoquence of scarcity of; 
rwator, tho preastro coases, the valyo B rises, audi 
tho cscaping steam signals tho fact. ‘Tho alarmi 
‘apparatus shut by screwing the screw 0; 

down, after which tho other scrow D ie’ ; : whe hie ; : s . , & ‘ 
‘raised, sufficiontly to oso contact with ‘ 1 one A a x : H acter Hil 


PANE curses mates. 

‘tho alloy; the latter having becomo sct,! 

ithe shutting of tho AL J ngaln pilosted, i : . ie A ‘< i 

iby tho samo screw D, which has first to ! ca roams a eam ae firm ae — Ome a ABOUT 180 YARD GT a nan mee me ee 
‘sorowed down strongly and afterwards clinched: oP Ok ‘ a de ; a 7 

:until tho other screw CO has been raised, after’ 

‘which tho apparatus is ready for further siguale 

‘ling purposes, According to another arranyo-, 

iment tho fusiblo alloy ia inclosed inn box which’ 

jis tightly joluted or scrowed on to the atenm-; 
+ pipe; but in all instances tho alloy when hard! 

‘arrests or holds n pleco of mechnutam which, 

‘when thealloy bevomtes fluid, isrelenved, tonctuato} ett M: & oot / : i ea 

ry Sigua or example, n rack or ratchet! wey } ‘ P i ¢ eri a FRONT «ND 

i Wheel may be, used, ono tooth of which ts cast or ou oat : 

Angorted in tho alloy, whilst a tension is created 

on anothor tooth either by menns of the raised j 
damper or the cut-off valva of a conduit of gay, } 

.ora ringing apparatus, a steam-signal, an cloo- | . ! ty 
, tro-ma; ee or any othor sultablo-arrngomost., e tints ; : vTTERE caetents 
Rig, 2 1s 9 yortical crosa section of apparatus! pie ke 
+ coustructed necording: to this arrangement. A js! 
‘tho fusiblo alloy; B ta the box or valve in whifeh | 
‘tho alloy {a pluced; |G, tho ratchet wheel on tho! i 8 
‘spindlo H, a tooth of tocth of which is embedded: 
in tho alloy ag shown; and F ia tho water tube. 
Tf tho alloy A imolta, tho ratchet wheol G is: 

Toleased, and tho damper closes the flue to chim-- ! % 4 H | Poors 

“‘noy, the gaseflow conses, and tho bell, whistle, at oth . cee S q 

or other signal sounds ; varlouscontrivances may: Th ‘ t SS} 
‘bo devised for acting in a simitar manner, being: { F we i 

a fala in the alloy rah it is hard, and relonsod : . tho x : ay eal \ 

» }ehen or partially 80; for examplo, the ‘ 5 ina i - 

+ “Maoldin, pplinnes may boa bar with cnlan ed: i +f which Mr, Hiller fs tha ifs i i 9°09 

*, end going into the alloy. We should be plod to lolbo 3 
learn whother Horr Krupp has really tried the oer i boing, : 
:plan described, for it t4 not quito olear, if the; en by! 
‘water will not melt the alloy, that tho tomperaturo : i 

of tho steam will, - f ONOXEH ore . i 
a ies © 7 et : ry nce Company, explain eae 5 , i 
xii “S different way. i oy Piany rivets aig much tess than this, some havo the heads rupturo had commenced. Tho shell ani thics were torn into 
© Lancashire ty; adja. a ontirely sheared off. 'Tho diamoters of tho rivet Holos aro, on | at loast fifty pieces, . , 
tho thicknosa of t was’ «| tho sido of the plates whoro tho punch frat cntored din,, and | Mr, Baldwin is of opinion that th es began to collapse 
ixteenthe, the flues ‘y-| ou the other side lin. making the moan diamoter of the rivet | noar tho middle of thelr length ina vertical direction, thereby 
: 2". [holes }fin., aud many of the rivet holes have boon drifted to tearing the onds of tho boilor aud thomsclves to picces, andat 
more than lin, in diameter. Tho rivots do not fill the holes | tho front end of the sholl rupture would commonce and spread 
and in.numorona cases they do not fill by yin, to Jin.; tho | itself over the shell, tearing tho plates and joints to picces, 
nitch of tho rivets is 2in, producing the result wo have scon in tho caso of this boiler . 
Mr, Baldwin bolioves the oxplosion aroso owing to the flues explosion, ‘Tho factor of safety in connection with the flues 
being wok in tho hand-rivetted portion, which ight allow | when now was only 2 to meot contingencies. t 
- E : : thom to collapso oven with’s prossuro of 531b, on the square ‘Thero was a fustbly plug on cach furnace crown mado of 
8g0. . Tho: of ‘ . : inch, as tho metal will havo dotoriorated in strongth and tho} brass about lin, in oxternal diameter and about 2in, tong, \ 
f fio a ‘ “4M rlvot heads would do a0 Hkowise, and may havo beon sheared | with a hole in cach about jin, in diametor Allod with white 

B tf th i so allow th etal, But the smallnoss of thoso plugs rendered thom quite : 
; ung is fenees “lpi. collataieey prasstre, acootding to Sir ancloes, and thoy wore also: chokod up with mud at tho aldo 
on cairn’ 

Willlam Fale experiments when the boiler was now, | noxt the fre,. As wo havo not acen the boilor, we refrain from i 

Moutatinn’ fie, tt con Slb, ‘This will givel SS ;, +l would be 109 1b, on the square inch, if tho flues had beon well | expressing any opinion qa to which of the two oxplanations {g 
8 , ‘Tho frou composing both the shell and tho fluoa ia correct, oes ones veyt 





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gine it blew He‘then? aa 

f P Spparently contradict much .'that ‘sound — scientific 
{The explosion of Mr, Anway’s boiler, at Rio |*: 

velf or others, but told tho’ plain. truth and ox.! . } t : Tec eaten 
"plained the ta-éauso of ‘tho ‘explosion, that it} : , 
{ ‘atoing and 4 

of ‘theso : useful ’ servants, threshing ongin 
‘Tho-engincer, a man about 80 years of ABS, ‘might be. 
- {whose countenance is stamped all the appoat 7 ; 

tances of candor and sincority, swears before : 
| jury that ho-had‘one. and ono-half inches: of: 
wator in his gauge glass at the timo tho boiler, 
exploded, If five hundred ongineors and OX: 
ports had sworn to the aamo thing, the boiler: 
plates will just as positively contradict” tho : et 
| esee on ie as Cirsinaeid oinag cae JULY 18, 1870. 7 f, 
{ water was low at tho timo, and 13 
i than to seo that the plates over tho grates—the| ; eid MYSTERIOUS 1 


Te Car ren Gk refer 

catastrophes, which 

and corrosion are 

for the- failure of a boiler, 

i fen ; fe Eg go OI cONciusIONA“ paged. on’ tHe UUM: tHnt Ox tosions) °°. fleaKg; go.—"Hore’ again ef 
Roller Exp __] fail bnwo ween before, that, oa always take plaeo ‘bocautio a boiler’ is too, woul to largoly.in_ puro assumption, 
Lo tanning g- See Craze uly ty: ; wero marked with s : he : withstand. normal strains. and these “seid events the Nai 
; [Writhen for the Parse by I. W. Rice). °°] ‘Tmtataken. 0.008 & 

ilor inspecting engines 

nature,” to use a wo 

tee nsceraensseronte cnuner nena 

" . f arnt ; : a clbow Dipe was broken of _ let oie wwaler ru out, 

‘Although it was the causc. of sarion bodil ee authoritios tone Ent che eon TAcmmP of ovidones that B cost irony: 
“Tateca toe diye aap, bs feet peo ofthe injury tohis Ureman’ aed to: hie reputation i 4 : a ipo was broken as aupposed, Mr, Baldwin,: another: 
want of skill that is found ia the manageme an ongineor, yot he did not try to: deceive him. 4 

er, holds that Mr. Hiller is quite}. 
boilor. burst. because the plates lial]? 
become weakened by agd; that thoy’had “lost their)” 
rd woll known ainong iron makera; 
But even Mr, Baldwin finds all tho plates he tested so 
strong that tho boiler should havo withstood on, tho 
lowost calculation double tho pressure at which it wast: 
worked, It is to be presumed that the inspecting engineers) 
of boiler insurance companies are the greatest authorities! 
in oxiatenco on all that pertains to the life and death of 
steam gonorators, Whien wo find any one of these gentlo- 
men unable to form a 

hy opinion concerning cortain 

r not flatly contradicted by}-. 
a professional brother, it would’ be folly. to deny; 
that there aro Jnysterious boiler oxplosions—that!:: 
is to say, explosions which - occur from somo causa}: 
or causes - unascertatnable, That wa shall always’ 
* {ramain in our present iguorance is very improbable, But! 

1 vi01 ’ 1 . {Wo vonture to think thit the solution of our difficulties; 
wore regarded :a9 ‘tn i will come, not from the boiler-maker or the en ineer, but: 
have heen formed a : 

inet , Oceurrenco—-i heated liqui 

85 pounde, Tho engineer at the’ timo was ro-| 
pairing ‘tho lowor. valyo of his ‘pump, which| 
| had broken the day provious, and ho had drilled 
\.aholo through its seat and mendod it with 
wooden plug and had been tryin; f 4 i nine, 
and to keep auflicient water in the bel ler, which peace that wesdor vartal a a | Tie wearenot, In Tact h 
| he had failed to do.’ : When: tho engineer found Wass hormal steam gonorators, nind “that'n ‘great develo mont | 4 : , t i 
i tt pump was notdaing its daty ho stoppod of steam ensued when thio furnace plates cooled a Tittte ; a forthooxplos on of thorornai Pt end Red a 
eat his water low, an Fe trae ease showed 80 much steam being, mado tluts ina faw seconds that the! tion ‘is that the holler, ny y that boiler Mt ack: 
damper and walted but whenit was thought i Can hae Is ow wale way nde in the aide ae ee ee gas 
be nearly timo to start -ho put iu just two small : cious, Another theory was that if a bo! way , " 

| feeds’ of atraw, tho steain quickly arose t ted hot and cold water pumped in it ": this an intalligibta causo of explosion, it muat bo assumed: 

‘ oxplodo ; that the sudden reduction of pressure on, the outrush: 
pounds, ant the explosion occurred, The one ‘an lode _ : ypbviously tho tail f : of steam through the sido of the broken boiler caused a0 
ao. was not moved an inch, and nothing about iar eory.  Tnasnuel I . te i 
i t or the ranning geara was in tho least inured, Hiron is but ono-inth tha large a portion of tho contained jvater to flash into steam, 
+ Had the boiler een doublo-rivoted and stayed, tt follows that. nin that the boiler flow into pieces before the steam so pro- 
1, like tho Hosdley’s, not a person of those near it '1600 dog, ; . |duced could escape, But it is well known that tho: 
| would have beon loft aliva'to teatify,. Mr. Au. ;of steam 1 b : Coltness boilora woro strong onough to atand a pressure 
j way hoa owned this engine since 1874. Heis| — - of 300 1b, on tho squaro inch, and it is dificult if not, 
j Rot ay. engincer himeclE:: aud relies upon the : + Timpossiblo to soo. how steam of any pressure like, this 
men: to employs, Daring tho “timo “he has | M : could be produced. Only as much water would bo con: 
owned the engino it.has always dona Rood sere Hh Pay verted into steam aa would sufitce to restore the pressure: 
ahailk dor ie en ne when ous ad a | iy seh in the boiler to something less than what it was. before 
oa ingen tented hie belle ith, tee hs at ono : | : the rent took place, ‘Io assume pny thing also is also to, 
over 160 pounds, aud alto aya that he hed net A j Assume that dnco tho. procoss of flashing is established it 
seen wator in tho ugo'glaas for four daya pre- t all p b over i | Will go on rogardless of tho pressure set up. | This is a 
! ; a oc c i Sh ry i ' ivory important assumption; nay, more, it is a com- 
ivlous to’ the explosion’; When ha asked the to fit | ‘i i i : 
ongineor. the caus “ ploto begging of the question. If it can be shown’ 
gincer causo, was ‘told by him that the } q' 1 - 
: pipes wore stopped conclusively that tho stored-up cnorgy in a'boiler ean all: 
7 bo oxponded in Hashing water intostoam, if flashing is onto: 
fo Ae fairly sot up, without any consideration for tho accumula: 
tion of that prosiuro whic) ical the operation of 
tho flashing function, thant Wo'ate fics to'faco with'a nowt” 
Tho inapectin | physical law which would clear away much mystery, and } 
ge for | if Tot boilor explosions, like that at Gattness, In a totally ; 
{ think, that a stop to They showed “ snow light. It isa notorious fact thats great many. explo. . 
anfficlont to. tak ft ne n atoate | rst be sions take placo just whon un engine is started. If wo i 
‘may aasume that tho sudden reduction of pressure sots up; 
try tof T I majorit on flashing, and that the process is continued by, if we may f 
, pounds to the aq f fi rosin Hf os 3 uso tho words, its own vis vint, thon it is easy to under. | 
«arith ite seat m od, i] i jatand why a sudden, reduction in pressure may. cause an} 
eae pa to b b bail bi foxplosion ; but’ until some cofinite utatoment of facts ia | 
rating en available, we must hold this idea to bo pure, littlo-sup, 
water ua jported, thoory, and nothing else, Tf wo aro asked how, if 
over, to ‘ {We reject’ tho theories of Mr. Flotchor and others, wo : 
too fa } y i x joxplain the Coltness explosion, wo reply that wo cannot! {.. 
loxplain it, because. there is not suflicient evidence avai 
it 7 ich. a 4 table on Which to base an opinion, 
quite so muc b} | ae : 

about in idro 

Vy ' In tho Korsloy explosion we have a boiler, insured, ue: 
ater That by carefully tooked after, and apparently sound, going to] ‘ 
on .told tho fire Occur ovor k i {pieces without having giving. warning, in tho way of{ 
and 64 he started tho o boilors which ; BOE a aE HV a 

should be tho 
i able that 

to direct an inquirer, 
wator heated under oil 

-[from an elaborate process of physical research into tho! 
‘flaws which fovorn the generation and evolution from’ 
i is of thoir steams or vapours... Many sug-: 
t 3 i} gestive phenomena have been recorded which might: servo: 
{ hot ‘plate. it Hol” or | , For example, tho behaviour of, 
vant eae 288 p is, ns shown by Dr. Froat many) 
years Aigo, very curious aud suggestive, Again, water may} 

avo its boiling point altered : 
than those of pressure, vit is not too much to aay that: 
was adduced although tho more prominent aspects of ovaporation and i 
ebullition havo beon carefully studied, a -great deal | 

* {remains to bo learned concerning the ,real 
tion, But coases abont which mon speak 

thoy really know, 

y various conditions other: 


nature of pro- | 

tho moro glibly.the lesa 
eA de 

id boilae thepectors dealingy 
11 Mr, ‘Hiller, tho engineer off. 
tional Insurance Company, took it for granted that} -: 


tanner mean 

“Remarkable “Boiler, Explostons: « °/ 
.Two-horizontal tubular’ botlers exploded ‘at Camé| « 
bridge, Bass. one filled, with water,, while the ther o 
contained nio water’ } Tho rat boiler (Fig.'1) was q 
nine.years old, 4’ fee 

B bat tt 
* ; . as : tion if+ywo' wero t Progrosa In 
ama doable riveted, stiell beat quality” Eighty.) “abtialy' : “| malice the exploded ono ¥ ae a ura bollora 
fron five-16th: x heads $ inl | fr; nee vm i i : iy natified th a era is positive dangor, wo aro 
ell braced, enfoty valvo 8 Inches in diameter, | 8g ; : pelos ‘ 3 cil : in endeavouring by tur such bales for insurance, and | 
nd been examined by # U, 8, government Inspec- ‘ i 

dd aubjected by him toa hydraulic prossuro of 180 i 2 ey ord '384—16 dangerous... 
| pounds por square inch ;. considered safo at 100 pounds, : : lingerous,  Taternal car! 
Fig. 1 is its longitudinal section’as originally made, Internal grooving, 8—3: 
! omittlng tho. patches which’ had been put on since, but E angoro' Water gauges defective, 42—4 dangerous. 
, showlng at A: tho location of tho dopostt which per- Sie apparatue defective, 22—7 dangerous, Safety! 
mitted tho fron beneath it to become overheated, By hres oveltoailed, 286 dangerous, Pressure griges| 

7 . 
: the explosion threo porsons wero killed, and a number Y ; valy Trallate wlihicdt eekicea | oto eo 
: i: ‘ ome will Janly hava coufted 79 days, Wefectivo, 187—29 dangerous, un Br aoe , hers ¢ 

| of othors wounded, :, An ‘unusual interest was excited : Baca nae 
yy this accident, and a nuinbor ‘of experts wero called vig Introduces n-traveller, who: think : Bolles condenine ‘23 
tlny tov Into, ‘as he has counted 81. : i Toke! grab cc mw) 

.' to testify as to the cause of tho disaster, and ‘although : : 

thore was no disagreement: among trained boller In- gains thy, com 
} spectors, atitl thera was doubt oxpressed by one oxpert. | No marta; the 
1 witness as to the original soundness of the fron, and | $l 

the correctness of tho constriction and-eetting, Tho | fl] bringa:with filma beautiful: nil 

day $n opt ‘an ayerage one-80th shorter, 
the result, being that when we count 80 
days on coming home, thoso who stald at 

BH to has saved: $n India from: belng burned 3.0 ae ‘s Fenta.’" A rocent ing 
a on fedeccag: tasslGe wg culty. \ 
alive, and : yet rot Tonge Rey dal tho bodies | 
B} glva tho atory,a tot : lot onjarnin Doherty Thomas Bummer sa ae | 
Tho; book, referred: to:ts.very, ina 1] Goargo Morris, victims: of ten een guly 17." 
Carr-houre Tronworks, West Harter ae Jury found | 

| Steere! ena Rae or omaha ia 

at explosion aravo t wablo‘whother-it-is not 
ficiont stays, 

ee of bad wa tho overheating ‘ 

for clearing the bolle, leading dict “tho ury bey 

of tho te egret that: tha inspection had not, 

havo lost a diy In 

. ‘ ee SEE Gn 5 : 4 ; ho ropo 
marks upon tho plates: of tho back: part o| , + accompany hig (map; taken! from, SO : Veen more frequont, and: cons ently Abe farted 
aeomed, from: tho evidence, to. plainly indicat. a ‘con: | Ne 4 Manual for the u ae from tho chlct works oa hat pol na thoy ought te : ‘i 

“ sldorablo depostt, and ‘ropoated repairs of the ‘ en, After, this lint may’ not bo clasoh, : 

of tho shell had been mado, all yeierat it ry from [fea ts,. wl le ; : ag el Phe Bngincer. iH ie 
overheating where sediment had prevented ‘contact of fan dato iiss to: bo regretted ; thine ‘ Bice Behe i gees _ ; Y 
tha water with the fron, Whatover tho charace °° Ei the tno does not g aight north and | : 
\ tor of the fron and the faults of construction : Fé; south at the Vth meridian of longitude. 
i havo beon, thero would seem (o have beon through Bohring’s: Strait ond, Chatham 

; fictent warning of approaching disaster to havo Islands; buts by a deviation it haa been: 
‘prompted a greater degreo of caro in inspection mt friclude tho Manila Yalanda In should havo forced himaclf into the inquiry, especially aa: 

‘and ¢ DB 4 Nig of the Am jean Continent, |) his report certainly dil not tend to elactinte mattora 5{ 
‘Tho boiler was worke I of ‘at nutwithatanding Ui that’ Now ‘ : whilst bis conclusions wero, as you remark, nt least noret. 

hava recommended had I been consulted boforo thoy were’ . 

lo. . 
IT trast you will oxcaso the longth of this nication, 
To niakng HT bar cee ae ee he commanteation, ' 
to antor into pny controversy, but torely to point out soma, 

'o PRGINE urre! trod. i 
Sin,—I note your afticlo in Friday's issue ren 4 0 inet gemueranens gi that reterto to in your a 

‘Stonectough boiler oxplosion, I regrot that Mr. Baldein{ : P be eae é ot nny neck, Ohtof Engine: 

ort j I think, howover, that.somo of your comménts on our! ° 

\ and, Iythys humna 4 Ceri é 5 Insurance of theso boilors aro scarcely justifiod by the frets zi . 
reckons with Hurope nnd Asia : age of tha curved thy i ot the case, Tho (eotates, supplied Uy tho inspoctor | 3 
onthe map, if will bo, for instance, the firat fay. of tiny and of nes of that partof fio tubo boyonl ae vine 
aonth, or say Sunday; as. econ as Che ship pass to., I had the sketchos checked, and these thicknosses | MS 

the Hug thoy: find tliat the Me “count: tha scteuri¢ wero roturned 4 a ‘sccond inspector, It is of course 

: y 5 dificult when boilers havo beon In uso, owing to caulking, 
or Monday, ‘noil if they. returi the nino day It beeong *| &,, to obtain tho thickness of lates necuratoly, but Tam 
Whore )88 suiday:ngaln, Thus b&twoen tid Manila Ialauils a1 convinced hat thess tabor would not have collapsed under 
The {nitial rupture Japan or Auatraiia Mera -ts ‘aiinyan day's dilferenc! Aco Tatar, teat mach below 1 "havoc Ae aicly ~ 
2), whe. on having nid the pooplo thera can travel neither, cast; nortt, nd . nover failed by aimplo prosauro at 501b, por square inck; 

sls. , y | gpatbioms ck ‘ Whon [ examined: tha fragments of tho boilor aftor the 
sdulli -for’ any : 100 ur. 200, mile Aelthout a explosion, I was convinced that it had without doubt arison 
change thelr reckoning of-dates dno‘ day alicad : + |from ono of .two aida vit aither from almplo ovor-,- 
. Ing tl 

fo unleratand (ils botter; let tis aupposo: that: {t: reassure, or from overlies! rough deficiency of: wator. | x 
ce et ay ho firat named soamed to be tha most probable eauso, = 4 
Bf infdatght bebweon Deg wh “ y but this could not bo verified, On invcall tion it was I. J 
inight ofthe view year Jn-Japativand Australia, aug found that the blowout pipe was brokon at tho‘olbow; ‘just : : 
\ ‘ {bohind the brickwork of-front cross wall, Thoro wna o 

Will duly. bo-mtdaight: between Decomber 80: aide g largo main fluo running under the firing place, tho chimno: “i 

boing at the front instead of back ond of tho boilors,-ans ” 
terien; tiooni near to tho fractnrod olbow of tho blow-out pipo was tha |’: fe 3 

: fers 1 {downtako into this fluo; tho bottom of tho downtake | : 

‘Aatn, a sé taloping down theroto; thus tho water escaping from the |’ i ‘ 

" : pipo would run dircotly into tho largo main fluo, and the | 2s : 

rapid leakage not bo detected. . Set Bast 

» Ibis also a well-known fact that at starting aftor tho L . 

week-end many. mistakes aro mado roapocting the height : fagl 

of wator, and aftor an-cxplosien {t {s moat dillicult to got | - . 

nt the tenth respecting various matters. I was convinced . fate 

and still boliove that somo of tho mon connocted with or : : 

having charge of. tho boilars conld havo given mo informa- 

ton which would lave sot tho matter complotely at rost, 

had. they been’ so dlsposed...'Tho oxplosion was cortainly ; 

duo to. no mysterious ageusy, but aroso from simplo yo 

: oversight, of‘some kind or otter, of the partics above re- 

fo O. | ee 

rer eee ee heer ol 3 

sara sf  rieyte te eee facts which I : . 
HH STONESLOUGH BOILER extern Shinfons iro oxprented se Bote ek reer ake ke 



two sots of bollera could thus at any Ume be at different pressures, 
and in auch an event, and In the event of certain derangements 
of feed valves, the highor pressed hollers. might tranmmnit “the 
whole or part of their water to the lower. Thi fndeed is sald 
to have actually taken ‘place provious to averhauling tho valves 
Intely, but in py case I would remark that the arrangement of 
piping is decidedly objectionable, and thould. bo avoided in the 
re-erection and replacing of the boilers, ‘Thore is nogood reason, | 
howaver, to supposo that what might havo taken place, na Indl} - 
cated, did take place at the time of exploaton, na Forreat, under 6 
whose immediate charge these valves Were, apoke to thelr belng “=~. = 
in perfect onter, ns also to all the other valves having been 7 
thoroughly overhauled within a faw months of the exploslori; and 
thia was borne out by Sppearances, Water was mpplied to all - 
the bollers by an ordinary force pump attached to the pumping 
engine, or {iteratively by a donkey engine, ‘The amount of water 
in each holler wan indfcated by floats and water try cocks, Some 
of tho latter were, howaver, broken, ‘and others‘ in very bad 
order, and did not acem to have been habitual) used, ‘Thla may 
he in some degreo excused, as tho floats or se! f-indfeating water 
A | Gauges were of a superior kind, and moro rellable than usual, 
‘Tho working pressure of the bollera Ia sald to have been 46 4b. 
Der square inch. . The pressure was indicated by ono ateam gauge . 
common to tho eight joint bollers, and regulated by ono safety 
valvo on each of tho ten bollora, . It fs sald that tho snfety valves + 
were the only stear Eauge for tho two bollora used for the under- ; 
ground haul ny ongines, but this and all otheratatements made to 
mayor will of course probe to what extent you think necessary 
in your ‘prec nitions of parties, ‘The want of a steam Gauge for 
thetwodetached boilers may constitute a breachof regulations, but 
my opinion fs that much want is not of very conalderable moment 
to this inveatigation.. Steam Gauges, ag commonly used, are no 
doubt of much conventence to firemen and engine-keepers, but tho 
aafety valves are the real means of ehocking over preamire, Aa 
alrendy stated, there was only ono of theso to cach boiler, and 
although this is an almost universal practice throughout. the 
district, it is one which I think cannot be too s0on dlacontinued, 
‘Lho bursting pressure of boilers of tho dimenalons given, and of 
plates gin. thick in thelr normal atate, fs 250 to » per 
uare inch, but one of the boilers hero was constructed of plates 
a little thinner than gin,, and {ts burating pressure might be 30 1b, 
to 50 Ib, Jess. The mode in which the boilers Were set in 
fi ing dicey ee fey, oemeral practi 
“flame \n re alon, 0 om and  sidea 
He ie . si of «the bolldr up Bo fy int a intle" below the horizontal 
; ' \- ea a is nay oo : : ie Gente lino where fhe brie varie i cloned In ogalnst Whe boller t 
inspecting en- “ es 3 ; hus; OF070, E lence, deduced from many inspections o: 
i) : . It fs to be preaumed that se 1 t! oH Aue | s F . \ exploded boilers for the Crown, and In the way of iny business, i 
gincers ‘of boiler Insummec companies are the greate { ‘ ° ‘ : has led me to the conclusion that this method of setting ig moat {5 
thoritics in existence on ‘all that pertains tothe life anddeath | : . objectionable, and accounts, ff I may bo allowed to galneny some 
orities Pa When wo find any one of these gen- ! a of the moat eminent, authorities, fur very Inany explostons Indeed, 
of steam genermtors, Mi } Some of tho bollera were supported by wing brackets bullt Inte 
tlorhen unablo to form any opinion concerning certain entas. | tho brickwork, and some auepended from sindera hy far the more 
I vhitch I t tatly contradicted by a professional | preferablo method, ‘The plates of which the boilers were composed 
trophes, which Is no 4 : Appeared to bo of fair avernge quality, both aa to ductility and 
brother, It would be folly to deny that there are ee i tenale nen th, but tnt i 4 mater of whtel t cannot ' al 
9 Vhich oc ee ; altively without teatin ne plates, and the expense of this 
boller explostons—that is to say, explostons which occur fro i id not foul called on to enone withont your special instructions, 
Some causcorcatses unascertainable, That we stall always | ‘This may yot be done if you think fit, but aw both thu tonalle 
remain In our present ignorance fs very improbable, Buti : strength’ and ductility of Plater though nok touch alected by 
‘ “s will | y . . mere ago—ma! very soon detcrlornted by molecular changed if . 
we venture to think that the solution of our dificulttes will ‘ Hs theetron Tet y irregular expansion ‘and. conteaction, | 
come, not froin the bollermaker or the engineer, bat fromar @ a bucklin 5. aliatortion, and other, cates continually in aetion, and 
‘ ‘SW : i inseparable from even tho fairest conditions of working, I do 
elaborate process of physical research Into the Jaws which ; ; Ww, ine para the mero testing of plates without ging staat ae 
govern the gencration and evolution from heated liquids o: fa : ; at time making elaborate inquiry into all other exiating conditions 
thelr steams ur vapors, Many suggestive phenomena have : ‘ i : . can be of any service for judicial purposes, I'he calamity in 
been recorded which might servo to dircct an Inquirer, For 

{ ! int, as already indicated, embraced multiplex and simultaneous 
uu ' nae Vlas d : fds -otntntrea a lostons, nud resemble in this respect that which took place in 
example, the behavior of water heated under oll js, asshown ; ‘ : : 

: i sh-atreet, Airdrie, in 1857; another at Mossend in 1803, con. 
‘by De. Frost many years ago, very curtous and suggestive, ; i : OSION, Surnipg whlch a Sete eperia a ley of min ow ay vel 
| : : y vi ; : : a Pea i , esa boiler |’ ater Investieath this oxtloat 
{J Again, water may have Its boiling point altered by various t be > with advantage in your presont investigation, nis exploaton 
a condos other than those of pressure. It fa not oe much : : _ was suppiicd by AS y 'EVENSON differs trom te referred to only in satay of tho grentar num- 
| to say that although the more prominent aspects of evapo- : : Airdrie Engine Works, Alntrie, 27th Merck fo, | Numerous ‘and voouse thence baye from timo to time 
on 0 . q se ., : b id to the causes of multiplex exploslons, 
_ {ration and ebullition have been carefully studied, nitreat ileal HOMAS CLANK, Esq, PE, i Bren nivanced aa theerien, spose of FLD ple par wholly | 
renitins to be learned concerning the real Hanae aspera : : wba on cl ane in eating torn nl oan i ang extto non 
! on | y the Te yi 0 one In these days ev : 
. Jabout which men speak all the more ell! ly the less they: ap wg A ee ' bok wiiist no one {nth secre cna qcating the Pewee, 
ial # ; ith ous naturation of superheated steam, and soon, it fs Just poasiblo . : 
that the other extreme fs, {n some instances, in danger of betng i 
approached—that fs tosny instead of explosions being surround 
the cause, or | with inyatery 5 herotofore, thelr causes sro now clalined by : 
sasistance in| many to be imade abundantly ptala and confidently tabulated In 
ind attached to | coluinns ns precise na those of tho Registrar-Genieral, It isa 
: oe a i! matter of congratulation that many of th 


¢ old theories have been 

tees Saree : $1 ’ Y abandoned, and place given to more rational and legitimately 

a deduced feasons 5 but ¢ ronned snalysis of ovyery rent ond rivet ; 
} ntly concerned in an explosion appears to iio o9 absurd a: 
Last Tucaday week, tho Oth inst, boiler ox Hoded: - apparent y anegened in am spl ion ape fee om aaa 
while being tested under steam in the millwright's shop of ( A tera unrated sccratly divide hair twist 
He Crna Waray enuiny tho tontaae death of t¥9 met le frag- | learn that two causes only are, in my opinion, productive of tho { 
ly dojuring soreral Se ean te elena 4 red explosion of two or more boilera at one time, ‘I'he ono [s tho 
an ant the “hae held at Crowe Featorday week, ty : : 7 sulden failure of n main steam pipe communicating with tho ‘ 
pias that the Doller whieh oxploded was of tho ver-! ; 4 Voth th ; q t bole : by Suelon pe 0 each i in i nly Tang ea ‘a i ‘ie 
tleal type, ant belonged to a tugboat seork hg on thet ' : : ctor bared on thé fact at the bole wish frat explode 
Shropshire Union Canal, an undertaking which has been} acta 0 spear or frequently preteen, ong or moro of the . 
Tea e-woller hate forwards woicrvee te pe 2 , ‘ T | of actin, trendy re ferred to, ba wedged into the same block with *| 
tpany. Tho boiler had beon forwarded to Crowo for ro-{ - fort fe the lotr ar Bere beth nee pe anu book wil 
Mile, and had beon examined by tho foreman of tho! .> : fracture, :'In regard to the case in polnt, Whatovar may havo been 
boltor shop there, who reported that the plate just above} "6": : ¢ ; pany me, to see, | the cause of the primary explosion, there fs in ny mind no doubt 
And -arasted auay ly tio : ‘ as far ax posalble, | but that tho five subsequent or secondary—though practically 
the flredoor had been eracked yy by ; secondary though prncticaly 
Main lec heee ene ee ase hedane oe ted Hecate the funel Ha or branches ‘trons the malt stenmn pipe to 
appears to lave been dou to the shell. On the morning: : ae ‘ , c Bcnuae th Junetgna ox branches from the main ant pla 
of tho day on which tho explosion occurred, tho boiler Ia} i the respeative;ollars, ware of moderate and praporti sich 
Moxander Bock and Fraterile Riter the tee ee ral ; : ce of ono or more boilers, even although severance of that pipe brit i 
Moxander Bock and Frederick Riley, the two men who i ‘f , of ono oF more boilers, even althouy ft severance oe a epee oi : 
were subsequently killed, while in the afternoon it was ; : biteeted by the privaney oney sath feo eee etvlontona wore rar 
| rostosted Dy them in steam, and ft was then the explonion : : ; ite Grondelidp itch deformed cvidertig by dhe Proce eera 
| oecurred, Tho fustructions given to Beck wero that the : ; 


of No, 5 which waa amongst thoao to explode, and must have very 
boiler should bo teated by hydrants pressure to 90 tb., : “ ‘ . h ibed narrosely mnie the samo fate nalts follows Nos, oa 8,9} and 10, 
and by steam presaure to 701b, por square inch 5 but tt: » : Aa to whieh attennpt to any, nor dof think itinecenssry te tee 
was urged at tho Inquest that the Inter prosaure inttet : io long asLean form no oplnion of the cause of explosion with 
havo wen considerably exeocded, it being stated by Mr. : inenaurements and calculations, whorover that auflictent ‘clearness to ju fy mo in giving express on, to ie iy 
wea tcit oe, File, the Coren baller) = snl de wreck ad Eoin rat aearact taco Date, ie gration and ry of 
at the boiler was ono which thoy pulderod ; arties ma . 
| atthointendod working prossure, ‘Phe destruction of the : fon. baie exploding bollor upon another, under circumatances like 
bollor was complote, aud parts of tho whell were wiloly i : ka th ppear thoso under conaideration, would certainly be tolahutred, were 
s  weattered, “Tho lend plug won found uninjured, showin oe . : bollers set ‘aide by side in ono Bre toe dammed si * ly L : 
that the water had not heen low, ‘Tho iron, of whtelt ca = : vt Q inal cae other at thelr horleontal diamet ters! a te cpaing eck i 
tn na yi eae specie at i ae ene rt a oe ; . , 2 much boilers should, I think, he olenr i ina the topes , mot er! Ni 
air quality, but uo apecifle informatio afforded on : Xe bedicnt servant +. not only at that part, but all round the top, or, in uther ’ . a 
thls pointe : : e ae Ghana Srzvenson. words they spoutd hang in the furnace Iiko Bt os in the Ingle” i i 
th oot it ia ear a a ten at y : I P AND Fortune Guiwance.1n iits ode of ro hater senate en eal tena ha : a 
to test! Nore was an ny ood 1) FOR PRESENT Dp For J en and safo! q i 
as to what oeeurrel ‘hit tio leant 0 a tate 9 wae sors aot with Bower Exrrostoxs, given It a fale trial and stich teats by fone User have axtendet : i 
carried out, and th ‘ : The bollors at Harthill pit, before explosion, numbered ton, | over 9 period of fifteen years, (On lnstes year’ titer L foot tha | 
tho: sentiet: : hey varied i but wore all comparatlvely new, one or two | had heen set in this Way, after twelve ye 4 F fot i 
: ae tnt had beet, very slightly repaired, eight were used to at pply | plates as fresh, clean, at {reo from eatation hi eheetg Hee : 
stentn for s Inrge pumping engine and a pate of winding engines, | surface ns when now, nailo qualities will, if, teled; be toendene 
both at the, ‘Ihe two remaining bollers were used for fiele ductile and hai tha bollers "halt thea age under the 
steamln; underground hauling en ines. to ne eigbt anal the two usual closed and pressed-up condition, with their upper aidon 
pines be eaane: peta respectively taainedatee pipe, ‘The ‘at the mercy of the weather, or concealed and inaccessible under 
h ¢, 

4 Jury exproaned ¢] 
{> pany..were not fn 

wha Sacg ye 


ido thereby making” 
Y tubes, seétlon for Inspect 

t | slic 
In. the center of “all theae“tubes' li ficlent ‘ea 
large: tube,'\G,. ‘of. 8” diameter, love 
Meti eens water, and, in practice, the 


B: repeiaecta imalleable iron| r : uM 
shaped sectlons, or connect: | through the 6” center, tubo, thus 
| g00d - efrculation, which ls ay 

oth ‘ ngoment ”M M. Topresent ;: 
“approximation S pifealie ¢ : openings ‘through thio walls, . by.. means. sof. 
: jie régult: hag, ‘Been, thal ‘ : which ‘cach the kections, can’ be-read 
cleaned and Inspected, , Tho hotatr, anil: gasea, : 
tlee from: the fire between the wall Scand 
on top of ‘the sectlons, ‘are drilled LK, and coming in contact with ; 
amo Loci thereby seine, the along, rough ..the., 
Into the combustion chamber | be- 
tween:the walls K and 'L, whore, in thelr, 
ourse’ the gases an 

woe balm 10. TELA, 

: : : | the laws of which is purely theoretical”: Noi f 

eee ; fa ay : , ‘ ithese loves Gj dave been demonstrated Ay addi. 

Aree ae ocr tN Bn ie He ae aes tees ional row of rivets. would not have held the piece 

“mn saaee ome wabtbaibn, tie ake Steeped antrum a | AG a eee tira te cate 
: 5 bn : 1, ‘ the t i , lers of locomotives; it would.tend to weuken it,|-° - 
Ox Thursday, October the Uth, a serious and very ‘ives wero alo sacrificed, including those of Mr. oP. jen haat Teaving Hel ane In conclusion, I never was. so muchin the dark a6 

“folal boiler explosion occurred at Ialifax, under Pritchard, tho senior partner. of tho firm, and!” miffic’ explosion occurred, blowing A piece ‘ont | (0 the cause of an explosion, in -allmy practice, a: 
elreumnttancts wie ot for sony oat ee | tho manager of tho works... EOS sx 5 he boiler ou the rig! it-hand side’ o} te engine f ami in this case. ie eS As i 

* aceldent took placo at ae ney the nod d boiler: Tho ofiteiat inquiry into this catastrophe wasn nob |: 3{aif line with the steam dome and about 2 fi angie 42 ay 
and Pritchard, stuff finishers, f 7 oxP of similar | by any means a diflicult one; ‘Che causc of tho cx ‘antthere(rom, ‘Whe fracture wasa very 
being the end on ofa group of four, al h Tosicn, so, far from boing obscure, was ‘obviously ! hGpiece blown’ out was.five fect en incl 
coustraction, the general arrangement of thes Tine to the absence of staying in the lower, part of ts 'ad and eighteen inches wide. ‘The locomotiv 

generators will be understood from tho somewhat: hich w. at further weakened by: § force of the explosion, was thrown on her el.’ 
imperfect aketches on page 34, ‘Tho-exploded boiler. which was stilt. connoxions with te io ‘nde, and, from some unexplained cause, the engi. 
(and to all four the sane description applica) waa was blown to the left and under the left hind 

sf H 4 idelyer, Death must have been instantancous, ‘The 
0 ft, 4 in. Jong, and 7 ft. in diometer inside. It, fir : an was blown about 30 ft. in the alr, and re- 

r Ut such injuries as resulted in his death a few 


ai etary J Ataehe Ais 
Sin,—You' kindly insorted any Igftor of Fobrua h 
your papor, and Iam sorry to aco that the subject has passcd 

away again without boing much noticed. 

Tn_your Issno of tho Sth inst. you printed a roport by 
Mr. KE. B. Marten, which proves in cyphors the sad correet- 
neag of my assortions. Under tho dotalled causca of explo- 

siona wo find : i 
Explosions. Killed, Injured. 

contained nn Internal fluo consisting of ‘two tubes ‘cel ic 
onch 2 £6 74 in. in dinmoter, which were connected | da Baers an Is adte:mortem: statement he a 
ol Go caes pase throngh the bn plat ve of | flere wee tie it coe of wate Ong 
‘of tho tubes passed through the back plate, one of!» ° us r i 7 

thein gorving as an inlet for the lieated gases, which the peculiar nature of the explosion, the Coroner 

1 ed tin boilers, whose testi 
passed along the whole length of the flue, returning te See aca at ee ip irpony fot mei 

along tho other tube which opened into the uptake, ork Stale, was sworn: I received iny knowledge | Internal corrosion 4. = 7 q Caused hy ine 
{The boiler was externally fired, and was not set inj: ffstcam boilers, vtc., entirely in the ractical Foults which ond ha competent. 
tho brickwork, but was suspended froin girders laid I entered a machine shop in 1833, and en eg 9 9) Attendance, 
on the top of tho setting. ‘Tho plates of the shell; : resent consitlered an expert in all matters wwe we 0D 80, 

were specified to bo $-{n. thick, and those for the end’ ining to boiters, I am the original inventor Ww. Wo 3 

to bo § in, and thera appears no reason for supposing’ : hes of the “Pop Safety valve as applied to locomo. Non- inspection (ex. 

that in thisreapect, norin regard to quatity or work; Pi ff bat, tho, ins: tives. | hae caaniined fe Bollee of Abe Locomia. } ternal corrosion) .. 8 8 10 

manship, any deficiency existed, ‘Ihe arrangement wh structurally yoak; ond that. if- they: RN. 151 Lahighy of the Morris ai ster, oa Toto. «. 2b 2h 4 

forinternal staying will bo gathered fromthesketches| Ahem at ‘ally thoy were bound to exure' al fj “Je 1 firid it similar to all; locomotive boilers, [Here Showing that four-fifths of boiler oxptoaions which occurred 
Abo alladed:tae tie ieee bart of the out plates ‘ : vntelfulncad over them; and, in the event of oppo- |): [followed a description of the boiler.J 1 found the ' in 1879 aro alirtistable {o nepligenco, orerelgits ot igno- 

A i1to theshell by six angle-iron and gusse! sition to proper inapee i a . Ny 7 H ranco, a8 ncconling to Mr. Marten’s report thirty oxplosions | 

staya, aod a little below the centro line, Wy two to decling forther sale oe ie latiat thi ae ae elit d deca bean ece arin! took placo in 1870, (In fact, tha remaining fifth of ex. ; 

plosions comes under tho nbovo threo denominations, bat; 
my last letter dealt with tho men" only in attendance on : 
ers. ‘ 
Tilo not mean to say that all thoso twenty-four explosions | 
would have been avoided if the atate of affairs had been} 

ftupported by a halfa dozen braces in excess of the’ 
isda mettiod of supporting them. A great many,, 
locomotive boilers—fully one-fourth of thoseinuse—. 
haye none of these brices, the tisual method being: 

aurAneY com Snide: ; Jnr the: 
prefer the risk of possible ! dered as being fully capable of enduring the 

similar atays marked Land 4. ‘Cho lower part of the! 
plate wag not stayed atall to the shell, ‘here were; 
however, certain attachments between the U ends. .. 
of the flte tubes and the end plates as follows: 

this ia another illustration that insurance and |! 
oilicient inspection do not harmonise. We are very 
far fcom supposing that any boiler in 
pany would y batately 

0. . 

boilers to- insist on a pertodical rently facilitated. Why not then find a good remedy to 

underneath tho flues the These braces are not to strengthen the arch: remedied according to the iden expressed in my letter of | 
2 ond 3 conalatta foe there swore th atay 5 fmariea explosions to tho coat of frequent. inapectiona, ut ia of the boiYer, but to assist in iupporting the crown: yer | Bobrunry 6th; overyhoily knows overaighta" lo happen 
perous, eid ti" “tt f to tho: two fl Plato extending an association of this nature, establishud ty make sheet delow, which I consider the weakest part ofa! “4 now nnd then, canso inconvenience, and may prove 
rots. vetted to the two flues, double angle inoney, tho criminal folly of an owner. in placing’ boiler, © Taking the boiler as a whole, considering, = ——> disnatrous, but nobody can deny that tho majority of theso 
rons were riveted to the plate, and a web ex. +, fobatactes in the way of inspection, is more ensil . thickness of the fronand the distribution of brac-) ” accidents would have been provented, i.e., would not have 
tended, Soin sack pair to the end plate, where thoy Accepted a4 an excuse, than if its object were {hat of tng ti nay slely say that I neversaw a boiler’ puree a eon page of tuo bette ni cndant are et 
_ iealie up to angle irons as shown, Stay 6  feceuring life. ‘hat the Unlitax tursytalty Appreciated “lin which the strains were so anticipated and Goi begn creche On Tae ot report tlint boller explosions can 
the end at. the ue nt nie at ay plate, between this fa shown by the concluding sentence of thule vided for... T have made ‘computations providing, bo prorented, ns boiler inspection is the best means of 
Sinilny angle fi au ho end plate of the boiler, iverdict. “'Thoy are further of opinion that aome eli. _ 2S" fal braces removed, and allowing only the boiler: prorenting explosions," and he will also admit, I think, 
Similar angle irons for a similar stay: 6- were . {elent action ahonld be taken by Govormment to 1 ito resist the strain, and {tind there was a On that if tho boilers to bo Inspected wera always freo from 
ilo on the U tube, but the stay docs not ap- the various insurance co ies wi nttertake dhe {nerustation, hismen would bo able to makon mero thorongls 
pear to havo over been put in, Finally, there was inaurnneo of steam mpanies who undertake the oxaminntion, and their avork would bo accelorated and 

‘hanging stay from the top of the Utube to the 

jSnd_ thorough inspection of all boilers’ and their provent corrosion and renle from amongst tho host of 

boiler shell. It will thus bo gen that while tho | iT R i 
no {fittings under their Uthat i { existing romedics, and facilitate the preventivo of explosions, 
upper part of tho end plato was well supported, ' ‘Doile: care, aud that in att cases each | “ ath and thus-iako it inlivost ann iy possibility |: 
ths lower half was not only unstayed buteeas ox. | valye. Aliould lave a separate aud independent atenin i of caplosiony fualend of “n proventiva? : ae pei 

posed to the constant atrains orising from the ex. i* 
pansion and contraction of the flues through tho 
connexions 2, J, and 5. Ono of these (3) had been + 
apparantly harmless for somo time, aa it had yielded} 
P lor to the explosion, but doubtless it had already 
helped to placa the boiler in ita highly dangerotia | 

Several boilor oxplosions have nircady occurred thia years |; 

and althongh their numbor is vory small in comparison to; '.. + - 
Inst year's, the loss of lifo and: limb ‘surpasses already in i 
tho threo rst months of 1800 tho number-of killed and | 
injured-in twolvo month# of | 1879,. and Inm afraid if 
cnergatio steps aro not taken, Mr. Marten’s valuablo aunnal* i 

condition, . ‘his and the other bolle { reports on this aubject for 1680 will not compare favourab] ot 
in 1871 by Messrs, Savage and Norton, We itallt 4 TS dy, "The iron was rolled at “Abbott’s Baltimore Mills,'"; ith tho report wi 1879, ae i { 
to conform with a general specification supplicd b ro. co viandiis marked “C. IL, Nost. Itis as good ironas Maunice Soman, i ney 
Mr. J. W. Baline, ona of the partnora of the, ft sf i z hol saiiade anywhere. I know, from personal olser. ..-Mancheator, March 17, 1680, : t 
ownlog the works: when the accident ocoured: Toe ep pero ered ac ig : a i 
hina tho time of their’ installation thoy had been i fH pot have access fe seaioded here is no ! 
Tana reee oon hav cae Moller “: 2tmeans of knowing what pressure was indicated, H ee ! 
. . 4 ved, Aes ANC |; . 
au external examination had been nile, otly a tow i . 5 A iy tested at the General Office of The road, oa 4 
days before tha accident; this Teport was satis- | 5 Rien placed on the engine; steam iy then raised | } 
factory, hough how it could hava been go it ja! : : itll a certain point is reached, generally, 130 Ibs, | 
Gitficult to un erstand, since the Loiler was covered | ind then the pop valve {s set so as to tow oft at |! Baan Mas 
with non-conducting conting, ree: : y Pat: his point.’ ‘The pop valve is commonly set-by the |} ee , 7 
‘The explosion occurred, a3 already atated,.on tho | : iter mechianic, and engineers are nol-allowed to |i 
morning of ‘Thuraday, October 9) when tl onal . : fer it. The pop valve and pressure gauge should |; 
4 pressure of about 45 Ib, of ‘ateam in tho holler. ‘Th | : : ae ya, correspandy and when an engineer finds 
‘ lower and unstayed half of the front ond Tate wae 1 ‘ i : “donot, he: naturally, for a. nie safety, re feet 
i Tont away, tenring the stays 1 aud 4 an a wrtielt ‘ § the case to the madict mechan ae ne wear 
some of the uppar slays, 2 ‘well partially | : ofiisage of pop valve spring Is always on the safe 7 
bet » 13 Well as tho connexion | ‘ .. the spring neyer becomes: stronger. by 
etween tho plate and the U end of the flue, The | : ; : Wear’ “Idid not cxamine the, boiler for a safety | ‘ 
forea of tho explosion projected tha boiler from its | ry Me "as there were no indications, of low wate ; ‘ 
setting for a distance of O2ft, and after pasatn, i eT aa Fiigeon ala s be told by appearance of the crown |. . . 
through one of. tho workshops it was sto ped is 4 veel. If it fs bulged out between the braces, it ts |” , 
atriking the angle of a house, ‘Tho works aero - deg : § unfaliing sign..; There was no such an appear. | & 
converted Instantly into 4 ruin, not only tho boiler. ce in this boiler. Iron, when subjected to a; f 
SOS TREAD At Rs wren parika kg 3} Strain of under 50,000 Ibs, elongates about typ 

‘of its length temporarily, “If the tensile-strain be 
reater tian that, the iron loses a portion of its 
AVelasticity and sels permanently, é 4, its modulusy 
Pof elasticity beconics smaller. Ilad 1 been engi¢f 
acer of that locomotive, | should have felt just ast cal eae j 
safe as {feel now. ‘The thickness of the iron in 7 
“his case was fy of an “inch, which is the proper 
“tickness of locomotive boilers. If it ts heavier, it 
uot so. ‘astic, and therefore more liable to be in- 
red, Ldo not, think that: hard: and sof water 
Bcd ina boiler wenkens it, ‘They-tend rather to 
ct each other's errors, primary cause of 
“plosion isa mystery tome, ‘There are a great 
W forces acting on a boiler, the knowledge of 
. ! ‘ “ pay 

ae Ee ea 

nue TALIFLS Borer ExelLosion, 

October tho Otb, a serious and very 
fatal boiler explosion occurred at Halifax, 
circumstances which call for somo commont, 
accident took placo at the work of Messra, Balmo ; 
and Pritchard, stuff finishers, tho exploded boiler : 
being the end one of a group of four, all of similar 
, The general arrangement of these 
eneratora will be understood from the somowhat ; 
imperfect aketchcs on page 348, ‘The exploded boiler 
nd to all four the samo description applics) was 

30 ft. 4 in, long, and 7 ft. in diameter inside. It; 

contained an internal flue consisting of two tubes 
‘onch 2 ft, 73 in, in dinincter, which were connected 
a U-shaped section near tho front ond, «The ends 
the tubes passed through the back plate, one of |: ° 
‘them gerving as an intet for the heated gases, which jv.” 
passed along the whole length of tho flue, returnin 
along the other tube which opened into the uptak 
Tho boiler was externally fired, and was not. set in|? 
the brickwork, but was suspended from girders lat 
on tho top of the setting, ‘The plates of the shell 
were apecified to bo 4 in. thick, and those for the end! 
to ho in, and thero appears no reagon for supposing 
that in thisreapect, norin regard to 
manship, any deficiency exiated, 
for internal staying will be gathered from thesketches! 

above alluded to, ‘I'he upper part of the end plates| © 
was secured to thoshell by aix anyle-iron and gusset, 
stays, and a little below tho centre line, by two 
similar stays marked Land 4. ‘Iho tower 
late was not atayed atall to the shell, 
jowover, certain attachinents between the U end 
of the fluo tubes. andthe end plates as follows : 
underneath tho ilues_thero w 
2 and 3, consistin; 
across, and rivette 
irons wero rivetted to the plate 
tended from cach pair to the ¢ 
were rivetted up 
was tade up of angle i 
the end of . the 
lo irons for a ai 
also on the U tube, but tl 
pear to lave over been put it 

uality or work-: 
‘he arrangement: 

ere the stays marked 
plato ‘extending 
to tho two flues, 
and a web ux.! 
nd plate, whera they 
to angle irons ns shown, Stay & 
rons and a plate, between 
U and tho end plate of the boilor, 
imilar stay 6 were 
ho stay docs not ap- 
a. Finally, there was 
n of tho U tube’ to- the 
It will thus be scen that while the H 
plato was well supported, * 

only unstayed but was ex. | 
ant atrains arising from the ex. 
tea through the 
Ono of these (3) had been i 
a8 if lind yielded | 
ess it had alrendy | 
bly dangerous | 
ers wera. mado ‘ 
ny of Halifax, | 

Upper part of the end 
the lower half was not 
posed to tho const 
pansion and conti 
connextons 2, 3, and 5, 

apparently harmless for 
rior to the explosion, but doubtl 
elped to-placo the bo! 
‘This and tho other boi 
Mossra, Savage aud Nor 
genoral specificatio 
one of tho partne’ 
aecldent occurred, | 
installation they had ‘licen | 
ith the Manchester Boiler | 
‘ower Company, \ 
had been mado 
nt; this report wag satis- | 
could have been so it ia 
ler was covered ; 

raction of the fl 

Mr, J. W. Baline, 
owning tho work 
From the time of their i 
insured for 1007, each. wi 
Tusuraneo and Steam DP 
an external examination 
days before the accider 

117 sa apmearepig 


aie | 2 BY BD 

#Hoboken at 8:42 P. M., was just ing the depot, 

the laws of which is” purely theoretical 

these laws [?] have been demonstrated, - 
} tonal row of rivets would not have held the piece}. 

blown out. °.The cold water test is never‘ used: in| : 
uestay, Oct, 28, ns the train, which leaves | boilers of locomotives; it would tend to weuken it. 
In conclusion, I never was so muchin the dark'as' 

iriffic’ explosion occurred, blowing a picce out | 1 the cause of an explosion, in allmy practice, as | 

fotthe boiler on the right-hand side of the engine I 
{iniw tine with the steam dome and about 2 ft, dist. 

by H iy anttherefrom. ‘The fracture wasa very peculiar une; 
i thefpicce blown out was-five fe leven inches 
r long and cighteen inches wide. ‘The locomotive, 
: [byorce of the explosion, was thrown on her lel. 

ae and, from some unexplained cause, the eng’ 

cnéér was blown to the left and under the left hind 

delyer. Death must have been instantancous, The 

Greman was blown about 30 &. in the air, and re. 

insy : }iselved such injuries as resulted in his death a few 
ya after, In his ante.mortem statement he af. t 

Lfirmied that the engine was blowing off steamy and {i 
that there were thice solid cocks of water, Owing | 

tovthe peculiar nature of the explosion, the Coroner 
called an expert In boilers, whose testimony follows: |} 
FAY Henry Waterman, M. E.,. of Hudson, New [i 
York State, was sworn: I received my knowledpe 

entirely 'in the practical |+ 

owners and on. the insurance company by tho jury,., 

and it is clear thatthe reason urged—thnt the owneral? r chine shop in 1831, and 
always raised difficulties in the way of internal in-t one 

resent considered an expert in all matters 

ing to boilers. ‘1 am the original inventor 

of the ‘lop Safety Valve; as applied to locomo. 
tives, T have examined the boiler of the locumo. 

7 |tive'No. 15, Lehigh, of the Morris and Essex Di. 
Vie al : fie i ee e »|vialon of the Delaware, Lackawana & Western R.R, 
rthem at all, they were bound to exercise especial fj I find it similar to all ‘locomotive boilers,” [Here 
watchfuluess over them ; and, in the event-of oppo- | ; 

u ¢ followed a description of the boiler.) “1 found the 
sition to proper inapection on the partof thy owners, | usd number of stay bolis; the crown bars were 
to decline further risk, vid : 

declin eee t supported by a halfa dozen braces in excess of the 
Chia ia auother iustration that iustrance -and | ial method of supporting them. great many ; 
locomotive boilers— filly one-fourth of thoseinuse— ; . 
8 none of these braces, the tisual method being : 
dered as being fully capable of enduring the! 
rain, These braces are not fo strenzthen the arch: 
the boiter, but to assist in supporting the crown 
s* [sdeeg below, which E consider the weakest part of ai 
+ tboller, Taking the boiler as a whole, considering: 
i. ftbe thickness of the fronand the distribution of brac- 
fogyl think I may safely say that I never saw a boiler 
{la which the strains were so anticipated and pro. si 
‘ Tyided for, J have made computations providing; 
all’braces removed, and allowing only the boiler, 

far from mupporing that any boiler insurance com. 
cliberately prefer thu risk of possible 

Hect werg that of 
uly appreciated 

“'|ndafgin of safety of 400 per cer Nhe workman. 
ship of the boiler is faultless! th shown by the, 
i'HMactEthat now, after the explosion, every part, 
ofthe work, in relation to the workmanship, stands, 
intact. ‘There is nothing apparently, afler cxami-; 
nation with a magnifier, to indicate weakness or: 
erystalization of the iron, When there isa pressure 
lon;the boiler, and a smart rap of the hammer is 
to-it, this would be sufficient to produce! « 
tatlization, and, consequently, weakness. A like: 
would be duc: if the throttle were opened 
: Weuddenly, allowing the wheels to slip, and then sud-" 
>. i fdetily closed again, giving a tremendous jarto the: 
“Tedfine. ‘There is no such evidence in this case, | 

Tir Epltor oF EMAneRtind 
Str, -You kindly inserted thy Igfter of Febrin 
your paper, and Iam sorry to see that tho subject lins passed 
away again without boing much noticed, 
one dasuo of tha Sth inst, you printed a roport by 
BS. Marten, which proves in cyphers the sai correct > 
neas of my asaortions, Under the dotailed causes of expla. 


Explosions. Killed, Injured, 
Internal corrosion 7 
Faults which could bo 

Non inspection. (cx- 

Total... o. Ob Ea) 47 
Showing that four-fifths of boiler oxplosions which ocenrred 
in 1879 nro attributable to negligence, oversight, or igno- 
ranco, ns according to Mr. Marten’s report thirty oxplosions | 
took placo in 1870, - (In fet, the remnining fifth of ex. i 
plosions comes nnier tho nbovo three denominations, but; 
my last lotter dealt with tho ‘men’ only in attendauco on : 

‘ H 

T do not mean to any that all these twenty-four oxplosions | 
would have been avoided if the stato of affairs had boon | 
remedied necording to tho idea express 
February tth; everybody knows ‘* oversights’ do happen 
ad then, canso inconvenience, and. may prove 
disnstrons, but nobody can deny that tho majori 
accidents would havo 
occurred if “nothing elso than a | 
bean oxercisedt on part of tho boiler attendants, 

Mr, Marten states in his report that boiler explosions can 
bo provented, ns “boiler inspection is tho best menns of 
proventing explosions,” and he will nlso admit, I think, 
that ff tho boilers to be inspected wero always free from 
inernatation, his men would bo able to maken moro thorough 
examination, nnd their svork would bo nccelornted and 
greatly facilitated, Why not then find a good remedy to 
prevent corrosion and real from nmongat. tho host of 
Gxisting romedies, and facilitate the proventivo of explosions, 
“inspection,” and thns-tmnako it almost an “impossibility 
of explosions’ instead of a proventiva? ‘ t 

Soveral boiler explosions havo already occurred this yea: 

tlo mora caro’ had 

to resist the strain, and [tind there was 0/ e 

and althongh their num 

vory small in compa: 
car's, tho loss of lit 

and: Hmb ‘surpasses 

The iron was roiled at “Abbott's Baltimore Mills,’" | 
landiis marked C,H. No. 15’? It is as good fron as 
ismade anywhere, I know from personal obser. 
vation (hat that brand of iron is:charcoal iron. I 
did’not have access to the steam gauge which was 
fon{the locomotive when it exploded. : ‘There is no 
means uf knowing what pressure was indicated, 
r the pressure was removed, Sleam paises are 
. : erally tested at the General Office of the road, 
placed on the engine; stean is then raised 
anti! a certain point fs reached, generally, 130 Ibs., 
ind then the pop valve is set so as to. blow off at 
- ? point.’ ‘The pop valve is commonly set by the 
ter mechanic, and erigiicers are nol-allowed to 
alter it. ‘The pop valve and pressure gauge should |! 
Always, correspond; and when an: engineer. finds 
ty do. not, he’ naturally, for his own ‘safety, re: 4 

s the case to the master mechanic, ;-"The we: 
pop valve spring Is always on the’ safe 
he spring neyer becomes stronger by 

this case was fe of an “inch, which is the proper 
‘Uckness of locomotive boilers, If it ts heavier, it 
vot so ‘astic, and therefore more liable to be in- B 
gated, 1 do not, think: that: hard: and. soft water. 
ust in a boiler weakens it. . They tend rather to 
correct each other's errors. ‘The primary cause of 
“explosion isa mystery tome, ‘There are a great 
Imany forces acting on a boiler, the knowledge of 

Maunicr Scmyan, 
_.-Manchestor, Mareh 17, 1830, 




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{tho ‘steam Generating capacity of the boiler and the inentirel 
} pressure at which they wish the valve to blow off. 
} : The company (of which 

will furnish illustrated catalogues on application, 

Improved Vertical Engines. 

_ We tako pleasure in placing before our readers rep- 

| resentations of two improved vertical engines of new 
design, and of s quality second to none in the market, 

. -They are of a new and graceful design, and e ‘idently, 
: } “for the amount of material used, give a maxinmn de- 
ie? ‘ree of rigidity and strength, 20 necessary to freedom 

results equal 

tho minimum 

iy self-contained, rendering it practi 

ible for theso engines to get out of line, Requiring | being a scale of 
as, A. Moore is President a very small floor 

_and General Manager, Martin Luscomb Treasurer and | than any other hoi 
Secretary, and Geo, W. Richardson Superintendent) | from shortness of 

admit of a very high rate of speed. The cylinder is| perpetual watchman, 

steam jacketed, with a steam chest on the bottom, giv-| perature, econo 

ing perfect and instant drainage, all being cast in-one | either carelessness or ji 
plece, Tho platon is packed with self-adj : r 

and outside metallic rings; also the valve, which, | gence that seems almost 
while simple and inexpensive fn ‘constructicn, gives} not only 

matic cutoff, Itisas perfectly balanced as ono run-| of several ocean steamer lines, 
ning In a horizontal position can be made, and requires | British navies, in hotels, public buildings, charitable 

<* gines, and all complicated and expen 
* sive mechanism for operating. the 
* valves,ete., have been dispensed 

Taree tran rater teers nine 

ically impos | “charts” are half size of originals, the horizontal lines 
pressure, and the vertical lines denoting .:; + 

space, they aro more compactly built | the hours of day and night. The records are torn of 

rizontal engine of equal power, and | daily and filed away. eat , 

stroke and great strength of parts,| Thus does the recording. 

rding gauge act as a vigilant and 
Uniformity of motion and tem 
of fuel, 

in numerous mills and factories throughout the 
but may also be found on'board of the vessels 
in the Austrian and 

lo any not supplied with variable auto-| country, 

of power for its operation, It exhausts | institutions, city water works, etc, Z 

through its center into tho ‘heater,| Tho importance of an efficient Kauge as a means of |: 
giving no pressure on the steam chest} indicating approaching danger, can scarcely be over- 
covers, or leakage at any polnt, The}estimated. W ninstrument such as we have de- 
feed pump is simple, positive, durable, | scribed, proper! sted and kept in order, which 
and accessible, in case of stoppage, by | not only points to the danger, bu speaks in clear, ring: 

there need be little fear 

simply loosening one nut, without | ing tones when it approaches, 

disconnecting the pipe. The water 
.. heater is separate, and so attached as 
to have no effect from its expansion 
‘and contraction on. other parts, and 
as perfect drainage. “ht 
. We-wish to. add that the low price 
cof, these engines is duo to tho fact) 
ithat all-work of a showy and orna- 
mental nature, which enter largely 
* jnite the cust of more expensive en- 

with, = These things, while adding 
greatly to the cost, do not, of course, 
add to the actual value of the engines 
for practical purposes, and'n engines 
of this class: pasa’ largely’ into the] - 
hands of those quite inexperienced In 
‘their attendance, it is far better that 
complicated and expensive mechanism 
should as far as possible be avoided. 

from vibration and 
wear and tear, all I 
securing {ruc economy 
were of a higher price n others of {he same powers 
which they are not, but in fact cheaper, a 10 horse- 

- “power engino costing only $250, and one of 30 horso- 
power $100, : 

Fig. 1 is a stationary engine, with fly wheel, in- 
tended for manufacturing purposes, to be placed upon 
nsolld base; while Fig, 2 is intended as engine for a 
yacht, and especially adapted to small steamers, canal 
cra, pleasure boats, etc.; it has, of course, no fly 
wheel, but a reversible link motion, as shown in 
engraving. Tho smallest of these engines have ce: 
ders of 8 by 8 inches, the largest 12 by 10 inc! 
the fly wheels of es represented in Fiz. 1 are 
from 36 to 42 in ter, make 200 revo! 

2 500 te 900 po 

ly essential to durability, 

ereswenne st 

Sisco & Co., of Baldwinsville, N.Y. 
{base's Inlcng and Recording Satey Gauge 

j catablishments in which steam boilers 
are used, also all the incorporated 

~ either by waste of water or misuse of 
the same, are indebted to Mr. M. BL 
. Edson for a must ingenious and valu- 
able instrument, in the use of which 
the proprietur or manager can ba 
nt power uf resistance to| eeated in Lis private office, quito a distance it may be [of stcam bvuiler explosi 
and | ftom the engine and boiler, and yet know precisely the | proper attendance are insisted upon, The self-record- 
the end, even if these engines | steam pressure maintained by theenginecr, By means | ing steam gauge and " 
ofa mechanical arrangoment, operated by clock-work, | sold only by the Edsun Recording Gauge Manufactur- 
Acontinual record is obtained of the pressuro, and a| ing Company, 91 Liberty street, New York, 
pencil traces on a diagram slip, placed in the gauge, { all inquiries with reference to the instrument should 
the variations of pressure at every hour of the day and | be addressed, 
night. The instrument is connected with the boiler by 
an ordinary steam pipe, and if the gauge be not on the 
same level with the boiler, a little correction is to be 
allowed, amounting to one pound for every two feet 

ments, and by these means panics will-be prevented | collect rents an 
and loss of life avoided:: The “cuts” of the daily! nut then 

These engines aro made by Heald, 

and Hitro-Magnatc Alarm Attachnents 

Manufacturers and proprictors of 

check or a detecter of, wrong doi 

Fig. 2.—Yertical Yacht Engine. - 

s, if careful inspection and 

iressure alarm is made and 

to whom 

The Future of New York City. 

It is reported that capitalists ara warned by Prof, 

1g at Hish Bridge, 
ill then be aboy 

terest on mortgages, real estate will 
be very desirable property. - 



a cltat 

20 feet 

ents, before 


ho seam B, 

<when a deafening report was 

nnon had been -dise! athe 
Sake wan filled with bits of fron and debris fly 
Thocab together. wi ! 
‘of tho: boiler -were complete 

< WERKLY. - 
Tho. alr. belug. 


occurred. was. blown aga 

ntire jclothing, 
ron i] 

vercly injuring the passenge 
- water, 

reported that the {dri 


: ‘ 
beori found: to. corroborate. thla statement. 
The locomotive was evidently lifted from the 

about 846° P.M., killing the 
ground and thrown, 
k, and about 

nd brace 

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A ; BPSHESES EES BeeeeEQreses 
B+? y5=2° 28 8 32. = oRlLE 
Set "*SbeoEs 22 ieaSss. 
Zs gms Tsei2bs s &ESSHEE55 
4 Stagg” 8 2 FES SEERS 5 
Bi 0 ges esge ss <) * SCLlSS Vert ; 
Sessa k sss : : 
: ee ce ; ae a er 3 ea = 
&*E SSEvS 28 2 BREESE SSA 252 6.3 283 SB2s y S'S: 
BSS meeSe Es EPS SERS SSS See se. $F S258 3) eee: 
oe Zeasess SEgigstlezsssoaks SescEEe® ‘s a2 
Wy g2EL%Ss ge etgss = =SERERSE sBeeiei 22 3 sete 
|= S2Ses55 SZPS2EL BSS SBS g SEE. 823 = Be 
= 87 E55 25 FoRES St ES 4 = Se 522525 : 33) 
s $9 --254 S.-2S'6 2 a8 S 2322, 5SE8. 3 28 
3 F822 83 ZBego5 Hl APs ges te SP ESesgas = se 
Wo 2 S.58 eS Ss-<2 = a Ss a c= 2 os. 
: Zeusiee ar ie 28232523338 %s afte S Bo: 
2 SSI ERS 9 geMeess = Fes S “SE FEES 3 Bs 
3 =< g pee [4 ‘ oS s 7 2 
= —=sF8. 2 f2essbset = 5 <8. % Be 
2 Sseksiz 222.2% 3 8 Be 
= 276 a7 lc ok 3 Ee 
2 San. & F 2gezee v3 
22 ;3s6=253 Saris 
_ S2AHSeZs oss 
¢ ssfeere SEeeR 
Sos 3555528 shai 
om Ep ee. 8 seen? 
3 ZESa RS ge 8e 
38% ye Be 52 ss 
5 Baty S25 gas 
s By 4S: Sos ket 
2 9a: g SESES 
-o 28: 3 pot Saekre 
=e Fee" 283 
ef 2448-3 5 

and: had progressed from six to eight feet, 
tho slde-of the boller. where the explosion 

ing-in-all directions 
the ‘driving, wheel 
found lying across the ral 

Moments -Inter, 


2 Stop, f 
. tng the edges 

. fow days after, 
bottom, makliig ano 

Rome moni 
be made, 


pte etter 

Boller Economy, 




masonry will - generally render ‘the return 
tubular scarcely as economical as the loco- 
Motive boiler, but the §reater simplicity of 
I, Perhaps, Senerally overbal. 

In extreme cases of bad water, 
Way places, In the event of j 
ry, the single, 

plain shel} 


since the effect. 

of evap. 
{ combustible, This 
nience of comparison, ts 

usually 95,4, 
for the vapori 

it hardly ev 
ount of water which would 
the evapuration Were to take 

r one atmosphere, 
being reduced 

>: |. other pressure ly did occur, pra 

Neither is it a Correct expression of the rela. 

1 tive economy of different boi ai 
{ Particularly of ditferent types of boite 

Sef Anless the evaporation tak 

evaporating the: 

With the least | 


mospheres would no} 

Romy when worki 
& pressure of two or three 

2, assume a boiler in; 
seven pounds of water 5 
ing 4000 Ibs. of coal Per 5 
» AY, $8. Query: How much 
id the owner afford to have paid fora 
vould have evaporated nine 
pounds of water Per pound of coal ¢ 

Let the cost of the present boiler be 32,000, 
Then 9:7: : $8.00: 20.22; and $3.00—¢6,29— 
78, the saving 

Per day, or $534 a year, 
This would Tepresent the interest at ten 
340, which added to $2,000 

f combustion, J 

340, or the amount he could 
his boiler and 
le Regarding the first | has very little water in it. 
ss—~eXternal radiation | ency of the botler has been 
‘ous—more careful at. 

remarkable | day, worth, 

| siderations, viz, t 

orated into. dry 5 
ure, thi 

‘Presents a total Joss 
erty of saving it exist 
the | mentioned source of lo. 
ces: /—the remedy is obvi 

-} ought to be occupied by 5 

Urtailed by pro- 
nductor of heat, 
ding a power ab 

necessary to pursue th 

this light, and yet this is not an extreme : 

On the contrary, it is no more 
tatement of facts 

more | almost universally 
had additional 
time to time, 
in. If f 1 S 

ing what ‘their boilers. 
and how much it is costing to do 
y will soon come to demand a 

usual allowance of 15 square fee 
Proportioned }, 

heating surface, Ass 
and must be first fonsidered. On the} that 15 feet may be sufficient, it do 
ther hand it would be‘an example of bad { follow that because a certain boiler 
engineering, under ordinary circumstances of heating surface it is a 
to place for perman 

an ordinary locomot 

forced draught and 
the same amount of 

fe, materially 
S'rosities as 
tg surface, one-third of 

chimney, wil! 
s Of the past, 

different factors, 
has been widely speculated Upon. = Practi- 
cally, however, it is always worth the 
sideration of the party who pays the 

1. One pound of good anthracite coal! by any Possible fiction 
has a combustible efileiency of 15,000 heat any utility. But they 
units, ence, if this could all be utitiz 

must only be taken 
effective heating su in a general way. A great many patent 
e under a gauge Pressure of | The total amount 


boilers are devised, evidently with this|' 
«3 pounds, and- froma temperature of 60°, fall right, 
13+ pounds of water. The 

tter failures than anything 
‘Ormance of boilers is hardly i 

han 24 of this, 

tilized heat is Pe 
ithe best way to determine how 
3 In the first Place it is z and that to furn 

Man cannot change th of | of run is indtspensudte: 
At the best he ean only 

‘ little end 

and then | and ct 
As in the 

50 per cent, 
and thickness of the 

ering in the 
Neither are they par- 


} the case of the boiler than in th 
e engine. Different t 


ae ee ee ieee ee ane 


We give below the report on tho boiler explosions 
of 1870 just issued by Mr. E. 8. Marten, tho chief 
engineer of the Midland Boiler Inapection and In. 
‘surance Company, through whose courtesy we are 
also enabled to annex the sketches by which the re- 

port fa illustrated, ‘ho data which Mr, Marten 
has collected compare, we are glad to say, very 
favourably with those of previous year, as 0 glance 
at the subjoined ‘I'ablo will show. ‘Thus we find 
that for the Inst seven years tho numbers of boiler 
explosions, &e,,{recorded have been ns follows : 

Numbor of Namborof Number of 
Year, y ‘ Persons Persons 

Explosions. 4citfed. Injured, 
1873 78 57 85 
1874 70 7 198 
1875 os 81 W2 
1876 q 93 110 
1877 - at 5b 75 
1878 pig 17 8 
1879 30 as 53 

Tn considering theso figures, it must be borne in 
mind that during the past fow yeara there has been 
going on a atendy increnso in the number of boilers 
employcd in this country, ao that the fall in the per. 
centage of explosions lins been even more decided 
than the decrease in thoactual number, Altogether 
tho data appear to show that tho various inepection 
companies are doing good service, and with the 
extension of inspection nnd tho dissemination 
amongst boiler owners of a better knowledge of 
their duties, aided by an enforcement of their 
Nnbititics, we may expect atill greater improvement, 
Mr. Marten’s report ia as follows: . i 

During tho year 1879, records were obtained of 30 boiler 
explosions, causing the death of 38 and tho injury of 53 

mor tho 91 persons killed or injured, 8 were owners or 

mauagers 3 28 onginemen or stokera; 53 men gmployed on 
the work woman and 3 men, strangers who happened 
to bo near; and 3 not nscertaincd. 

Slight particolara aro given, in tho form of an appendix, 
of 17 accidents connected with steam apparatus, and no 
fairly iucladed in the list of boiler explosions, which caused 
the death of O ant the injury of 35 persons, 


: Fra, 10, : 
The Exploded Boilers were used for the following 


. No, Kd. In. 
Tron works oe ww 815 11 
Marino .., on 4+ 6 0 
Mills, various , 3.9 al 
Collicrics a 3°03~=6 
Railways oe 3 6 
Farmin, Cr 223 1 
Tiny and straw wo ee OD 
Saw mill Cr a a ee | | 
Canal boat... oe ore |) 
Chemical CO er GO) 
Hoisting on board ship ou. wd 
Mineral water works ow «w Tt O 1 
Cabinct works... 4. 4 ow 1 0 0 

Total « «30 38 53 

Tho causes of oxplosion aro arrangod under the following 

heads, as in former years : 

A. Faults of Construction which may be Prevented by 
Inspection before Starting or after Repair, 

No, Kd. In, No. Kd. In, 
Bat construction or 

material ow . 3 7 8 
Bad repair... ow 2 7 
—— Fi 6 
B. Faults only to be Detected by Inepection, 
Extermnl corrosion ., 8 8 10 
Internat corrosion 4. 7 7 7 
——— 16 15 17 

C, Faults which could be Prevented by Attendants, 
Shortnces of water «. = 2 12 3 
Ovor pressuro,, oo. 6 7 18 

. 9 40 

Not ascertained ws 3 0 0 

Total tae ne 80 SBS 
Tho exploded boilers wero of the following kinds : 
The causes are stated os in. tho summary, the general 
heads being indtented by the letters A BC, 

Cornish or Lancashire, 

‘ No, Kd.In.No. Kl. fn.No. Ku. In. 
External corrosion... $ 8 2 
Internal corrosion... 1 4° 5 

Shortness of water. 1 
Over pressuro oe 

« Plain Cylinder, 
s No. Kil. In.No.Kd.In.No.Ki.In. 

Bad construction or 
af material we uw. 1 0 0 
+ (Bad repair woe BOT 

B { Paternal corrosion, 2 0 4 
Internal corrosion... 1 0 0 Paetal 
0 {Ghartncss ofwatr 2 1 2 : 
ver presaure w 1163 


B { External corrosion... 
Internal corrosion... 

Not ascertained ... 1 

——— |} 
Locomotive and Mullitubular. 
y {External corrosion, 2 1 4 

Internal corrosion, 2 0 =) i 

Q ° Over pressure we 120 
——-—— 4 9 6 


Shoriuessof water 0. 62 0 

Over pressure... a w 2 2 oe og 

A Bad construction ow ow Lo lg 
B Internal corrosion. 01 oO 
ome 2 2 0 
Return Tube. 
A Bad construction wae 162 
Totol 1 aw we ae 8088 BT. 

Although the engincer's annual report to tho company 
is presented in Angust, these records aro as usual made up 
to tho end of the year. 

‘Tho explosions 'thia year are much below tho average, 
both in the numbers of explosions and of thosa killed and 
injured. They nro of only average interest, tho greatest 
number occurring ne usual at iron works, 

-Nono of the oxploded boilers were under tho caro of this 
company, : ‘ 

v @ Seconds of 1879 confirm the oft-expressed opinion 
that Inspection is the beat means of preventing explosion, 
and nore than ono sose dering tho year showed tho need 0! 
owners giving ove: acl jor inspection, 

Briof details of tho explosions during the yenrs 1862-3-4.5, 
are attached to these recorda® to complete tho tables since 
this company was cstablished, andat the end will be found a 

completo index of the explosions from 1862 to 1879, and 

y y {interest in tho various papers, 
port Nasco pee he different institutions, reprinted 

for binding with them. 

1, ary Sth, none injured. ~Plain cylinder, 
eral chape td 19feloog, 24 1Lin, vertical, Sit. Qin. 

in, and fin, plates, 50 Ib. pressure, 
‘He pack clamoter oan out, ie boiler iteclf not being 

moved from its peat, Aa theru were uo stays, the drum- 
‘Tho demands upow our space compel us to omit th 

10 26 supplomenta: 

Conls and Cannels. 

Analyses of British Ga 

face ane cork consisting of the analyses | ‘The preeise ingredients necessary to constitute a Lest quality cod are 
Amo interenting ani valouhte  teaon ine jst Deen issued hy | so well known-{hat it is almort surprising that no attempt as fore 
of ace ah prneticnl gas chemist, Manchester, The | been mndoto campensate for the deficlences of the lower qualities, 
a i i iH anade from bulk, the material being taken indiscrim- | This, however, has now, heen dove, The object of tha invention of Mr. 
ena as : a 0 ofa nmaber of analyses given in every, instance. Cyprien Laurent iv'to secure the complete oxidation Or combustion; na 
ae eeu ans in cubie fect per ton is given ton temperature | it is more commonly termed, of the severnl oxidisable gases and ‘ipora 
of at Folr. tho barometer at 20 in, Some interesting’ information is | developed during the combuation of coal and other carbonaceous faele, 
ko given 7 to the production of coke from’n ton of conl of vnrlous | by combining with tho latter a liquid composition, which, liaving been 
: vat Doth when taken from-the retorts and when slncked on being applied to the fuel hy any convenient menna before it is fed on to the 
owed to drain for 12 hours, We are also tolt how to ascertain the | fire or grate, will xeeuro the complete oxidation of the snid gasea’ind 
iMuminating matter contained in 20 cwts, coal or eannel, which is cer-| vapors, and #o prevent their being lost as rourccs of heat. ay 
tainly worth knowing. It fa done by dividing the enbic feet yielded] — It is well known that the loss and waste incidental, more or leas, tonlt 
per ton by 5, as there were & cubic fect consumed per honr ; multiply | known methods of burning con! or other carbonaccous fel in hearths, 
the result by number of candles illuminating power, and again by 120 furnaces, or open fire-grates, in due to the fact that the gases and vapors, 
. the grains consnmed by ench enndle per hour; divide the tast result by | invisible ns well ns visible, and collectively denominated smoke, arising 
2000 gra. contained in 1 Wb. avolrdupols, and the final result gives the | from the incandescent fuel, ns well as from that jast supplicd to the fire, 
number of pound of sperin equal to the illuminating matter contained | are not furnished with the proper quota of oxygen ot the right timeand 
tn 20 cwts, of cont or cannel, ‘Tho Scotch cannel appenrs to give the] temperature, It ix this desidersted supply of oxygen that thixinvention * 
jighest amount of iMuminating power; but when that inthe ense there | aims at providing. ‘The material he uses te carry ont hia purpose fs a 
inn much less yield of coke, and that of an inferior quality, the Rog-| combination af ingredients finely pulverised nnd intimately intermized 
head cannel coke being put down na yaluctexs, ‘That the selling of gas | hy any convenient mechanical method and then dissolved in water, and 
muat be a most profitable trade is clearly shown, for a ton of coal in| thus produeiug inn liquid form Lis new composition, In thiscondition 
some instances yielded us much as 11,000 cubie feet of gos, 15 to 18 ewts, | and nt thia stage it is ready for une, The several ingredients and their é 
of slacked coke, fram 14 to 20 gallons of tar, and atont half the quantity | relative proportions nre—in variety A, sol ammonine, 3 puts ly weight; 
‘of tar-water. The following shows the yield of some of the Scotch | Glanber's salt, 7 paris; and common salt, 18 poris=28 parts. Ix variety 
cannel, with the iMuminating power in candles as well a8 the coke pro- | 1 he uses—aal ammoniae, 2 parts; Glauber's salt, 4 parts; cominon salt 




duced : 12 parts; and commercial carbonate of potaxsa, 1 part=19 parts. 
Cubic ft. Hum. power, Blacked erke, The tirst-mentioned variety is intended to be used with Bituninoua ke 
pykchead a ae adie it or soft vont, and variety Bwith hard or Anthracite coal, nlthough h ‘ 
Bonth fel, al Isewts. wishes it to be distinetly understood that he may nse the above ingre: 

The curley eaune! of North Wales stands Heat to the Scotch, that at] dienty in different proportions from those specitied above, according na 
the Coed Taton Colliery, near Mold, yielding 12,122 cubie fect of gas t0 | the composition of the fuel may vary as requiring moro or less oxygen, 
the ton—nn illuminating power equal to 31 candles ; but it only gives 10 



pt hie rh | provided always that the combination ia capable of yielding when hited fF 
ewts, of coke, ‘Tha smooth cannel at the same place only gives 10,700 oxygen in suflicient quantity for the purpose of the invention. Thedry 

enbic fevt of gas, with an iluninating power of 21 candles 5. Tmt it powder prepared us described above ix dissalved in water in the propor. 
gives 15 ewts, of coke, bearing ont the remark provionsly made that the tion of 261 avoirdupols ounces ta 1h gallon of water, produdog a 
greater the illuminating power the leds quantity of coke in produced, quantity of liquid composition wuflicient for 1 ton of conls or other ears 
Tho Laneaghire cannel has long heen nated for gas making purposes, bonnceous fret, Tin immuaterialawhether the water axed be bard or 
and is in good recs o Abd the conity E _ ils ok equal to the soft, ‘The powder may be dissolved nny time before the Hiquil com f 
Scotch on regards the Muminating ower, _ falluwing gives some of position ix to be used, and the latter used hamediately before the fael in 
tho best qualities as to gow iuninating power in candies und slicked used, or time nllowed far it to dry, care always being taken thot thefael 

cake : after being treated with the liquid composition is not exposed to nin, 
hall, or snow, which would ina greater or less degree wash thedepodted 
uinterial off tho fuel, : 

The liquid composition is applied to the fuel in any convenient ¥ 
either by sprinkling or by means ofa syringe or a force-puinp, on by 
immersing the fuel in the solution, ar otherwise, Uhe only yeeee ‘ 
. necessary to observe is to Kprinkle the solution ax eventy as possible, 
Pany’s coke was token ns tho standard, and the iinninating power was His pret in dissolving on ingredients is to Kecure 0 “hue division F723 

peer seg be ee ape 120 868. PEF) and a more equablo distribution of them over the fuel than woald be ae 
ee tame qacie cf tis To rtiilee aduotied veel ee eo 7 845 | possible if they were applied in the condition of dry powder, By the 
will be acen from the following analynes: Boor results, 08 | aye of his composition ho maintuinsa perfect and economical combustion, 

accowpanied by 4 corresponding production of heat in advance of the 

Minn. power, Coke, 
1.0 IWewts, P qe. 
MWewls, Or, 
Wigan Comp VWewte, Lar, 
‘Morria’s Art Wewts, 
‘The Wigan coke is described as very good, whilkt the yield ix large, 
80 that in some instances it will realize nearly ax much as was yiven in 

the first instance for the raw material, ‘The Wigan Cont and trou Com. 

Cuble ft. Mun, power, Coke, 
1,952 P34 

Towle: owt, thorongh iguition of the lumps ] of oxygen 
+ ant Vorhireco’ 14,109 10 Mowing de fi sie is sede ms ™ ot ue ‘ anil os ne oe t Hs : 
14 Bilkatone coal. 31,100 12 Wewts.dee rom the composition proceeds pari passe with the development from 

+ Newton & Co.'s Sil 10.478 10 aC ¢ 

Id ewe. Our, 

tho fuel of cambustiblo gas and vapor (such development always occttr- ¥ 

ing most plentifully when a fresh supply of fuel in fed on to the fr¢,) 

tlie Intter nro owing to the presence of n xuftictency of oxygen nt a keh 

tompernture, and derived partly froin his composition, and partly 

the atmospheric air present, iimedintely consumed, and so compeltd 

to produce their full quota of heat. oo ws 
Tko foregoing is not, he says the only way in which his composition 

+ Royatone coal. 9,770 red 19 cwtn. 1 qr. 

From the above figures it will be seen that nearly a ton of coke in 
some instances is produced from a ton of coul from Yorkshire pits, 
‘The samo seams of coal are worked in Derbyshire and Sonth Yorkshire, 
but the qualities are different. Thus, wo find that the Devonshire 
Silkstone only yields 9,610 cubic feet of gux, with «9 iltutninating 
power equal to 13.5 caudles, and 14 cwts. 1 qr. of slacked e; Welln’ 
Eckington Silkstone gives 9,333 cubic feet a gns, with a facilitates the economical combustion of fuel. It is well known that th 
_ Power of 11.0 candles, and 19 ewts. 2 qrs. of coke. To estimute ie carbonic dioxide formed in the tower srata of n bed of burning fuel fs} 
value of the different descriptions of cannel and coal the nominal prices converted {nto earhonie oxido na it passes upwards through the foel 4 
for the different products should bo taken—Sperm at In, per th.; coke, Somining: with additional ‘eorbon.. This: earbonio. “oxide oak 

10s,; yas-water and tar, at id, per’ gallon for cach degres of specific escapes unconsumed unless it meots with n proper quantity. of 7 

gravity. Tho water from the Wigan cannol is 43° ‘T wath. | to Feconvert it into carbonic dioxide, ‘This proper quantity of oxy 
and thotar 92° nt (02 Far, 1° Ty at Go? Fabe,; proper quantity 

‘that of Me E 

~” Most‘of the generators now fn use took thelr origin in this ublished in 

es oe GENERATING } URNACES, way. They consist of a single chamber, in which the two 

= By JF, Lunstanw of Osnabruck, 
Se ‘ ROANN | t ee at p processes” (1). of expelling the hydrocarbon I 
ie is not my intention to enumerate to-day all the various | formed in the fuel), and (2) of catverting the femaln ng rot 
Ras generators in operation, but only 10 show the differ. fuel, take place together, and these generators therefore have pt Lge 
' nifeint gueee in thelr construction, ‘and to draw your attention to ea rapliack incommon _ ordinary gratesfiring. Pad far “4 ‘ 
n blast, with thirty-seven awaiting a certaint: Poxplatned, wl; I zs sj tecent improvements thereupon, Heating | back as forty years ago experiments were made to pérform 
y ofa stenly 2 OX} ed, whe b: atrangements, if blast-! th 1 
of the advance to operntions, On the line of she Lehigh heer fuel is intonded to take tho pince of dala or other natwctl niucls, theroby }4 ity nee nay ha last-furnaces: are. not taken into consid- ese tivo processes, requiring ‘such opposite cohditions, 

fi divided into two cl: % sseparately, and John Juckes was, the ‘first. (see his patent, urpose. 
furnaces is less, but the Proportion at work is greater, constituting itself the substance oa ie fe, — Loyal Ainlny : rate~fringy ‘o classes, viz., those ‘with P: Ys John ji as. first. (: I 5 iP 

hent which ix inevitable whenever carbonio oxi 
‘The composition described diitura from ‘ord 

Only eighteen furnaces wero in blast on the Hine of 
the I'hilndel 
and Rending Rallrond at this {ime last year. Now there aro forty-nine 


‘ and, ‘secondly, those with gasefiting. The -| November 8, 1838, and fig, 1), to endeavour to im) rove the nt fc encrator of one 
furnaces, thirty ore in blast and ten out Ont of forty ‘ére factories ifference between these wwo classes consist inaialy in the]. heating by preventing the disturbing influences which occur in 
: wns, whol ly fe admission of the atmospheric air (which inthe case of grate-- | *ofdinary grate-firing by the charging of wet cold fuel ‘on the: | Th has 1 ain A 
, oN oe Ge EP ee y conl.not only TOF fiting takes place only at one point) through the grate, whilat | Hot'fuel In process of conversion, ‘The arrangement con- HW). Before I describe 
Tho Dickson Manufacturing Co,, of Seranton, hav. friends and themsolvos, § “in the case of . gas-firing it requires“ second: and separate || .*titutes only a grate, and not a gas-firing, because air is ade’ generators constructed 
order of twenty Arateclas . n, have completed nn} stenm, but for the use of their employeos, frie: at the wholesale point. of admission,-In a theoretical way, it might be ae- . mitted only through the grate,” As the horizontal chamber { hitherto 
; ~  ‘Mndeon Canal Ca # consolidated locomotives for the Delaware | Wo think this is allogether outside thelr business, ifs to blame. y gued that the combustion in an ordinary grate also: consti- | for expelling the gases is fixed in the convertlug chamber of | tained i 

Hed 7s 
~ zy Utes a gas-heating ‘airangement,,as all -solid) parts of - the the’ grate, the ‘necessary ‘heat for expelling. ‘the “gases fael on amp 

: fucl are first converted into gasses; which -are-then burnt.-:| ‘ftom .the- newly; introduced. ‘fuel ‘and ~ for © drying ‘and |. prepared, The :gresn ¢, Uj 
-» “Thus. from*‘coal, about 308 et cent. of Its entire. weight is | warming the ‘same‘ls taken, as in all cother prate-firing ‘l In processar”, time to tet rf 
vexpelled on the prate in the form of hydrocaibon gas, and | 94 ‘generators. construsted hitherto, from: the heat before | takes Place o; oy 
burnt as such,:the remaining solid coal or coke: also being it enters the combustion: chamber. “For the heating of |. of expelling’; tt he 
converted into pas (carbonic oxide, and burnt to carbonic. | 8% boilers, which Juckes specially describes in his patent,|° dons, the 
o acid). Grateefiring, considercd in this way, ‘however, also this arrangement: is quite auitable, as. the expulsion’ must i 
> admits the atmospheric air only at one point, namely, through .take place soma'time, and cannot be done otherwise than by 

tho domentic sizes, ia very 1M 

: . q the grate. If the layer of fuel on'the‘grate {s*sullicte: “the heat produced by the. conversion, the ‘waste heat not | 

: ; : y thickness, so that the carbonic acid produced, by the patios having the requited ‘temperature left to perform tke duty.: ‘oke) fi 

‘ me bustion of firel In the lower, part next to the grate can’ only very similar arrangement is that of John Price, for which ‘| ‘tequi mt 
: “| : pass through the red-hot fuel above it,-and again combine. | 2 obtained ‘a: patent on 44th ‘October, 1873 (see fig, pea 0 

_ ; Pe : with carbon, thus preventing. the : passage ‘Of unconsumed. | 2t™ also. forms* only. a Brate-firiog, air baby . admitted :| * ‘d 
‘ f ‘ * oxygen, we then have, speaking from a: technical point of. | Oly through the grate;. but. it differs from: Juckes’ by |e h vanes 

view, a gas generator, as the gases produced necessitate the. | 80¢. having’ a “mechanical: feeding” arrangem, 
: . EN admiston and admixture of ospheric ait anotherpoint? the eapulilon “chamber, being heated by S rasta" heats i 
besides through the grate, 2 a |’ This arrangement, although still’ subject (3 some. of the: 

wants of all’ prate-firing, —-hi : . 
Road at the Divseldorf. Meotlog of rst water? | rosulls,”“as wr have. Ieetied fee eee Serre 

. coke): are sconverted in another. (4), ‘and both gases so 
2 cia By . ¥ produced, ate burned in the’ combustion: chamber. ‘’ 
: - :xt-fs-heated by. the. gas 
waste heat), and the ca} 

bg : ; _ 7 Wsclose 
: j “ : <v whilst its other ent 
; : feeding a coal iia - 
] Bean beg ne 
: . throu & 
a 7 wat Deon est ig, ore deen | 
axing through Dy oy res ‘coke to a bright red heat, 
‘ 3 : soe a OA pale teas : oT ete eee rere emcee ar ee seek Bye Li tad heating ihe resulting col to a bi 4 at 
, , : , : ‘ = daring ie oxidas 
. es t 20,200, an 
= oS on . . oe . . here r te i i the solid 

ik SEAS 4:3 

amiga ANU smoke shot Up as high as the “Stay: 
‘ning of the 15th Captain Grouting 

” At- 10 a.m." the 
er in the 

ke vineve 1 COAL CARGOES. °. > 

: CONSIDERABLE amount: of interest, not to 
n/ say excitement, has of late been exhibited in 
‘connection with grain ‘cargoes, which important 
‘.- question has at length teceived the attention it de- 
1" manded,- and has been dealt with in accordance 
{> with the notions of all right-thinking and sensible 
{vpersone, an Act of; Parliament for regulating. the 
j- Cartiage of grain having received the’ Royal assent 

on Tuesday: last, Another cognate question, and oi 

one of equal, if not superior importance, is that of 
© coal cargoes, which are frequently the cause. of 
serious loss-of life and destruction of property, To 
this subject we now draw attention, in the hope that 
itmay be taken upin other quarters, and someattempt 
made to remedy the evils by which it is at. present 
attended, . The dangerous character of coal cargoes 
has long been notorious, and the frequent cases of 
spontaneous cumbustion that have occurred have led 
toa general impression that for the most part all 
‘|. kinds of coal are equally unsafe. This, however, is 
not 0, Scotch coal having much more to answer for 
' than the Welsh :mineral, as we shall show, The 
present ‘subject has been ‘forced upon our attention 
, by aletter froma correspondent at Rio de Janeiro, 
j Who, writing on the oth'of August last, states that 

, were named the Afoondight and the Channel Light. 
! ‘They loaded different kinds of steam-coal at. the 
same time, the one Featherstone and the other York- 
shire Hartley. . They sailed. from Hull ‘together, 
arrived at Rio together, and were both destroyed at 
with nine mea, the remainder of the crew, being then | .the same time by spontancous combustion, the effects 
missing... The coal cargo and. ship were burned of which were manifested as soon as the hatches were 
:. about 700 miles from Cape Frio, : ‘The’ same writer opened. : 
‘, further states that the cargo of the Granite City, These instances might easily be multiplied, but we 
| about 1000, tons of Udston. steam-coal, from : think we have said suffictent for our present purpose, : 
1. Greenock,’was in'a state of combustion upon { which is to direct attention to the dangers attendin 
the then recent .artival-of ‘the vessel at Rio. This 
‘was also the case with a cargo of about 800 tons of 
{ . Hamilton coal pet'Prince.Victor, also from Greenock. 
Lastly, he reports: the ‘total loss by fire of the ship 
|. Dora, from Leith to Rio; and her cargo of Auchin- 
} raith Ell coal.’ In each ‘of. these four cases, which 
‘occurred within’ a month, the coal was Scotch, al- 
though of a different description in each case, 
Another instance. of which we are informed is that 
of the Lief, bound from Greenock to Rio with a i and in addition to this they are not so well screened. 
a 0 of. Auchinraith Ell coal, which, upon the arrival The South Wales coals are double screened at the 
: ‘ the vessel at Rio showed unmistakable signs of pit, and again alongside the ship, whilst the Scotch 
i a ing. ; | -coals are double. screened at the pit alone. The 
-It may prove interesting and perhaps instructive if latter, therefore, carry from 5 to:10 per cent, more of 

we here give a few details respecting thi . dust th cdi 
{. Dundee, which are furnished b Hy ciecmmenaee raloaat of Gea eee mevincall Greana 

vhict further element of danger. removing all th 
narrative given’ by Captain Croudace of the burnin } a freer circulation of air is ineured, whi at by ; st 

of his ship.” He ‘states that they left Dundee on th: : ing it the intersti f tt 
_a7th’May, '‘at.4 a.m., and proceeded all well, with the circulation choked ghey enerated, Solon 
‘ fine weather, until the morning of the. 13th July, > bustion sooner or later ‘is inevitable, The ri 
i. They were then in lat. 25°51 8., fong, 28°22 W., and safety of coals double-screened at the pit i id a in 
, 7 yet gaperter fat ain . Foie seen lssuin from at a ship, at once points to the remedy, whie his 
3 7 } out 6a.m, long with the simply good ventilation, Were 
Carpenter and chief officer he went bi Pot gases in the 
thorough examinations fore and aft, and pa oie coal carcino Shunt pestle he Suara 
gonelution that the Sal itch was the centre of the those disasters to coal-laden ships’ which are now *t 
aken off, a * 
tod Into the cargo in over to aiecover ine ie Within rede as cveeyouipbuik de erate cual 
ued al 1s for so; rc n iS vant 
could work no longer on account onthe pee eee ole seehon Ine fail 4 aval themttes ort any 
: gasand smoke that were escaping. The hatches were it would a) pear't b Migtaie Wine. obi 
' i hen battened down, and all ait holes stopped ; and terest that autho it sh ood ate Tacaad os 
1 waeala Croudace made all sail for Rio Janciro, moral obliquity or: ren ar et eo Niagelicer 
vw fol wae his nearest port. On the follow needa p subject is ot H mental obtuseness.’ ‘The present 
th ¢ 14th, they were in lat, 25-22 S., long. 30°36 Ww? ance toc al ropvicton creat but of vital import. 
hatch again (ect c They then opened’ the main underwriters Hand we ast i wie rep — 
: ¢ another attempt ¢ i i a a will reccive the atten- 
‘subdue the fire. :. They, however, fore tonBct at and tion it so seriously demands, Mr. Plimsoll hae d 
ele a ea teuin eat hehe eae || Regge, oe meee arn ber 
ith difficulty they succéeded indomitable per nther directs gy, and: 
About the humane end cote ket eee direction tos his 
“ga help themsclves, torhele ty no afe unable 2. 

on the 23rd of July the captain and twelve men of 
the British ship’ Dundee, from Dundee for Bombay 
with coal, arrived at. Rio in a boat, a second boat 

is accounted for, and, in the second, how it. is“to be 
averted... The spontancous combustion of coal [s due 
mainly to two” causes, the first is heating and the 
: consequent generation of gas, and the second is in- 
sufticlent screening, the firet not unfrequently arising 
out efthe second, The Scotch coals arc. of: a more 

Dy the” gas ‘havin 
ite then put into the 
wering ‘at _a_ moment's: 

| the shipment of coal, especially that of Scotch coal. . 
It may be asked, in the first place; how this danger. |‘. 

: dangerous nature as regards gas than are the Welsh, 

.. +, By F, Lunaany, of Osnabrilck, 

It {a not my intention to enumerate to-day all the 
yarious gas gonorntors in operation, tnt only to show tho 
differences in their conatraction, and to draw your atton- 
tion to Mr. Griibo's recent improvements thereupon. 

Aicating arrangements, if blast furnaces aro not taken 
into consideration, may bo divided into two classes, viz., 
those with grato firing, and, scconily, thosc with gaa 

¢ differenco hetieen theso two clasaca consists mainly 
in tho admission of the atmospheric air (which in tho caso 
of grato firing takes placo only at one point) through the 
gente, whilst in the enso o: Giring it requires a second 
and paral point of admiasion. Ina theoretical way, it 
might bo argued that the combustion in an onlinary grato 
also, constitutes n gas heating arrangement, aa nll solid 
tts of the fuel nre first converted into gases, which aro 
han burnt. ‘Thus from cont about 30 per cent. of its 
entire weight is expelled on the grate in tho form of hydro. 
carbon gaa, and burnt as such, the remaining solid conl or 
coke also being conrerted into fs (carbonic oxide, and 
burnt to carbonic acit). Grate firing, considered in this 
way, however, aleo admits tho atmospheric air only at one 
point, namely, through the grate. 

If tho Inyer of fuel on the grato is sufficient in thickness, 
so that tho carbonic acil produced Ly the combustion of 
fuel in tho lower part next to tho grate can only pass 
through tha red-hot fuel abovo it, and again combine with 
catbon, thus preventing tho passage of unconsumed 
oxygen, we then havo, spenking from a technical point of 
view, a gna generator, as the gaacs produced necessitate 
the admission and admixture of atmospheric alr nt another 
point besides throngh the grato, Pear 

Most of the generators now in uso took their origin in 
this way. They consist of n single chamber, in which tho 
two procosses (1) of oxpelling tha hydrocarbon gases 
(already formed inthe fuel}, and (2) of converting tho re- 
malalng solid fuel, take place together, and these genc- 
rators therefore haro this drawback in common with ordi- 
nary grate firing. 

Se far back ns forty years ago experiments were malo to 
perform there two precestes, requiring such opposite con- 
ditions, separntely, and John Juckes was the first (seo his 

patent, November 8, 1838, No. 7853, nnd aunoxed eketch, 
Sig. 1) to endenrour to improve tho heating by preventing 
tho disturbing influences which occur in ordinary grto 
firing by tho charging of wet cold fuel on tho hot fuel in 
process of conversion. 

‘Ths arrangement constitutes only a grate ond not 9 gas 
firing, because nir is ndiitted only through tho grate. As 
the horizontal chamber for expelling tho gascs [s fixed 
in the converting chamber of tho grate, tho necessary 
heat for expelling tho gases fron: tho nowly introduced ful 
and for drying and warming tho rome is taken, ns in nll 
other grate fring and genorators constructe: hitherto, 
from tho heat before it enters the combustion chamber. 
For tho heating of steam boilors, which Juckes specially 
describes in his patent, this arrangement is quito suitable, 
na tho expulsion must take placo some timo, and cannot be 
done otherwiso than by the heat produced by the con- 
yeraion, tho waste beat not having the required tempera- 
turo left to perform tho duty. 

Ayery similar arrangement is that of John Prico,' of 

which 1s skotch is shown in Fig. 2, and for which he obtained 

grate nt bs but 

eee eee font. ki. arrangement 

i waate heat. o 7 

chiveogh si iM oubject re some of tho wants of alt grato 

@ Paper read beforo tho Iron and: Stcel Institute nt 
Diuacldort. . 


firing, has given yory satisfactory reanita, ns I Lavo learnod 
from the reporta in the technical papers. 

Another arrangement is that of M. KE, Minary, of 
Besancon, particulars of which wero published in the year 
1868 in tha Publication Industrielle, and a sketch of which 
is shown in Fig. 3. This isn real gas-generating farnaco, 

Marth vib ott 

air being admitted nt two places, Tho oxpulsion in a dons 
not tnke place in a chamber separate from tho conversion 
chamber 6, but in an clevation of tho samo, and tho heat 
for oxpulsion is drawn from the heat produced by conver- 
sion, A large quantity of thia heat thus becomes Intent, 

fe opine sctexioastencansenakccrad 

(Serr. 3, 1880. 

is tho object, it is of importance not to losc heat by radin- 
tion or conduction, or to allow any of tho heat to becomo 
latent. This is the casein Grdbo's generator. Tho gascs 
contained in tho coal nro expelled in onc chamber A, and tho 
solid romains (coke) aro converted in another B, and both 
gases ko produced nro burned in the combuation chamber, 
which is not visible on tho perspective skotcl:. 

A is heated by the gases after thoy leave the furnace 
(by waste heat), and tho oxpelled hydro-carbons leave tho 
chamber A highly heated. In the second part B tho con- 
yersion of tha remaining solid parts takes place, all tho 
heat that fs act freo being utilised in tha furnace. Tho 
generator consists of ona, two, or mora horizontal chambera, 
mado of fire-proof materials placed below, nboyo, or by tha 
alde of the furnaco in which tho gascs ora utilised (such ag 

mdiling, reboating, zinc, fiass, and other farnaces). 

Tho chamber A is closed nt ono-cnd by a mechanical 
feeding arrangoment, whilat ita other ond is open and, 
communicates with 1, Tho feeding of coal into A can 
bo done by hand or by machinery, and roquires yory little 

Tho atmospheric air necessary for burning tho gases 
arrives highly heated by previously passing througl: 
channols heated by waste heat, its access boing regulntod ~~) 
by valves. Tho waste heat, after passing through D, D, °° 
round A, to expel tho fares from the fuel an heating the ra. 
sulting coko ton bright red heat, may then be uscd under 
boilers, &c. 

Tt ns been shown by Rankino that carbon during [ts 
oxidation docs not produce 14,500 British units, but 20,200, 
anil that 5700 of these becomo Intent in converting tho solid 
carbon into gas, so that only 14,500 British units are por- 

jess, 505,018 kilos. of Licoms aro heated darin ere aE 
Stuns. Far 1000 kilos. of blooms: abou! ai 

and is lost for the desired purpose. ‘The 
yersion passes throngh the channels d d, ay 
sary for burning the gases is introduced 
arrangement consists, therefore, in n ge 
chamber, and is without a mechanical f 
ment. ‘Tho anmo arrangement has lat 

atonted by Messrs, Brook and Wilson, ani 
Facer of September 28, 1877, 

ig. 4 

brick Steel Work: 
generators into Grdbo generators, 

of‘ tho 

robot orntora, 14,500 
‘Jatont before the 
0 mado uso of in’ | 
‘onerator, ns they 
‘ithosame. ‘Tho .. 
supply of heat 

‘She Grobe gencrator lins also been in ure ino xluo far. bala) in oxpelling 

nace of tho 

cilla Montagno at Moresnet, near Aix-a- 

4 ant in 

| Chapello, since December, 1879, and n second furnace for my E ‘onorators or 

the anmo yurreve has just been completed. : 

At tho 

ouation chamber, 

iver Leo Iron Works, Canning Town, London, sd-ns hitherto for 

Grdbo's generator is in nso for n ball furnace, ‘an 
although soine trouble was oxperioneed there at first pring eilse's Gencrator 

to the men not being accustomed to gas beatin 
gives satisfactory results. 

ibility of utilising 
43 7 

t ott 
Grdbe gencrators aro nso in use at a furnace fors, t onl, 
into glass nt Mesara. Fourcault, Hrisen, nit“ Co,’ poke, nok on Snel 
Dampremy, near Charleroi in Belgium, and ono. at, Hes coking con}, and 
German rplegel glass manufactory in Freden, near Hanover teaving tha expule 
niso ono for concentrating copper at the Manifeldechon 9 oa will onnblo it 

Deforo I deseribo Gribo's generator, T 

all generators constructed hitherto have only tind ono 

es tained in tho fuel nro cx- 

chamber in whicl: tho gases, cor ined in tie Eo green 

and wnpropared, from time to 

hich aro in process of decom- 

hich takes placo on an 

and as tho.two processes of nine tte rer 
ing gasea oro constant ented, 

2 73, It also forms quality and sonny tao genes pea i the fuel uo ‘Thin generator is worked during tho daytimo only, nnd 

only gent big, ar belo Tamfited only trough tho atmospherie ar, fe required, but only beat, hie for tho 

7 ‘by not baring n | conversion §co! G a 

differs from’ Juckes’ by, tot a into craton ts oxide ntmosphericnir iscsscntial. It a ines coking coal, and 53,141 kilos. oF 19.35 por cont, antiiragits 

pelled and the resulting 
damp fuol is charged cold 
time, upon tho materials wi 
:] postion, similar to tho process w: 

uf te 
of vondetiinge *requiro entirely different cond! 

no heat, but, on the contrary, throws leat off, 

loyed for expolling tho gases from tho fuel ; and 
party come Intent, it cannot bo utilised in tho com- 

buation chamber, 
With oll fring arrangemen! 

ts in which high temperatures 

Gexrerschatt, in Elsleben, oeioaves snub and stop the § 

spe ew ansnny ieee tcnmocneemena 
draught, It has been proved in practice that a mixturo of 
50 per cent. of small but strongly coking coal with $0 ner 
cent. anthracite duat give coko of auflicient.substanco to 
work well. With tho gasos produced from this mixture the 
Lighest temperatures may be obtained. * i 
HN Grdbo’s generator lins been in uso since tho 0th De- 
comber, 1879, inn reheating furnace nt tho iron and atect 
orks of Osnabritek, whore a surface of Oft, by 18 ft. is! 

it consumes on nn averago por. month of 2U turns, 122,580 

ning solid parts (coke) | kilos. coal, of. which 6,487 kilos. or 66.65 per cent. aro 

and 53,141 kilos. or 43.35 por cont, anthracite 

‘This includes tho coal consumed for warming during tho 
night. ‘Tho furnaco is used for heating blooms of mild 
stecl tor railway sleepers, which only weigh 260 kilos. 
cach, whilst rail blooms weigh 580 kilos. cach, Nevertho- 

she rock of 28 |. CRE ge he Errglish, Mechawie) pels ceaneek ie se nae gn yreaed | 
: es : rans 7 isos 7 sliding door, a oa tie eect ‘Lolssausaminenoed' tp work eit 87874 
: fa eae : rward by blades on shafts which makenbout | and not only i ' 4 
3 i 3 rovolutions,per minute. - The compound | of nt ony is tho dust-goal ued; but much ! aes 

Hoe stan | : ” Ben, —We think perhaps your : 
: yA : AND “ Als rae J ; In fact, itt ‘ 
s kopt-warm and plastic in this conveyer } pulverised. . The operations Beary an : 


niony oF the & 
erratic block, wholly un 
n, found on the summit of 

q From a sinall 

ie Washingto 
paca Prof. ©. IL, Hitchcock infers that the, ghie tt hee 
was deeper in that region than lias Intherto been suppose 3 é - kop : i ; |p 
‘Fletlr roan mt of Ci Dr grontin OW SOrHNoR aw. ann,’ | - ~ #RSUiL Ragin fi mesg pos tee |S ce aimee 
¥ y ice, us leat’ - *. 73 Py out about pa 

if it wns carrfed to Mount Air het eat Hae been -to- fF taken, ‘Si pale fo (le sin their poriphories.2 numbor of semi-oval Frocks of about 26lb,’ cack. om cr our in ys S| 

Mount Washing iriug tha b dd shipmal al ‘tasting, jeovitica ia horts m confectioners dron- with the dust and gmall ara loaded at tho : ue 

: : 2 . ‘mnaking machine on a lnrge scalo, Mr. Loi- | colliory and brought by a } : 
FRIDAY, OCTODER 8, 1880. ‘seau ‘anys that..the oflicacy of moulding sidings cat the works Fiere ay aes the # 

sheet ut, fone time du 
at Ee : 

‘gollora ig not accidental or arbitrary, but ia | over o receivor and i 

_Rovorned by cortain rules, which may be | continuous chain of emptied ae tps . 

:dotermincd on’ mathomntical principles, if} tho grinding rollers, whore. it. is powdered 
at least with oj and boing mixed with conl-tar pitch, is passed | 

v » OVEN. 5 
NEW PORTABLE OVEN. ww 5 not with perfect oxactitude, 

admitted tat for some culinary operations z. Herrin ONES] ARTICLES, tolerable’ degreo of accursoy.- Moulding | through heating furnaces to the moulding! 

++ rollers accomplish tho compressi of mato-| presses, whera it is subjected tovo pres: | 

rinls moro bya squeczing or bruising action ; | suro of about 60 tons;- ard ‘is then: 

+ Iris generally stove and ninge are Heither effective nor: 3 a ed aleo de 1 the 4 

automatically passed -to. an-ondless band! 

* the ordinary cook {by actual expe 
~ geonomical, aud it hus een determines by set x . tod, and, whi 
ment that In the amitier of baking, ordinary stoves arc waste: : af fort of the veeadl. for | : We have sovoral times in our Inst twont thoy possess the great advantage of equeez- 
ful of oily fuel fat Tse etn In the engraving is designed nat ‘bel Diet f mer eee volumes, notably on p. 167,. Voi. ing the materinls so that tho food is only a} which convoys it to the atacking-yard or: 
ue wet Th ‘ nection with an ordinary portable furnace, - ° XVI, drawn attention to tho efforts that short timo between tho rollers, Tt apnonts, the londing-wharf, as may bo desired, Mr, 
to be sel n cont bong will port amount of: ee ined é ive been iad to utilise the enormous nowovor, that these rollers do not eld an| Loiscau says that the prossuro:to obtain a: 
and ¥ note | so prevents the dissemination of odors from ft ik, ‘The W: : {| heaps of conl-dust produced by years of altogether. satisfactory orally and although good lump must bo at least 3,0001b.par square! 
fuel, nat leo 1 revents (nye inventor contescls the fire’ : 3 4) mining, and though meommerciall: yaetane Mr. Loiscau regrots that. bis rollers arol inch, roferring to tho uso of tho stoam-hoated 
- at ant ina coo tale furnace by Inserting an extn, Ttoads Needies at 3.13. ate ful process has beon devised b; which th ‘Mrought together by scrows instead of] mixture, but it will be scen above that with if}: 
ol i Ne ot tire Tielke; thiy serves the double purpose of, knots an Hout it Mil "> £] duat combined with clay and yeh roft a4 * aprings, ho thintes it will not bo eurprising if| dry powdored ooal a pressure of 60 tons is) 
ng, Ao Tek; thls ery aul of preventing. the, Captal f mattora brought 1 fran, the mines i une -rollera hereafter play.n great part in the} used in this country, and possibly that may. 
annterially rrivo at Pl; AVVerted into 8} a 1 ke it is 7 real bes cay manufactura of artificial fucl. Tho mixe bo the cause of the success which the manu-: 
Root » it is not gencrally _ ho has omployed takes in about 1,0001b. of} facturors in Great Britain havo axperienced. | 

very des t 2 ish to 
arm weather, aera desirable feuture Te 3 oe ehich our he are 3 board : _jfrected into mood belo, i i » ly 
we veather = : anufacturea of a compress i i ; 
“the furnice ns the usual opening for the F . presse tho materials at one feed, and. brings thom) As tho blocks weigh nearly.» quart 
of-the fu j fuel has been carried on for sovoral yoars in dition in about 2) minutes, owt, each, ‘wo net wot aay ‘that: tho rote : 

"Phe top pla | i 
king vessels, To this opening is fitted 2 , | 
5 South Wales with a profit. In tho United: P rep Flier pm pte egroe recon 
: 4 Jeatked to 

ms reegptlon of ¢ " i : 
* oylhideien! casing, elosed at the top hy a removable cap, ane ‘ v a h 

; oylnleal cone dings the upper edge of the fire pot Is fit. ‘} Se ee alls pace Rar Al and is chiefly valuable whoro it 
\ j : ry : ur, convoy B uantity of fuel in the Hest | 
fuol from coal-dust, and if wo may. judgo: in lumps averaging if possitto apnea . T Whether. Mr. ‘Lolsoan’a 
“rollers” will enable the coal-ownors of the 

“i scylinder concentric with the outer eytinder, forming up d 
a ; 
es ~ from tho account of his latest experiments neither drying or bi 

radiation of heat into t 


+ petween the two a flue, B. ‘The inner eylinder line . Eye ue 
C he top, 60 that the products of econbustion ma, 7 i : t i 
openlng t an ihe inner ¢ inden, nnd downward in the flue, i nec 2 Alby Mr. B. F, Tolseay, jintest experiments 8 
vot i ready for delivery o 
fine: : ith and ly agal The : accomplished in order to mnko tho manu- Jeaving tho rollors. 
well, without any pri facturo of pressed fuol from coal-dust ono” that sehilo experimentin; 
of the most important industries of Ponnsyl- quality of this com 

B, and a plate, C, of refracto materinl 
fay-two revolutions per m! 

An annular p 

are supported | ‘on the tire brick, A. ‘The , 
pans, 1), which aigh, are supported oneahove + 2 cating al | wer 5 prosatire of ateatn, BO ib.5 vacuum, TT S{vaula.” Mr. Loiseau seems to havo confined, 
CG; the several pans are ted by ‘Sein. to in. ‘The engines were let out to thelr full power for, By 3 |his attentions too exclusively to what was 
of twelve knots per S00rs being dono in Franco, although from tho 

> another on the plate, 

and ¢! short thine, and gave the acht a " 

Pan oun 
=< jwith Ti7-horse power Indleated. 

y are all Snclosed Ww a cylindrical 
similarity of tho circumstances wo night hopp 

rests tipott the plate, C. By 7 is arrange | En 
of the fresh products of combustion fs tt \ Q ; Harrington, & lhave tod hi i ii H 

i ” eonte! ine oH Doth as regarde the working of th i Avo oxpcot him to seok information in } 
er a a Met the |" 3 te ves The Wanderer, wae in sew going tin ith all her! Wales, “ie provious attempts to aay bees y_ ropresontod ee 

y ion, ; we on , the draug : nthracito coal-dust with clay and monld it aL. - ——== — ¢ 
| products sf combustion, which y s apward aroun the In oe e and aft, 1Gft.; coal, 100 tons; ballast, 105 into blocks suitable for domestic use were ; 
ter easing, descending. th form an effectual air PZ 20 tones disnlacernent 855 tons, ‘failures, owing. to the difficulty and expense 

of the oven vis feathering propeller, previouily fitted ta the Mout, of drying tholumps; but a couple of years 

‘ago tho old comp ny was resuscitated to try without sny com iT 

jacket whiel vents the chilling 
ody this defect ho mixe 

derer, was set to 16ft. pitch during the trial, 

16 Ret conte Dar, SUMMERS AND Co, 
Northam Tronworke, October 7th . 

ducing the Consumption of Goat. 

neat, ye CY PMA Se OE BAS 

. Engincoring Yhedry and practice have for: 

jong tims plainly pointed to high steam pres | 

-anow furnaco, and in viow of the possible 

failueo of that schemo, Mr. Loisoan had 

dovised a plun by which with slight 
snodifieations of fue. machinery, he could a 
use ‘coal-tar pitch as the cementing * onti 

material, and manufacturo’ a fuel which, Z catirely bare 

if unsuitable for domestic purposes, “value of tho process, 

howover, from @ come 

laures sa one of tho surest ways to economy of it une : 
fuel, Twenty-five years ago our ocean atcamors would well adapted for raising steam. : intof view, depends upon tho cost 
me y. y Bi Wo noed not recapitulate the methods which boas : to tarinls Bed tho Toxponsos ts) 

and; as in. certain localities, 

carried only 1G-tb, pressuro to the inch, and Me. Let : 
\ ¢ ® $Me. Loiscau tried, which involved tho uso of 
‘burned 6 to G teu. of coal por hour per horse ‘steam for heating the conl-dust and pitch, error ee er finds a ready 8 
jpower, aro carrying 75-1, tree @ ‘and subscquently an enormous pressura to ‘purposes, it is clear thot unloss it can ba 
our . oxclude tho water thus introduced to tho ptained for a merely nominal sum, it 
\ unas, “because manufacturers of “artificial cannot possibly go through a manufacturing 
‘ fuel,” as it is called, havo long passed that Pp d compete in the opon marke 
‘stage of tho invention, and when ho refora to ito coal itself. Still, as he says 4 : 
'Buropean systems it must bo understood that 1 to utilise tha heaps o : ‘ 
British methods are excluded ; but wo may Jnted in Pennsylvania 
notice that in tho course of his experiments ho naterial until recently 
discovered that it was necessary to keop tho For the purposes 0 
mixturo at o certain temperature until it : n apparatus, Mr 
aro very econom $3) lrenches tho moulds, because tho pitch loses’ f he machines used by the 
‘Her vessels, still it i i lits comenting propertics below 170° Tahr. lo dea Forges ot Chaontidre 
jon the largest and fi When exposed to thantmosphore the mixturo which produce about 9¢ 
chills, and when the pitch coating of some of 1 in 24 hours, whoreat 
sin ono hour, ‘The 

alo for other 

‘all tho latest improvemen 
tho particles, loses its cementing property it his own produ 

‘to secure economy, worked R : 
and intolligent en; ~ ‘provents the’ perfect adhesion of the adjoin- chief merit of li nears to | 
i particles, and tho lumps, despite the i tho small size o! Boz ) which 
srosguro to which they have beon subjected, | fits them fo heating pur- 
inven tendency to fall apart and crumble. ; noses gonurally, roduction, 
This defect of the procoss was remedied by. Re is complotaly processes 

xp ee 

modifying an apparatus invented by Mr. A. dopted -in th ic 
Dietz, of Philadelphia, for mixing sand and be ae Loiseau. 
asphultum for tho purposes of wood-paving. 
: Tn tho mixer as now used thoro are two » a3 to what 
, : y : horizontal ahafte, to, which are clamped a utilising dust no f ee ents 

mt. Y i * f ‘ ® lsorics of biades placed nt opposite angles, | besides many suggestions, numero 

ney and which mako about 35 revolutions a ne eon ken ‘out and tricd. Oly was 

| . gm hainute. When the atorials aro mixed thoy discarded long age, ‘and thoonly ingrodionts | 
x | gisearess tale ‘nna ust thoso. whiok Mfr.’ 

three pounds of ,coal 
horsepower moan 

coal bill, which is always an enormon: 
tho oxpense of largo boats. ° ” : 



‘Thre design of the Inventor | i 
a Inve! is 10 concentrate 
. waa ue feat from thy fire, #0 that none oe ae 
ut : chimney and be wasted, and at thesame tine to in vo Pp" 
circa oe sto pereoit mors or tess of Ht to & nape 
to the se inny red, and to carry ene} 
BH e olor Aaa sinoke wl commonly rte fas teva : 
» coo! king Ia done mls usual way, . Bither coal or en 
Y Y we 
ba one being made for hotels cnt ektien ant: 
Q twig ote acre furnace by cords or chalus 
: eh aah te ceiling, with counterbalance 
: eee ar eng, i eaten Hy Iolling, frying, or enke 
King. ; by the Inventor t 
salt Cmte pounds wo ounce: inne laa Ide i i aa 
ata pouulear a Le ra lrty two minutes, and that eight nid t ; : 
mg : 4 a can ie baked in the same length of | 
ng So ait atts recently, patented by Mr. Daniel Ma 
ue addressed for further informatie i lac 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 20, 1880, 


~J pnpust SMALL COAL. 
One of the ways of utilising small refuse and! 
other comparatively valuclcas coal, of which; 
thousands of tons lie unproductive in many’ of our. 
colliery districts, conaista in tho manufacture of coke 
for metallurgical uso; and it is purposed in tho pro- 
sont article to briefly state tho principles ‘and: 
rationale involved in its utilisation for that purpose. 
Tu the early days of coking alack, littlo attention 
was pad to its purification, and the coking process; 
was not adequately understood. ‘Pho cai nal fen: 
which then prevailed was that the coking of, tho: 
slack was simply to conglomerate its particles, and; 
put into a marketable form, refuse amall coal which 
would otherwise have to be thrown away. ‘Tho 
advance of metallurgical acionco has caused consider. 
able attention to bo paid in recent years to the pro-' 
duction of a pure, dense, strong coko ; and in order 
to utiliso the smal! coal which tho miner gota when 
“heading,” and produce from it coke sul tabla for 
metallurgical use, much skill and ingenuity has been 
applied to the construction of machines for the clfi- 
lent separation of shale, pyrites, and other solid : 
impurities contained in the slack, prior to its bein; 
coked; also to the construction of ovens which 
all perfectly and economically oxpel the volatile ; 
matter, : 
‘Ag in motallurgical operations, the value of a fucl, 
so far as its heat-producing power is concerned, is 
in proportion to the degree of heat it is capable of 
‘generating, and as the capability of carbon to pro- 
duce an intense and concentrated heat is in propor. 
tion to its freedom from ash and volatile substances, 
It is necessary in order to produce a fuel which shall 
enerate the highest degree of heat, to reduce the 
former too minimum and effect the perfect expul- 

‘ston of the latter, ‘To accomplish the latter object}; 

tia desirable that the oven should possess a maxi- |! 
mum temperature, the effect of increasing tho tem- 
peraturo of tho coking process upon tho hydro. 
carbons, of which con’ Principall consista, being 
to provent the hydrogen in ita volatilisation carry- 
ing off no large a quantity of carbon as it other- 
vibe would, the duration of the process being 
shortened, and the union of hydrogen with car- 
bon being dissolved by heat with o rapidity and 
-comploteness proportionate to its intensity, ‘There 
is therefore greater yield in coko at the higher tem- 
erntures, the quantity of carbon carried off by tho 
Hydrogen being in inverso ratio to the temperature 
of the oven. Furthermore, a high temperature 
tends to bake tho coal harder, which will be here- 
‘after furthor alluded to, One of the objects in 
separating the shale nud other foreign soll aub- 
‘ataucea from the coal is to facilitate the attainment 
ofa high temperature in the oven, and thereby the 
{propor coking of tho coal, ns these substances act ine. 
‘chanically in obstructing the ovolution of the gasca, 
jUpon which tho heat of the oven depends as well as 
the crystallisation of tho coke. 

Itis, howover, desirable to separate shale and other 
carthy matter contained in the alack as perfectly as 
possible for several rengons besides the ono just 
altudedto, 1. ‘The shale, &c., increaso tho percent- 
ago of ash which seriously affects the calorific value of 
tho coko ; for instance, if1 kilogrammo of coke con- 
tain 02 Kllogramme of carbon, and 1 kilogramme of 
another quality of coko ,72 kilogramine, tho calorific 
valuo of tho former will be 7360 units of heat Conti. 

le againet 5760 unita in the case of the latter, 9. 

Pheac substances also of courao increase tho quantity 
of slag, ‘Therois, however, silica in conl derived froin 
ita organio origin, which entera so minutely into its 

“|composition og to be inseparable: by mechanical 
meang, and of coursa is not removable in tho coking 
process. But onc of the objects in producing a fucl 
of tho highest pyromctrio effect is to facilitate the 
fluxation of its ashes, and so render innoxious the 
‘allica contained in it, by proventing its silicon bo.’ 
“coming alloyed with the fron, the tendonoy of which 

tn ne, 


_ mpeg 7 PESTA Y 
isto render tron brittle and difficulé to puddle. -O2}: a 

courso silicon in pig is traceable to the: ora: ag :well 

{as to tho fucl,-but wo aro treating upon the facl 

_ | but about one-quarter to onu-half 
‘form of aulphide of iron, ‘Iho tendency of sulphur’ 

only, atte 
"tho constituents of fuel on which ita caloriflo 
powers depend are carbon and hydrogen, but tho 
joro carbon a fuel contains the greater ia tho degree; 
‘Jo heat which it is capable of producing, for carbon: 
burned in contact with air to carbonic di-oxide will 
roduce s heat of 2658 dog. Cent., whilat hydrogen 
urning to water produces only 2080 dog. Cent. ; 
from which ia gathered that the greatest pyrometeic 
effect is obtainable from puro‘carbon. “ho nearer, 
therefore, coke approaches puro carbon, the greater 
will bo its pyromctric power, 
~ With reapedt to sulphur, sulphur exists in cont 
aapyrites, Itisalso found in somo coalans aulphate 
of calcium, and occasionally itis found ng aulphato of 
barium, but as sulphates of tho alkaline carths 
may exist in considerable quantity in the: blast 
furnace, without having any projudicial effect upon 
tho quality of the iron, it isdesirable when valuing 
any uel, not only to know what its percentage of 
sulphur is, but in what form the sulphur exist, 
The most prejudicial form in which it occura in 
coke is sulphide of iron, for sulphur in the pig is 
attributed to sulphide of iron in the fucl, or in the 
ore, In the coking process part of tho sulphur in 
the pyrites is evolved, and pasaca off along with the! 
volatilo matter in the form of sulphur compounds, ! 
4 ratained iu tho 

co 2F LZ 

is, of course, to make iron white, cause it to bo! 
brittle when cold, aud impart to it a pasty condi. 
tion which impairs its ductility, whon hot, 

Pyritea aro largely separable from tho slack in the 
coal-washing machine, their specific gravity being in’ 
their pure atate 4.8 to 5.1, as againat 1.20 to 1.59 ini 
the case of coal, ‘Tho aulphur is further reduced to! 

\. Hie Wedel nas! 
Soanlatmum by watarly thee hs toutlin ‘rbeais 

is completed, If the coke is drawn red hot and 
water poured upon it, tho evolution of sulphurctted 
hydrogen is perceptible in the steam, It iadesirable, 
howover, to continue the hose after the heat has 
‘ceased to bo sutliclent to convert tho. water into 
tsteam, as there remaina in thocoke sulphur ino state | 
‘capable of being washed out, j 
' Tlere it may be observed that coke which has been | 
condemned ag too sulphurous to be used for stuclting, 
jhas, after exposure to the weather.for several yearns, 
‘been uscd with aatisinctory results, ‘The sulphide 
of fron which it had previously contained having 
‘gradually becomo oxidated nnd washed out by the 
‘weather, In passing, we may just remark the 
‘corroding action whic! sulphur has upon iron and 
copper, and that when sulphurous cunts are cou- 
‘tinually burnt under a boiler, the plates are rapidly 
‘deteriorated and the boiter rendered useless, 

With respect to a high temperature in the oven 
baking the coal harder, this ia not to be confounded 
with that “hardening” which is apt to occur in 
coking bituminous coala, which consists in a round- 
jing of the edges of the crystals and blocking up the 

pores, and a general hardening and toughening of : 
the coke, rendering it incapable of giving out an 
intense and concentrated heat, owing to it present. 
sing less surface of contact to the oxygen of the 
atmosphere, aud which is occasioned by allowing the 
coal to remain in the oven too long. Besides the teat 
itis tho geueral opinion of netallurgists that tho; 
higher the temperature in thobearthof n 




of purity and porosity, thero are tho te: e 
ant heey aud po Y: thero aro tho tests of density 

blast furnace,: 

the more advantageous are the resulta; and density 
is an casentinl quality of fuel required to produce’ 
great pyrometrio effect, In modern high furnaces, 
owing to the great height and consequent weight of 
the column of materials, they become so compreased 
that the coke tuust bo of the hardest and strongeat 
‘kind to enable it to bear the burden. Denaity is 
(Obtained by reducing the coal to small and equal 
particles by crushing, which should be done after it 
has been. washed ; and hardness, as has been pre-} 
-{¥loualy remarked, by exposing the coal to a igh 
jtenperature in the ‘oven, a point, which demands’ 
tin the design of ovens, considoratlon of dimenslons: 

~ {a9 well a8 of form, , 

With reapeot to the so 
from the slack, prior to { 

a ti 

vens for tho 
uot has been 


stiSaloon  rineciant nen weet 805 

cite aN so detects 



W the cylinder, the materials are discharged 
# moulds, 

H the paate, in order to expe! 

‘Sele 277 F pp 

Se oa 
’ By E, ¥. Lorseav, Philadelphia, wv 


IN a paper on the manufacture of artificial fuel, rend nt the!” 

Vitladaigia meeting of Vebruary, 1878, I enumorated the aie) i fb company. 

cultles which I liad to overcome before sacceeding in tho mixin pit may: Begin with 

of contaluat and clay, the compressing of the same mixture, and he supported by both, try 

the waterproofing of the lumps. ‘The drying of the lumps, after, ° ny beat to apply that rule, ° 

leaving the press, was the iremalning ficult: and it was ex-i to work upon, pinta to have absolute facta 
ted that a plan devised by Dr, Charles M..Cresson, of Phila-|- bility, for he t aelty and capa: 

lelphin, would to dry the fucl ox rapidly os it was, deductions di 

moulded, and that a continuous production could In that way ba; 3 

obtained. . The company was reorganised, ‘The works were pure! 

chased by the new company at an aszlgned'a ‘wale, and the oven} 

was modified according Cresson's plan. Antleipating at 

iposathle failure, I had prepared a plan by which I expected to 
‘able to demonstrato that antliracite contalitat nixed with Hob f roperties foi Hoe 
‘could bo manufactured with our present inachiner: lightly ahi; be hou, When expe ed 
moditied ; 80 that after all, 1f we were compelled to give up the lly, and when the itch 
‘attempt to make fuel for domeatle use, there was n posaibility of. o ed Ie revents tio . 
succeeding In the manufacture of a good steam uel, The plan’ fect adh f e. While the relaed 
suggested by Dr. Cresson {ne drying the pressed lumps of coal. lum; Ht and the Thitled 
dost cemented with clay did not wark as well as we expected. partic! Tumps aro cooled 
It enabled us to dry more fuel than we ild before, but Ib tho rubb loose the chilled 
could nat bo inade fo uy more than ono-half of tho lumps again in the coal 
produced by tho press, ‘I'he plan was abandoned, and I waa 
authorised to experiment with coaldust and coal-tar pitch, 
The cement which is ured in Europe to conglomerate conl-dust 
is usually dry pitch, which is prepared by xoparatiny: from tho 
tar, at a temperature of 572 deg. the volatile ‘inatters 
whieh it contains, Somo manufacturers, however, employ crude 
tar, others arich tar, which has been cleared | per cent. of 
its volatile substatces, hy heating it to 302 deg. Fah. But with 
common tar very weak fuels are obtained which de not burn 
well, and give out n strong «mell and a great deal of smoko: it [si watt 
also necesaary to subject them to a baking process in onter to i 
solidify thein; and to ellminate the moro volatlie of the materials 
contained, . This operation of course requires a apectal plant, the 
cost of which Increases nenaibly tho price of inanufacture, with. ad 
out counting the products which aro lost, which have an tndts- iy ‘ 
trial value. ‘Tho crude coal-tar is also very inforior to tho dry 
itch, which can be broken and aven pulverised when cold, ani 
thoroughly mixed with the coal-dust. This produces brl- 
qucttes that Hive off very little amel!, he mixing of the coal 
ust and pltch fs usually carried on in a vertical cylinder, into 
which the coalluat and pitch arc charged continuously and auto- 
matically, Theso aubstances are heated gradually in the cylinder b corkate 
or mixer by jets of steam which are discharged upon thein from clolen y 
all slides; they are then triturated and amalgamated by a series! due eof M 
of bindea fixed on a vertical atiaft, Arriving at tho bottom of f materiale tec by 
in a pasty condition ean ihe great arent eal ing action, ‘They pos- 
through openings, from which they are placed or conveyed to the fred ine eS sh Wantage that the 
n order to obtain a yood Jump from this paste the fa very mt ant a, Thin advantaun te! 
pressuro inust be at feast 3000 1b. per square Inch, and in certain j] matter of fact ai surprtaing if rollera, ax a 
cases, with hard or lean coal, it {a necessary to increase this by | manufacture of 1} play a great part in the 
50 percent. This heavy pressure Is required by the nature of : 
the water which it contains, ani to 
bring [t to a compact condition. In European mixers tho steam. 
injected into the materials cecapes with difficulty and condenses 
raptdly, hence the molsture in the mixture, which fs only ex- 
pelled hy strong pressure. When steam Is injected through per- 
erations into the materials to bo mixed it loses in reality its 

wn from “ 
Thad carefuily tanned eee Di 
mixing machine, fn order to ada 

ht of one Stil, Thad 

keep the mate- 
ieten, Ina hot 

are two hor! 
ladex place 
fivo revolutions 

ere at n certain 

] pressure, that {a tho tendency to push asunder tho aldes of Ita 

contalning vessel ; but at tho same timo it produces a tempera 
turo corresponding to a considerable pressure, Steam gives up 
first its Jatent heat, and then, after suflering condensation, a por> 
tion of its free heat corresponding to the difference of tempera. 
ture, and the mass thus becomes continually heated, This, how. 
ever, requires time, att it uccurred to me that if I could dey the 
cual-dust first, bring the same to acertain degree of heat, and 
mix it with coal-tar pitch in a anolten state, I would obtain 
snore rapidly a plastic inixture which could bo moulied by the : 
samo Fo ers used previously to mould the mixture of coal-dust } Thu feed 
and clay. 
I wan well aware that ny mixer waa not the right apparatus to: 
tnix rapidly coal-dust and melted pitch, but I had seen at work a | 
tnixer Invented by Mr, August Dietz, of Philadelphia, for the! 
mixing of sand and asphaltum for paving purposes, and I bad no: 
doubt that it could be moditied to answer my purpose. Before 
obtalning the means to make the required alterations in the plant; 
Thad to demonatrate tho poasibility of making the fuel in this} 
way. I made tho demonstration ina very primitive way, I hired; 
tivo inen engaged in the tar and firarel rooting business, nnd had: + 
them melt thopitchintheyardand holatitupin buckets, from which 
Tipped tho pitch with a gallon measure, and ernptied it into ; 
the mixer. A certaln quantity of cuat-duat provigusly heated 
had before this been discharged into the mixer. In the bottom of fh moro comp! 
the mixer I tind placed a steam pipe, tin. in diameter, with per- ed therefore a] 
forations of jin., through which I injected ateain into the mate- 
rials untll they were brought to a plastic condition, when I gradu. 
ally discharged thein into the hopper of the press, and moulted 
the same without difficulty. The inoulding rollers aro hollow, 30 
as to cnable ua to wartn them by ateam. Aa I had no steain con 
nections made, in order to prevent the adhesion of the materials atest diffeulties 
to the rollers, tho moulds were lubricated by means of two tin pitch were to obtain 
pans, filled with water, placed undernenth ench roller, and in revent ch 
which it revolved to a certain depth. ‘The lumps were very hard, 
Tho demonstration seemed to be conclusive—at least, it appeared 

ig compa 
nlttetign 2 

very wet we have some ¢ 
“} warin a quantit 
press running. ‘Thie slofect. howeve can bo | 

0° through two . 


nee Ta ETT 

4) figteastng’ tie alze'b for th cacapel of tho molatt 
Bo Increasing He at oe ‘The defects of the present Dlant cout 
have been corrected long ago, had I had the opportunity “of! 

carrying out my Ideas, Through force of circumatances I waa 

compelled to alfow others to try plans of thelrown, The result!” 

waa expensive, unsatisfactory, aud unsuccessful experiments, the 
iealtimate ‘outgrowth’ of whlch was disappointment, disa; 
ment, loss of time, of money, and of production. At Jast, how. 
ever, I was allowed to have my own way, and the result was a 
att although obtained with imperfect means, The coal was! 
placed in the market by myself, and I introduced it from the 
atart for domestic use, “It waa supposed that the amoke and the 
strong smell of the burning pitch would be a serious objection to 
its use, but by careful instructions given to customers, the incun+ 
venience from tho sincll and smoke was handily perceptible to 
those who followed instructions, While experimenting with the! 
fuel in different heating apparatus, I ascertained that when the! 
lumps were but half consumed, if the poker ‘waa handled 
runghly, the particles of coal woul disintegrate and would fall, 
unconsumed, through the grate-bars into the ash-pan, acem- 
ingly increasing the quantity of ashes, but in reality losing the 
heating power uf the unconsumed coal. This was caused when 
: the lumps were red-hot to a depth of about a quarterof an inch, 
; Each lump would then heconte, a0 to small retort. ‘Ih 
‘pitch which held the particles vf. coal er, in tho centre of' 
‘the lump, would gradually be drawn through the red-hot crust of 
the lump and be consumed, and when the fump iteelf waa partly! 
jdurat, and reduced to about one-third of its volume, there was 
not sufficient pitch left in the nucleus to keep the particles of 

; coal together until they wero consumed, i 

In order to remedy this very serlous defect I mixed with the: 

anthracite coal dust about 8 percent. of powdered bituminous 
coal. ‘The result wasa better fuel, which did not disintegrate, 
coked in the fire, and was almoat entirely consumed, leaving but) 
8 small quantity of ashes,:when compared with the fuel made! 
from anthracite without the addition of bituminous coal. Thin) 
last fuel has found o ready market. It ignites readil 7, Inatea oa] 
Jong as the ordinary anthracite coal, and fe does notclinker, A! 
‘ool many of those who have tried {t do not wish any other, and 
they send in now orders whenever their supply ia exhausted, It 
has been the main object of all inventors of machinery for the 
manufacture of artifical fuel, to‘ obtain a large production in. 
lumps of a amall nize, It is easy to obtain a Jorge production in 
lumps of a largo slze, and no better machiue haa yet beon dovised 
to obtain a large production than that described ty Dr. Grinthaw 

_ tn the Journal of tho T'ranklin Inatitute, of September, 879, 

jand which Is manufactured in France, by the Société Nouvelle: 

! des Vorges et Chantiers «lo In Méditerrance. The production of; 
adouble machine, of the smallest size, docs not exceed {6 tons in! 
twenty-four hours, in luwps wel; hing very near. 3lb, My 

will manufacture in one i 

each. - These Jumps requi 

veyed to a ecreen ih om 

cool tho lumps, 

fuel would le 


f ! fuel fa 

‘earrted on by ng or by } y 
Jarge will be nelitted ea Iedust, Mihieoyt 
considered until recently u worthless anaterial, I have wtrugglod 
luring twelve years to obtain this result, I persevered under 
i tho most t. lng circumstances, having to‘ overcome financial i‘) 
j well ns mechanical difficulties, ‘Iam satlsRed now that very littlo! 
Pete te be om ticles, in onler to make the manufacture of 
arena from lust ono of the. most finportant industries! 

4 "As [hope soon to have an opportunity of reading a paper on 
: this subject before a scientific audience 1 need not ‘occupy your 
‘ valuable space by replying to your correspotdents of last week in 
detail, J may say however that the scheme has been carried out 
“\ in practice at a gas-work to which I shall afterwards refer, 
*“¢ When it was found that the apparatus for making gas on an 
: extraction of six hours was insuficient for supplying the wauts uf 
.- F the long winter evenings the distillation was stopped when gas 
* had been removed to the extent of 50co cubic feet perton, ‘The 
Jarger quantities obtained from the coat per unit of time and the 
» Superior illuminating power obtained per unit of volume tided 
over the difficulty and rendered the existing plant sufficient. 
_No practical obstacles were discovered in discharging the 
itetorts, EF do not think the difference between an extrac: 
[tion of soco and 3333 cubic feet per ton would make a 
‘inaterlal change in this respect, Mr. Matticu Williams points 
_ Out® much more serious obstruction in the plethoric indifference 
i of the gas companies, In reply to E, RF, 1 may say that the 
| fuel resultiug from a uniform extraction of 3333 cubic feet per 
ton is practically smokeless if it is taken hot from the retorts ant 
immudiatuly quenched with water, 
Westmiuster, December 27 W. D. Scott-Moncriere 

Rare poo Fuel 

Respecting the value of conl-dust as ful for ! 
{seam purposes, n Mr. Garsed thus reports in 
{in the Boston Journal of Commerce :— 

“We went through a test, some 
if under t patent taken out for bur 
i We fitted onr furnaces up t 
:jbars and blowing the lar 
‘{burning pure dust, that 
j| buckwheat size taken on 
:|ubout twenty-five cents 7 
:{ probably a yenr, 

rer day. ‘Takin 

leeai twenty to eight dollars 
the additional dirt out of the 
down the expenses about one-half. 
i In going through these experimen 
iithnt alurge volume of air was needed, rather 
*Tthun pressure, ‘The preesure would blow the 

“dust, and deaden a portion of the fire. i 
ja dificult matter to keep the fire clear from j 
We have now adopted buckwheat, and Ti 
{ibelieve, where the draft is suflicient without a 
‘fan, probably at present “prices .it is the most - 
ceonomical in use for miéyyfacturing purposes, 
It seems that insbirning fine coul it is 
necessary to have a large amount of air 
und no pressure. Otherwise you will dis- 
turb the surface, and let air In_in greater 
quantity in places than it sho 
proper combustion of the fuel. 

The valuo of various sizes of conl was - 
stated as follows:— 
he cost per ton, for -grate conl was 
5,90, und for pea conl $5.05, this being 
the average cost in New York, not ut the 
Pounds used per horse power for 
8, pea coal 2.70. per 
lore power per hour with grate coul, 6.13 
mills; with pea coal, 6.29 nile, 

The waste on ae guia coal was 

ent. in ash and clinker. 

MF the pea con) was 15,74 per cent, 

ts wo found : 

ning conl-dust. +, 
closing the grate. |: 
n, and commenced {i 
is all the coal down to? 
Wo burned dust for: 
per ton, for a lon 
Wo burn it to th’ 

‘{reduced our expenses more than one-hi 
/1ike all other articles of waste when they be 
price of coul-dust very soon ue 
dust, but sercenings nl 
advanced to such a point that it 
more economical to burn the pure coal, : 

in n few yeurs, uid be for the 

ce 8 ph ji 
7 be Iready promised, 


_In our ex verience, the firs 

c t lesson 1 
Uhyt it was neces: appa alee 

ary to put water with 
Sus-burners and forced 
ng the drafts under the 
satisfactory, exeept 
The iden was 
tragite conl, it 
combustion, to 
ec, that was the 
was reduced |, 

1 Pulverlzed Coal tn Furnaces. : 
| The Iron Age learns that Messrs. Alexandre & Sons are | 
making some very successful experiments at the Washington 
Iron Works with pulverized coal, Tho coal fs blown Into a : 
furnace and burns freely with a strong heat, but the appar’ 
 ratus fa belng altered to secure still better results, after which i 
the process will be practically tested on one of the Euvans, 
steamers, The coal is fed from a perpendicular funnel, and 
tho air ontors horizon 

water through them alo; 
The result was 
ners would fi] 

that, there being no water in antl 

d, in practic 
Mion of fuel 

MSbeaawce € 

fuct. The constiny 

ntaily from the side. 
ONE byte. aL ee 

neer, noted—for his eco-|. 
hat hin success is dua to 

Jf icoxomizixg Fusi.—An on 
nomical use of fuel, clnims t due 1 
j breaking up block con) na fine as nut coal, thus getting 20 
per cent. more stenm out of it, His fireman also pnys at-|: 
pping the fuel just where needed, the secret |: 
iring being to have an even fre allover the}’ 

nath Ve % \ 

+ tention to dro 

eer ere 


At last two great centers aro likely to break froma lethargic slumber 
and shake hands over a now industry, to tho great boneflt and antis- 
faction of each other. London has, from timo immemorial, been periodi- 
cally troubled with smoke-fogs, and South Wales has, from a still earlier 
period, been in possession of the purest anthracite coal, to get rid of which, 
remuncratively, has been a problem to solve, Tho uso of this smokeless 
coal for the suppression of tho smoke nuisance in the metropolis has 
at Inst excited tho attention of colliery owners in Wales and of tho 
authorities and consumers in London, and influential meetings have been 
held at both places for the purpose of affording information in respect to 
the use of anthracite coal for domestic and genera! purposes, By permis- 
sion of tho authoritics,an exhibition of smokeless fuel, and of stoves, 
grates, and other appliances for the use of anthracite, will be held at 
South Kensington. si Othe on Pee 

This matter has heon largely brought about by the ‘ National Health 
Society,” a purely philanthropic organization, having the Duko of 
Westminster as its president, and numbering among its patrons and 
subscribers members of the royal family und somo of tho leading 
scientifls men of tho day, Tho result of thoir investigations went 
to show that unconsumed carbon, up toa certain point, was not injurious 
to health, but that after acertain point it became actually poisonous, 
Tho remedy was in tho hands of South Wales. Ata mecting recently 
held at Swansea, South Wales, under the presidency of the chairman of 
tho Anthracite Coal Owners’ Association, resolutions were passed to tho 
following effect : “ With a viow to anthracito coal being tested by oxperts 
in London, to be appointed by the Fog and Smoke Committee, in con- 

Juection with tho National Lealth and ‘Kyrlo’ socletics, this meoting 

doaires that a local committco be started, to obtain subscriptions in addi- 
and that 2 subseription-list bo opened 

accordingly, ‘That this mecting is fully convinced that the only successful 

y occur lis, 

reagan of het an the cose deal ‘ocala of, the 

a cat behead Sa ca has not eons ait 

ae a i rer cnmon not bee ee 
a matter spare a Pe eer ce 

roe a acne ehich tho American ee aaah - eerie sats 

fakery Be ete (he auc vaiioe has been fairly made, these 

details will soon adjust themselves. 
—————S——— —_— 

and has the advan- 

Wo have recelved fray asthe Burean of Steam Engincering 
of the Navy Depariment\a copy of the full oficial report of. 
the Board of U.S. Naval Engineers, relating to the tests of the 

| machinery of the Hite British steamer Anthracite, made at 
the Navy Yurd, Brooklyn, N. Y., August 13 and 14, 1880. i 
The board was composcil of three Chief Engineers of the + 
U. S. Navy, namely, Glas 114 EXioa. 8. L. P. Ayres, and 

+} Geo, W. Magee, all geatlemen ona ity. experience, 

The Anthracite, it wil be remembered, isan iron steamer, 

* 86 feet 4 tnches long, 1Oyfect 1 igeu-wide, 10 feet 2 Inches i 
ideep, draught loaded, Oi fect. ‘Meola! welght of engines, | 
:boiler, shaft, propeller, hind all fAltings was 25 tons, Her’ | 
propeller was worked with threo si ean cylinders, the first, | 
single acting, 72f inchys\diametef; the second, single acting, © 
1549 Inches diameter; Whe third, dopblo acting, R244 inches 
‘dinmeter. Stroke of pikions, 15 injies Tho snost novel 

_ feature—the Perkhiss ayatem—was the high steam pressure ; 

* intended to boca! ctet snaniely, from 890 to 500 pounds ta} 

ithe square inch. Thcpressure gw usunlly carried on tha) 7 

- {best sea going vessqterarely exer i 45 to 80 pounds, “st 

ve Ina previgns running vig Of ie Anthrucite in England, , 
jby Mr. FY J. Brmwal, C.ES“Mayse2, 1880, with a hotter: 
‘ pressure of 360 se the total Roreapower per hour was’ 

> obtained by an expengtture of 16,7191503 units of heat F. 

(1°35 pounds combygtible used), 

In the Bro nt], mada with the vessel tled to the 

_ Wharf and witha boiler pressure of 31014 pounds to tha tneh, | 

jthe total horse pov haute Was obtained by an expendi, 

ture of 2040822 units of heat F. (1-02 pounds combustible! 

cused), i 

/ Mr. Bramwell’s results were 19°85 Per cen! tare cconotn!. 

+ veal than tle Navy Yard results, ‘I'hu reasons for this dite yg: 
‘ference are clearly shown by our engineers to be due; to the } 
‘differences in the conditions of the (wo trinls, Thus, the’ 

coal used by Mr, Bramwell was superior; he did not lose 

heat by throwing open the furnnco doors to remove clink: 

‘er; he carried a lower water level, and consequently super: 

_ cheated the steam more, and lind less cylinder condensation; 

: “he carried a higher boiler Pressure, nad so obtained n higher 
fnittal pressure in the first cylinder, ele, If the proper caleu- 
lated deductions for these differences in the conditions were | mnanee doposits of low-grade orca ia asaurod, and 

allowed our englucers find that thery would bea discrepaucy | Eureka will bo ono of tho greatest smeltin 

Detween their results and those of Mr, Bramwell of only 4 centers in tho world, The conncotion by rat 

. [er cents they are further of opinion that the difference of matter ota lithe time, ante arn . sbeute 
the results was wholly due to the difference {1 the cylinder ; to beliove that Eureka will be drawing ita fuel 

_jeondensattons; these belng greater in the Amerlean trinta from that seotion inside of aix or oight years 

! }gave poorer economic resulls, Our englucers apenk very it a 

highly of the Perkins system, as shown by theirtrints of the 

Anthracite, ‘They think that her sucresstul nacenen af tha! 

Atlantic and the ellicient condition of her machinery on 

arrlval here ought 10 removenll doubt as tothe practicability, | 

tant industries, and furnishes’ amployment to a 
largo class of our people, bnt it ia thought this 
industry will soon be greatly lessened, if not en- 
tirely cradicated,’ by the importation of coke 
for uso ag a molting fuel. _ In tho carly days of 
Eureka amelting, and even at tho present time 
whero tho old-fashioned stone furnaces aro 
used, the burning of coko cannot bo aucceas. 
fully accomplished. © ho heat genorated from 
tho coko is of so intenso a character as to too 
rapidly burn out the soft firc-rock used in the 
construction of stonc furnaces, and for other 
teasons it in not as practicable a fucl aschar- 
‘| coal, but in the more improved iron and water- 
jacket furnaces that are fast auporacding the 
old atone furnaces theao objections can not bo 
advanced, | In compariaon, coke is far tho au- 
perior of tha two fuels. Charcoal is « bulky, 
variable and unsatisfactory fuel; to pro- 
ure, unwieldy and troublesome to handlo, and 
losing from fivo’ to six per cont. in the proc 
of use, while coko {a atcady anit reliable, m 
intenao, doos not lose in handling, and, it is 
claimed, gives moro r'tiefactory re ta in 
smelting .in overy way. At present, glish 
coke that comes “the Horn around,” a distance 
of at leant 20,000. milcs, can be Janded in E 

reka for £30 por ton, whilo the ‘Amorican arti- 
ole tranaported by rail across tho Continent nets 
$55 per ton delivered in Kuroka, At theso 
‘| rates tho uso of coke is sadly barred on the 
Tange, and it cannot become « genoral fool until 
by means of competition tho extortionate rates 
of the C. P. and U, P, ronda are lowered, which 
will surcly como before many years, In Colo- 
rado, whore coko ia thu standard fuol for amelt- 
ing, it is delivered for 86 to $8 per ton, and 
thoro is no doubt that when the soveral south: 
orn trank lines thatare in courac of construction 
across tho Continent, aro reachod by railroad 
Connection from Eurcks, it will bo landed here 
at a trifling advance on that price, When that 
time comes, tho profitable working of our im. 

~ > of tho system. : 

rae) SroNTANEOUS , Co - - 
|Hoedicke, in Dingi pp UaTION OF “Al 
‘an interest 

: oat pro. 
phere, sulphuric acid F, 

Ure in ex F 
sa emo st 


‘The Manufacturer and Builder, 

mrs ere Dx 7g 


Strains on the Shells of Steam’ Boilers, 


If ft were practicable to construct of sullable mate. 
rials perfect hollow lubes or cylinders of aufiiciont alzo 
for steam boiler shells, the strains to which the mato. 
vial would be subjected when exposed to internal Auld 
pressure would be cumparatively simple, They would 
not be entlrely simple, because the pressure tends to 
part the material in more than ong direction, aud in 
thie respect the force differs from the simple or alugle 

one ustially etnpduyed in testing for its ultimate tensile 
strength a plece of the metal by pulling it in two ina 
machine capable alse of weighing the furce to which it 

Tn the present otate of the arts, all forma of boiler 
shells of considerably size must be made by joining 
metal plates by imcans of rivets, and all furms that 
have a clreular acction nist be tnado of bent plates. 
Moles must be made for Uo rivets, and sume form of 
lapped ur butt joint constructed, which Involves more 
or less irregularity of the curves or planes that aro 

To estimate the strength of a joint made of tmalerial 
< of known tensile etrength, « calculation is made of the 
amount of material remaining between tho holes, sup- 
posing that.the resistance uf the rivels to shearing 
Preponderates tho slrength of metal remaining belween 
the holes, nad an allowance Js made for the effect of 
the punch on the strength of tho metal immediately 
surrounding the hules, But, for obvious reasons, the 
] resull Is only approximate, If an altempt fs mado to 
Durat a ahell fur the purpose of ascertaining the elrength 

of its joints, they aru likely tu become so much atrained 
Zand dieturted befuro breaking, that leaks will prevent 
the accnimulation of euflicient pressure with an Inelas- 
He tukd lo make a decided test, except uf tho very 
weukeat part of the etruclure, Although this Is the 

aan va ts oe RA Serene nT 

(Pent th eNO NEE AIT POET 

ees Pigs Be 

real tienstiFe uf: the alrengih of the structure, still Ie 

-steength-of the suveral forms uf Solute, is hy testing 
Paue models of each having a uamber of rivets, by 
pulling them in two, 

When tested in this way, plane models will, before 
f.Lrenking, bo distorted (os shown iu Fig. 1) more or 
leas, according to the ductility of the metal, If it fy 
Pretty Detttte, and tho rivet heads are strong nud suf. 
B clout to prevent tho.bending uf-the plato on the lino of 
j She rivet hotes, then the plate will probably break ad- 
Jacent fo the’ end of its fellow G or F, Fig. 13 or, In 
caa0'Of ‘tho single.covered Unit, the covering plate will 
break in the nilddlo, Fand H,° But should the plates 
be sof ana duetile, or the rivet heads tow and insufll- 
clent, then tlie bond and break would occur at the weak 
line Urrough the holes, . 


Tig. t, 

foro on all parts of tho band, and it will stil? bo go If 
the number of eldes of tho figura is indefinitely fue 
may be destrable tu knaw the strength of tho stronger | cronaed tii it becomes o semi-circle, Now : 

parts, “Tho best way of ascertaining the relative} weights bo removed, and the ends of the band be fol 

If the plates ropresented in Fig. 1, A, ete, were 
alrnight at the joint, thoy might, without much streteh 
of the ininginalion, be considered n plane drawing of a 
teclion of a tranwerae or clreumferential seam of two 
holluw cylinders, But it ts plain that if a force is ap. 
pited tending to separate two cylinders joined in this 
banner by pulling lengthwise upon them, the dister- 
Hon that would happen te the tested plane plates would 
bo resisted by the transverse curvature; and before 
this distortion could take place in the eylindricat joint, 
tho extrema end of the inner cylinder, 1, Fig, 1, must 

cuntruct in diameter, and the unter ono correspond: 
ingly expand at its extreme end, M, Involving in the 
inner ono a compression or upsetting, and in the outer 
ono a drawing of the metal, The same mny Lo said of 
all tho joints of a globe, if they aro properly fitted, 
Hf the joint bo a butt, with a single outer cover C, 0 
similar contraction must take place at Loth of the abut- 
Ling ends and a contraction of Uho middle of the cover: 
ing atrip, while the converse of thesa muttons would 
take placo in the caso of the juint with the inner 
cover B, It appears clear, therefure, Uint theso dis. 
tortions aro not likely to take placu in a frmnaverac 

Fig. 3. 

seam of a cylindrical boiler shell from the effort of an 
internal fluid pressure, Tho bult joint, wilh two cov. 
erlng plates E would scom to be able to retain its shinve 
when tested In plane form, 

In order to Hlustrate, without mathematics or ab- 
struso physical rules, the fact that tho material of 0 
hollow cylinder is alfected by fnternal fluid pressure 
about tho same as though ft wero a plano aud pulled in 
watraight Hno parallel to its aurfaco, the dingram, Fig. 
9, Is here Introduced as a simple mechanical study, 
rather than a conclusive demonstration of the problem. 
Let tho line Ji, F, H, {represent a flexible Dand, sup. 
ported on tho frictionless rolls on fixed axles F, B, and 
loaded with thu weights H, [, It appears that all parks 
of tho band aro subjected to n tension of 1,000, If, 
now, the band bo supported in the game frictionless 
manner at tho points A, 1, 2%, 3%, 8%, 3, tho band will 
represent tho sides AY’, 1, 2%, ete., of tho semi.poly+ 
gon A, 2, B, ant the tenston will bo the same ng be- 

ater Stretching. 
Fig, de y 
to cirele, the lower, half being | The be! 
in all respects like the upper half. It fa 0 matter off ponds greatly 

F t 
diggore dtretching. 
ab D, 9 point in a comple 
Indifference, ao far as tha band is nffecte 

tenslon $s caused by 

the eff 

Ab has be 

supposed frictlunless supports tu extend radtully, theres 
fore Ifa lension equal lo 1,060 is produced by an ex. 
pansive fluid (which is frictionless practically), se con. 
fined within the Land, which uiny ba any desirable 
width, a3 not to Interfere with {ts freedom in fullowing 
tho direetion of tho intertur force, it will Appear that 
chon the band is tho eamo ng thongh Itwere 
slratght and loaded with weights producing the enme 
amount of tension, Ft will probally oceur to the prace 
lical reader that an fron band is nat flexible; buta 


£ ho, 





Hy. Be 

Tittle thought will lead lo the conclaston that though 
iron fy comparatively stiff, yet the tenileney exists the 
game as though it were flexible, and, so far as the band 
is overpowered, ft iy Aextble aud will yield aud assume 
the forms described, If the force is #0 great as to 
overcome the power of the fron to return fo tho form 
and sizo it had befure the force was applied, ils elns+ 
Ueily fs destroyed and a permanent set will oceur,: 
This power $s generally retatued by tron up to ‘about 
half the breaking tension—that te half the force that! 
would break it 1 
and when the force is vemoved it cannot contract to its 
original Jength, as leather or rnbber does’ when; 
stretched, eee ii 

pulling will destroy Its elastielty;! 

en shown above that the transyerse jolts 

of a cylindrical shell are not likely to be dictorted to 
the eame degree oy johuts in plane models, but the be-, 
havior of the plane models may (it appears from diaé 
gram 2) be accepted asa fair int at what may be ox 
pected of the longitudinal joint of s cylinder when, 
overpowered by an Snteraal fluid pressure, Tapped, 
longitudinal joints are shown at A’, Fig. £5 slugle rive” 
eled and single covered butts at Land C’; D! shows,” 
n duuble-riveted, singlecovered butt. Fly. fa ing 
tended o shuw the condition of a narrow strip of soft} 
metal, Inving a hote in the middie, that has been nie 



big. te it | 

jected to shmplo overpowerlug strain, Tho hole that 

was round has become elongated (lengthwise), and wary 

Jeb tho | rowed transversely ae tho metal ylelded; Lit he bole, 

ned | that have bees ocenpled by rivets, ng at'Y, y 

4, aro distorted Ina different manner, ‘Their Jaterst 

- Batt 

contraction is prevented by the body of the rivet, nt 

they rem 
while the 

ain the kame Lreadth as before they were} 
Lut they are elongated behind tho rivets; 
metal before the rivet has been crushed andj 

upset, showing curved wriubles. In the wide model, 
Fly, f, the metal betiveen the second and third holes, | 
wy, would be ealled upon to yteld towards both 


holes, and ibwould therefore be thinned, or 

else the whole platy must be narrowed on Uransverso 
Hines louching the holes at thelr right and left sides, 

a, whether the | fibrous o 
the welghts ur by the effort of its | probable, 


Jvior of the broad model fn this respect de. 

on the duetility of the material nud tts 
¢ homogoncous character, ft is not at alll 
therefore, that n narrow elrip gives a fale In, 


renee bekth nde, TPF 3 



which, viewing all the conditions from the|his-term of seven years of apprenticeship, 
atandpoint of to-day, seems hardly poasible.|he was promoted as foreman of Darhy's 

(Fennvany 19, 1881 


High-Spoed Engin Workmanship this bridge Is probably not : : cute 

excelled by any structure of {ts elnss and 

eaten y G4-inch elrcutar saw! works. In 1975 the citt y 
By A. B, Couct. The probability that na » In 976 the eltizens of Broseley de-|size of mod: mince: 
as might somo day be carrled directly on the}ctded to build n bridgo acroas (he tlver ny, aa it Wants. ast 
I nc 

erid ofan engine shaft, making about 600 

Severn, and employed John Prichard, nn 
rovolutions per minute, was frecly discussed, 

In an article in a recent solentific periadl- and perfect in all its pata, alitotgh tn 

The “ Muley" saw mills 
were becoming popular in 

dimensions was doubtless 

anes aaa anti j Porter-Allen engine is mentioned 2s architect of Shrewsbury, to prepare the de-|constant use . : 
I 34 vibes of Mateapead engines.” The|the leisurely long stroke was voted a hum-|sign. Tho plan aud specications which {Ing trains of ate rede a ih 
I writer is reminded of 1 tolerably-successful| bug, and the era of high-speed engines) he Presented atipulated a key-stone of cnst-|to or from the neighboriug works, 

attempt in that directlon made thirly years] seemed to bo opening. All the time, how-| fron, Upon enquiring of Abraham Darby! Robert Stephenson, In the “Eneyelo ee 
H ‘ ago, n brief description of which may pos-}aver, It waa felt that, while thelr use in saw |1f he could: make the koy-atone at Cole-|dia Britannica” (8th edition) . ape Hit 
{ geas some interest, and certalnly cannot de-| mills was a pretty severe test, a bettor ficld brookiale, they wero answered in the bridge: “If we consiler that tne man ah 
1 ract from the well-earned e 3 Intion of cast fron abs 
' + high positlon of the Porter- then comparatively in its 
H Alten engine. infancy, a bridge of such 


miich of the lumber region 

f Pennsylvania. Tt was 
sual to drive them nt 280 

to 800 revolutions per min- 
ute, by a belt, the engine 
having a long stroke and 
very moderate velocity of 

: piston, A concern of 
, Moderate pretensions, in 
: o the valley of the Susque- 
: hanna, was engaged in 

made a good many of the 
muley saw mills, and in 
1850 or 1851 commenced 
buflding engines expressly 
for driving them by direct 
attachment to the crank 

The cylinders had a bore 
of 714 inches, ant a stroke 
of 12 Inches. An inde 
pendent expansion eccen- 
trie and valve were use, 
- cutting off nt one-fourth to 
ono-thirdof thestroke, All 
* the wearing surfaces were 

* Frost Virw or Bornen, 


* Rean Exp View ov Boren 



a hold as well ng an origi- 
nal undertaking, and the 
efllciency of the deinits Is 
worthy of the boldness of 
the conecpiion.” 

Robert Gregory was 
buried in the village grave- 
yard, near the Severn; but 
long since the slab that 
marked his resting place 
ling disappeared, Now, 
when the travelerenquires 

making engines, boilers ( Itt for Gregory's tomb, the 
and mill work, They eS citizens of Colebrookdale 

point to the tron bridge 
neross the Severn, 

Improrements. in Bate’s 
* Steam Generator. 

In the March, 1879, issuo 
of tho AwERtcAN MacitIN- 
1st, appeared a fully-Hlus- 
trated description of anew 
steam generator, designed 
and butlt by William T. 
Bate & Son, East Consho- 
hocken, Pa. This boiler 
lins since been used in 

of liberal extent, most of : many large miltsand manu- 
them comparing well with approved practice/ would be found, and their application tolafirmative; and more than this, Mr. Darby ! fueturing establishments with most satls- 
of the present day. The cross-head pina}more general purposes was nuticipated, —_{replied, “ We can make the entire bridge of | factory results, In order, however, to ree 
were of stecl The days of steel valve} But changes soon occurred which turned iron. In 1776 Arrangements were con: duce the loss of heat to the smallest amount 
stems, piston-rods and crank pins had not|the attention of those most Interested In/ cluded to construct the iron bridge, and the: possible, Mr. Bate hing added the steam 
yetcome, There were Uilster steel, shear other directions; and eo ended what at one {location was near Colebrookdale, at which }drum shown In the accompanying engrav- 
steel, cast steel and Cer. Ings, besides minor altera- 
man atecl, cach with well- tions In bridge wall and 
defined qualitics and uses, other parts, which can be 
. | American steel was along best understood by com- 
ai with American watches parisonof the former with 

and American hardware, we lsat tn, = the present Illustrations. 
and those processes which ara pM oot sama v(] ers eae |e ewes al Tho following {a the re- 
eetat tasraen Sewn Counce Bastar Nt esse 
. have rendered possible © Festa [ees eevee port of a test of ee ot 
<y, steel ratls and bollers and Sescune terete Seeesen seems Sorswers eecaneer ever poe these bollers In operation 
: [sawen earsous aasnom mouvors raaveve! Savee soctoee foes eran eaten] hes seeom eX Blantyre Mille, 
shafting were unknown, = EES Foor eaasacr nc reoe at the Blantyre Mills, 
! A : oo poten Manayunk, Philadelphia, 
The intended boiler press- SLOTS iaeerEn Lem NoNateriA teceress bomen eH Pe . 
‘ure was about 00 pounds, : oo ee enema even] rere The test was conducted by 
y jeoet mewronty suse Senvaney snes. oun tessa servos sues eanese oe] E<aas3 Mfred Wilkinson, acting 
When an ambitious saw- (Sswaon saearvee Secsrtans avin Senesen atoreee pe ESS lung Ineer. 
‘yer ocenstonally mints. : Swen maweers smeent seetieet waren Ieoweer ame core severe nl Fooepoaem| ay consulling | engines : 
i tered to the quiet of tho fo) Soerees setacn Soeicens enters sentany Raves beeen erone meres ease lhy ‘The boiler used tu ae 
f one eee eee att ss sy? 
H , - ECE NeaDine SeaDaeNs See eN Demme Toes eres be AEE ts GO” diameter and 
i safely valve by piling on ‘  Seameren Soren snot even Nestea ce tesweras aromas nee serine feet Jong, contalniug 61 

aslab, he might truly be fourineh tubes, and hav: 



r sald to be “going tt bind,” oo So Ee igs Rene ae eres Ht a lower 
for pressure gauges were seaerean sresvuee someueen Seneca Sasveost Fae eoe See by poate SS = ee erg ‘teep ad a” 
rarely used, rae eS | Se ee eS | er ta set long, contaning 39 

Uy ptt oo oro a ee el feet long, 

The engines were sel- pa toes Sareeak Eerene seastenn sarees seere oem I enero eaceere et four-inck tubes. This sec 
jom run at leas than 280 a cares ao =e SS  Scecal easel caves enareens seen nent i ceoveee somone bers tee tion is submerged In'the 
evolutions per minute,  Sorees Sane nests Secsune ewer Sees ee Tea ee | ei combustion chamber be 

jand frequently above 800, EES EEE EEE cscs cereeenew eer S| hind the bridge wall. ae 
“The value of the reclpro- ee tet rene rns Seen ane er oo aot j ‘Tho top boller is 43°" 
Teating Sensual Getareeas Reusnemn weDwae SESS mesoneer! Pe or. | and 17’ long, Sut 
cating mass, Indlstributing oe jcnorcere sesweess saannens Ssevenen Sesaen Mets coonnns eS Twa | meter rum, 
‘the work of the steam ng NerSans eusteae mectens eet bavsee eee —————— eee amon iit mounted by a steam Urum, 
tens well spewed i j — oe I Come mene oe womens wellcovered with usbeatos. 
: nized: anc } acs nomeers tevesnen srgrnen srmmae’ Seavoeny Serer Or Senne” PeNS Sore pa y 5 Ing surface of 
: sconsidercd, Many of the % oo SU peoewen moro esters ereenien toromarmeee') The heating 
i Humbermen “anil mill Hf senewens seswncr’ snevowe seewares posers soe ote ==-O! nance ea eeeremwvereerr| this boiler sums Up ete 
rat wn —— 1 ee ete ns seemiees we aon eoete oar . The 
iS wrights, however, were poo ee rt Soe marneon mente total of 1,801 #4. i » for 
ture that, aa one of them ee O) i con es eens ree ree el core wel potler furnished pari 
expressed It, “snaking all rece eermeteey Seton eatoes aes in semere eepae pe a Corliss engines a ke,” 
that iron back aud forth so meen mae en erent ey iinet i 3 “ei in foe 
fast must uso-up a lo Serene tanetaes hase oop TI Se SAE with a pistot : 
Pp a lot of So er minute of 432. 

Power." Tho only: argu- 
ment available with theso 
Was tho tangible one of 
lumber sawed compared 
with fuel burned. g 

Thea were dificultics, The mills belng 
often built merely to work Up the logs from 
8 Mmited tract, the {den of permanence was 
apt to. hold a secondar: 

‘After noting particularly 
ho water level, condition 
other details, tho 
the water . 

Enevatton or Hoenn SErting, 

andthefof tho fires, 

timo bid fate to prove an important chapter potnt the river bethalia eater go. walt ( waa bog 

{n tho history of high-speed engines, at atin nett Robort Gregory, |and ite fuel, - 
: — built from 10. 

the Firat fron Bridge. and constructed ‘under his management, [the ong 

: ity 
y giv ‘attention to the perlodical 
The flrat tron brldge built for: public: use Mr. Darby giving Leeer wetlon. The an:average I. vs ibe, 10 ia 

n- [sumption of ps, of water, show!0g 10.04 

nn evaporae 

was dealgned by Robert Gregory, during abutment: ni belug # co} i 
and with dim cro {his apprenticeship as a draughtsman In.the| bridge was ead can opened tion: ef 100A. of fuel, , ts r aa 
with dificulty, obtalued.. Yet] employ of-Abraham. Darby, at Colebrook: | thiuous’ arcls of 12 n-design «and Ibs. of waler cee b 7 OE gate 

wero: successful to adegree!dalo, Enginad,, When- Gregory had-eerved| fdr public uso in: 171 


Menlo Park Scrapbook, Cat. 1003 

No. 3. 

This scrapbook covers the years 1880-1881 and contains clippings 
about electrical conduction. There is also one clipping for 1884. There 
are 144 numbered pages. 

Blank pages not filmed: 1-5, 12-144, 


ates baht wade, FL 


ore rae ve 

A ; 


Wuar resiatance tlocs the space which separates. the tw 
Carbon polnts offer to the pasqage of electricity? Does thot: rebier/ety 7 rae IN, Ds 
clectric current: traverse this ;apace continually, .or- only : Experimental Physics In University College, Brlitol. 
when its Intensity haa reached's certain degree?’ Does thud: : 4 (Read before the British Association at Swansea, August, 1880.) 
‘}ore act only asa nimple resistance, or, as announced by Mr. fae oe ot aie 

‘ ‘ Ediung, n3_.an_electromotiye: force’... These queations are oe aoe ea , : 

: : LEC TRICIT. r a : : : Aue werel by Mr. M. J, Tanbert as follower At ae eeoaeny i . Bap ry 4 ae the fetlon of Magnets on Mobile 

TA) tan EL’ D'E LEC? 5 4 ‘} when tho Intensity-of the carrent Is null, then the differen : : Conductors of Currents,” read before this section a : 

JOURN AL UNIVERSEL’D Nid ee, of the potential.cnorgy-between the two carbons fs equally |: ago, the author discussed a number of cases of the flow. 

sore —ierbas = null; butin aninappreciable moment of time this difference ‘1 of electricity across a-magnetic field. These included, 

- ae sg, ca orn : ; Teaches a strength of 40-45 volts, which {t conserves, with- * | gases of-truc metallic conduction, of ‘clectrolytic con 

Je metrompe, nials je voudrals bien en etre positivement sir, Jes jours de!’importance, elle est l'objet de t : e 7 out varation, ntl die ramont when tho current hecomea duction, i of those less understood kinds of conduc.’ 
Pee 7 A ‘ sient dy iisister un peu. * : thai agaln very weak. ne final downfall is very sudden, but,d- ‘ tivity, which occur in the voltaic are, in. the discharge 

Le scul moyen efficace de défense qu’on ait Beet contre si etil cba Z iesinlli ine ‘a ee a Phcco hieca able te folly hk le lie dents, ater: | inns fied medin, and fn the lusnince bees 

les torpilles est, en effet, de Ics voir A temps, et ici I’tlectricité cs premiers is remionte : 4 : to determine the important fact that the potential difference |. ata point. For the case of the convection of electricity. 

joue un role de premier ordre en fournissant la lumitre puis- | dés l'année 1855 (voir Applications de T'électricit; vol. V) sur . {not only remains unaltered during the whole period when cither automatically, by self-repulsion between electrified 

sante qui permet d'éclairer’au loin I'espace ct de découvrir | le Jérdme-Nupolon, avec les niachines magnéto-dectriques "ia current whose mean tatensity remains the same js passing, particles of a gas, or mechanically, the electro-magnetic 

. * eg + ‘but also when this mean intensity is made to vary within effect is identical’ with that of a current in which tho ! 
Vassaillant, de V'Alliance ct un projecteur fumincux combing pac les in jcertain Imits, 1 must, however, add that this difference] - |] same quantity of electricity would be transferred in the 
Au reste, cette application de Wélectricité aux fins mili- | génicurs deccite Socitte, diminishes when the intensity increases, and that the varla- 

5 ) Sg eee 
tion renches die sinsliauint of a or volts. ate explann. | same aime, the “rate of convection” re being, in 
tion of these facts is evide The resistance of the are i thes th . ie g 
very weak; it rarles with the tomperatara and dim Intshex us cnet equivalent of the strength of the 
the temperature Increages, we alfference of the potential - Maxwell's -theo: ol Ihe, Art, a4 ‘ 
energy between the:two'carbon points is duc, for the most}, virtual identity orn Wol. hy Art, 768) ‘conceraing. the 
part, to an clectromotive force, which Is indepondent of the sheet moving in ‘its own plane, with a velocity. equal to 
mtenslty, and on bo valued a itty walks, <Tilngs £0 on " V," may be extended to the case of linear currents 
betweon the two carbon points exactly stwee The identity may b i bei *aneec 
the electrodes of. voltameter. A phenomenon of polariza- Honccurrents be gencralised to all cases of ‘convec- ana 
tlon takes place, then follows n downfall of potential energy. 
iand from that. moment the work produced depends solely 
iupon the quantity of. clectricity which passes between the 
jearbona aud is proportionate to i 2 an _ 


taires est commune Ala marine ct a la guerre, elle prend tous En ce temps-l, il ne s'agissait pas de voif,: mais bien 

EXreRIMENTS by Forbes in 183, and by somic others 
| since, seemed to warrant the view, now commonly held, 
i that the metals fall into the same series as regards cons ° 
duction of electricity and conduction of heat, that the 
uotient of the heat conductivity by electric conduce 
ly constant.:': Horr H. F, Weber, inclined 
us contradicting {lie view (proved for gases 7 
that the amount of heat transferred within : | a 
fromWayer to layer is‘most intimately con. | * Af 
the specific heat of unit volume, made new ' 
in thiyelation (which. he has described to BO sy y 
cad WW) He measured the fentveandte: ; | the ene 

vin, cooling of various metal rings in : Menta off" °- 
y : i onstigt temperature, and the electric con- t 
Tm ! se ad Al BS: ‘ ata : i ver ec tame tings by noting their : sd 1 tel 
i Thien 7 . y : 7 t the oscillations of a magnet. The d t+" College of Yokio, Japan, have elicited the fact that 
| Breese.” a (7: ; . ; anticipation, the quotient of heat, the resistance varies more slowly when the glass is 
a ’ —s iil . p q Nectric conduction being found in the ; ‘cooling than when it is being heated, aud that. 
a) ra F ote sith the specific heat of unit volume, a piece of glass may have its resistance greatly ° 
by a dMigrent clectrical method for metals : SV increased by being slowly raired to a high tempera-- 
electricity, badly (lead, bismuth, &c.), and | ‘S32 “ture and slowly cooled, “There seems, in Mr, Gray's, 
G ar result. (Ten metals in all | Of opinion, to bo what may bo called a permanent; 
i &. ¢l 

ve en TM 

n the other hand, non-metallic 2 * 
lolol gt = Samet autres wan Mi ae 
nae nt ald at et “SGN change in the quality, ‘This result has n practical 

bearing, for it shows that a loss of insulating power 

contluctivjty and the specific heat. . Thus 
¢ connected with the ‘metalli 

XN on the part of glass atems, or electroineter joes &e,, 

Herr Weber found the heat: ! | may be cured by keeping the gloss at a high tempo- 
all the solid metals examined to ° ‘ rattre for a considerable time, a treatment which is 
, decrease ger’ temperature, but) at“a‘con- ye sometimes fulopted in the cago of badly-insulating | - 
siderably less rate thin the electric conductivity, He © RY5 — chonite or hard rabbi . iz 

; further offers explanations of the erroncous view 
‘ adopted, noting, inter alia, that the experiments in 
* one case, though exact, were on too few metals, and : ji 
these had nearly the same specific heat.—Naiure, 7 eae : 


: hes: | 

Projectenr : Me Cyye of Shy wit 

; “ c lectri- ts havo: shown. that iron in oxtremo.thin 

‘ely po fot seh serteiel : aie ie tha mast Stable masaril 8 id ri 
3 th tl nd in order to au 1 domand, 

may bo transmitted through the namo, and even the; the Pittsburg mills; have snccested vin. manu © - 

weak. intensity currents of the telephone, and thir}. - , 7: | facturlig rolled iro awh ie so thin that from : 

ak ‘ i a “ at 12 heats laid on cachjother equal : 

without the person conducting the current percoly. a rae “oh in: thioknos, AW dnstramont 

: s 7 +f out of this matorial has-almost the same 

gow and the telephonic current led through a circlo} °. ete reponsivenes to th ich the eyo haa 

etre u,-ct cdtait. comme fanat d’ 
‘on cmployait Melectricies, Les résultats, tout en donnant 
de grandes espérances? he satisfirent pas complétement, im- 

perfection dune part, tin i it 

: peu de routine de: Iau 7 

Hon fut a peu pris abaridoniée, es ph 
Non loin de cette Spoque, 

une grande puissanée { vers le sitge de Paris, 

; en 1870, Beaucoup de : 

pellené les rayons blancs fortene de Ianane cau ‘Mon a 
Valérien, ct tournant lentement ‘autour de Vhorizo a : 
. somme on nveut PAs ungrandrésultat, les Altemands ata 3 age ing anything. Thin hs been teated recontly in Gins- |: 
‘pas fate de travaiix d'approclic, ‘et ta tumitre pioduite a Valle H , 


cn 1859, on pensad essayer Ja 

Juimidre a Ia guerred' atic - de piles nayant point” et o . z : fho joined: hands, nnd the expectation)... | tovbard Hight" ~ 
mals ilstanissait de ce'eorsie ten | on rece tat point: cui assez'de poride Lr \of persons who joined: bands, ane tovtard light 
Les élee ques} inutile de JV sagissait de se'servir des °|’ au loin leurs batteries, ae M4 = ote! cherchi [was fully realized, the human links in tho, crane pete 7 

dire que Hidde était pou Applica MM, Sa 



Sooo bah a Ee TELA 

om: pe ales chs 

oS Piaer eases 
ae ya as ; 7 t all.the effects I ahn' t : os : 4 iz 
Teun Hoditvtd Mivkted all bodlée acceding (TPs inngnetian ‘of the wi mn P : fre. heat tho “wire wi Pi a find the sounds |}: thie ites are gSE aes 
ul extent bn which they are alfested by clectrictty, into two J a5" an; instant through‘ this eame wit, a Sale iat hs 0: to'90, maximum’ alightly |! also variey, and whew wort 
ie conductivi sce With. the ie ¥ . | 4 + . * y : = i 
Rreatera (dlelectiea)” and (2) those in which: it decreases with | ©”. | gules nro inatantly, polarised, aud 4 on, and the magne ation |" is it nctiviy hey Te ote at : bil rsa ia 
‘lee of temperature al elertres bene eayours ie ries * ‘ reatore the wire;to: tts ori a ceuRreat far more powerfil and | b ie he sounds pro. |! other hand whe ae +, On the - 
mere bs et with cach oer 3 iid sontact elect 3) induced by tis peat Sron ‘than tempored atecl. --This ma; -be pro- : tion fs in the dlireet{o the varias, 
{fie Sete has always the same sign aa that which arises'| —- more persistent ;in 80 t eth at in tempered or softened atcel we © again received |! ‘Tane ia fe of resist. 
ith gentle friction or pressure, ‘Tho aometimies different action | - due, however, to ‘the fac t duo to-tho rotation’ by torsion of é ie te p : and fead ed roenats brass 
; caren Not a yeaaye Nature loca seewcish fava thn i © {find peeeony of tio to three degrece of sonometer, whilst iron-| ! : 2] crenge ve dy Under com easton by the 
the alferent hestanotion at the pitees of contact of two hieten. is imoteoules fiy a current of 70 sonometric degrees : t | Russian Phy, . Chwolson, of St, Petersburg, 

of tant, i i] 1 i *{ On suh * 
nous substances, but the causa fa fully aufficient tp explain all grees const : rrenta, we must give n. : y t I : | toa hydraulic pressure ef 
relopment of stectretty,, Le a of oy Se te between its zero point. Hl 4 80 cen two steel .plates ho 

re c ‘ i {tho index to the right, and t Of inereass per atmosphere 
i ae havo a current during the motion ° ig inex te | copper batt mosphere 
% QeQueetuw \ ~ ue, ky \ acontrary current in moving the index nts with the oscilla. | ie She role of the ! 0.000011, for lead 0.00011, or ten’ times ‘ng much 

If we uses 
4 i moyeme! m! ; as for brass, . 
galvanic Ties but with te telephone it gives ou continous i Pp to 50 degrees, being at notiness of that mete we Samy aie ante 
f Sr eel can for cither. movement, the interruptions being only those i 5 ng, distant; but if Hint in i recent paper to the Royal Society, Mr 
ne Saree Donte aan mere | aemet ye tom S Ston: ob eer oP a ha] [veh haa el el 
gre. wade 5 y of 
on an Evgcriic Oonpuctina Wine, di a he ae or iegutive gives equal sounda, but at the he greatest inductive effect on the one wires Is temporarily changed by the pasans 
Tn my paper of March 7th, ‘On Molecular Electro-Magnetic. : Thouieut of revereal of the current a peculiar loud click is heard, i when a ingnet Js aban angle of 45 degrees with ! pubrtrelelicitrrent, rca 
Induction," I showed that induced currenta of electricity would ' due to the rapid change or rotation of the polarisation of its int and, ulso, considering each anolecule aa an separate : aa 
be i ‘duced in an iron wire placed on tho axis of a coil through e Mie les, and this peculiarly loud momentary click ia beard independent magnet, we find that at a given distance fora given 
ein | mol eculeas “and in ateel ne in iron, proving thut it is equally magnet the force of rotation ia equal to that of 45 degrees; b 
| wa rined by the current, but that ita molecular rigidity prevents tppronehing the magnet wo increase the rotation but diminieh 
+ “ Moleoular Hlectro-Magnetic Induction,” v, p, 232, Vol. VI. Potation by torsion, We can imitate in some degree as ; ory dity fora et teeily Hele gerahod nie, henea the ieortane of 
* " Ki i et ‘ + yeral permanen' . C i if y suet. And to prove thi 
peal Permanent Moteentar pion of ogeincting Wires produced hy tho, of a) by giving the torsion fe then reduced from 70 degrees to the function of the. elustic torsion is simply to rotate the 
hich intermitte ; \ P a that these 7 40 degreva due to’ the mechanical atrain of the twists remaining polarised Unolecules similarly to the magnet, we place ue sive 
which intermittent currents were passing, and that these cur. | |< * "Celtic torsion of 20 degrees, and approach gradual ly 
rente wero produced only ‘when fh wire Was Sen the influence ©0°8 of a Danioll battery. tho magnet na before. One pole now will be found to increase 
of a torsion not passing ite limit of clasticity. It became ovi- |. 5 eee mneecert ates ese - tegton ca fh 
dent that if the Intermittent wagnetism induced by tha coil pro- | {a constant; nndia weakening of the current is nleo remarked if at! purposoly arold using the terma'’ magnotio fluid” and " coereitive 
duced under torsion intermittent currents of electricity, that an} | with a fresh wire we pass in toraiun its limit of clnativity. % " 2 2 grees ae 
intermittent torsion under the influence of n conatant current of | | If a new soft iron wire of 2 millins, (giving. no traces of a ithe sounds or its angular polurity, the other will Acerense until * 
electricity 4 fy constant magnetic field would produce situilay current by {oan hoe presed through Hs a momentary curnnt fo: ee contin, dintanes 7 efors HF dave perfect pilenee, Tho 
currents, This was found to be the cuse, and as some new ple-| fof elect ty, and then wire observed free from the eurre veton exiate as before, but the molecules tre uo longer at the 
nomenn presented themeelves indicat 1g clearly the molecular} {itself, it will be found to be alinost us strongly polarised na f}. [same angle. On removing the magnet we find that instead of 
nate of the nctions, I will describe u few of them directly} iwhen the en ns constantly on, giving by torsion a constant the usunl 50 of enrrent we obtain barely 5 or 10, Have we, then, © 
relating to the subject of this paper, of 50 sunometric degrees. 1f, ine ead of passing 1 current : destroyed the polurity of the molecules, or do they find 9 certain 
The apparatus used was simila: ithrough this new w I wv it atrongly by a permanent | reaistance tu their free rotation to their usunl plice? ‘Vo solve 
of March 7th, An fron wire o! magnet or coil, the longitudinal magnetism kives ulao 70 degrees this queation we have only to shake or give tho wire elight * 
centre or nxis of a coil “Sof current for the first torsion, but weakens rapidly, 80 thatina : meehinieal vibration, und’ then instantly the molecules rotate 
dianeter of ig few contrary torsiona only traces of a current remain, and we more freely, and we at once find our original current of 50 
cireular P-;  jfind algo its longitudinal magnetisw almost entirely dissipated. |: degrees, T will forbear mentioning many other experimental 
it; ;Vhus there ia this remarkable diffe ence, and itis that whilst it provfa of iny views by thia method, as there are many to relate 
+ He almost impossible to free the wire from the influence produced y different methods in the following chapters, 
iby a current, the longitudinal magnetism yields nt once to n few rah 
galvano-j ‘torsions, We may, how » trausform the ring or transversal |. (TO IE CONTINUED.) 
lastic tore] magnetism into longitudinal ma snetisn by atrongly magnetiaing : re 
ang) 3 iB y Bry mang, 

om ssa ps 
ordinary} 'the wire after a current has passed through it. Vhis ling Ind < ‘ 4 y 
the effect of rotating the whole of the molectles, and they & wl, aN Mv : aN \% < \ . 

® Abstract of Paper read before tho Royal Society, 

are all now symmetrical with longitudinal inagnetism. Then 
however, ths by # few torsions the wire is almost as free ne a new wire, and I ~~ Breerue Coxneny agp er 
file a havo found this method more eflicacioua than heating the wire PEECTIUC CONDUCTIVITILAND STIESS, 
of the curren wred hot or auy other method ye tried, If I desire a constant The inilt 
jeurrent from longitudinal magnetism 1 place at one of the}: ¢ and 
t t but by! extremities of the wire a large permanent mugnel whose sus. [rcs 
ib escribed In my pauper of | taining power is 5 kilometres, and this keeps the wire constantly . 
ean current ia broken charged, ik cacmbling. in some pects the effects of a conatant 
ay fd i hen we are able to current, The molecular magneti mor the current obtained by |: 
einen sie - neon 8 micro-| #tursion is nut. go vowerful from this, my atrongest mugnet, aa |i 
bbromntenc ae fev so : arte ¥ it produced by the siniple Passage of u current, being only 50 |; 
verve thie ilhn sete hare ly pug sonumetric degrees in Bhice of 70 d rca for that due to the }- 
; he oraton o} the; | parsuge of u current. ‘The mere twisting of a Jongitudinal t 
ield of magnetic ! tet, without regard to the rotation af its molecule having no band 
jeffvet, is proved by giving tovsion to 1 steel wi strongly may. westerly di right angles to the 
inetiaed, when only traces of t current will be seen—perhape one earth's line yeti force, urust of necessity | 
for tw x ind a conatant suuree of Inngnebtens or cle be f Clophonic perturbations, “Steet 
1 ty NO mensurable effect. Evidently we ha : 
| cquatly twisled the rrapuctised stecl na the soft iron. In the 
nety of  ateel we have a powerfa magnet, in the soft iron a very feeble 
spon tha; j one; still, the moleculur rotation in iron produces powerful cur. 
cone int; | renta to the almont absolute ‘0 of tempered ste has 
ft named! ik ¢ wire whilst the current is prasing, and Itallin’ doctor De 
4 oft Uy charged with both Inagnetiam and elec. 
a , expe! | t, 7. Surata are at pace diminished from 70 degrees to 
we place r r fei A ¢ bave here two distinct mu netic polurigati Fs 
effect by tore Tee net Feira prods toy a a ght angles to cach other, and no matter what! pole of the 
passing through it, nor do We per | rotation te a eaten ine frently diminiahed, the 
it fron Wire (2 anilline sn diametor | Hes ted of the two poluritica-would now Tequire n far greate 
igh which an electric} ‘jas yet “be ap he importance of this gtperiment cannot |; 
ieigntive: experiment, change whi eed until we learn of the great molecular 
ie ei Y. occurred, and whioh:woe obger here by 

and divectio 
“| plona in us 

ae ROR ee BIRT TY 

f We givo as a supplement to our impression of this week 9, 
f practical diagram for facilitating tho determination of the proper 

j Size of any copper lead of 96 per cent. conduc for electrical |’ -: 

purposes, moro especially for electric lighting by incandescéence.: 
Vith the very slight calculations required, ‘any intelligent clec- 
trical artisan can toll nlmoat. ata glance What size of lead ‘ho 
should use for any given. numberof lamps and given distance 
from the generator, and thus the uso of conductora not suitable 
for the purpose on hand may be entirely avoided, and in many 
cases the not infrequently marked difference in candle-power at 
the different parts of the circuit will alao be avoided, There is 
little doubt that the diagram will provo: practically useful, 
though it does not, os Jrofessor Forbes would: say, include 
all scientific minutic, It can bo applied in all. circ 
atances in which copper conductors of 06 per cent. conductivity 
are used for clectrical purposes, Mr, J. 8. Beeman, who is the 
compiler of the table, has had considerable expericnce in Its use, 
and he accords it the more value as being the result obtained 
from a practical experience of the wants of electricians, 
Tho following are examplea showing how tho diagram: or table 
ean be ured -— 
_. Questions. : ANawens, : 
Required the soctlonal area for Meferring to ‘ 
he carry 300 ainperes aah trea equine sicrser a 
‘® differonce of sau , 
fotehiiat of 101-205 volta at tho ordinate to the abeches Of 

terminals, and 1°25 it. 250 
taro ee ne vane 

Required, the acctional area for Iteferring to diagram, wa fin 
awire tocarry 73 amporea i onlinntoot thentertis oy ue 
yarda,all tho other conditions equals 0 $04 equare Inch sectional 
Fematning tho aame asin = arca, Dut the current being 73 
Question }, amparea instead of 100 ampdres, 

O'SO4 must Lo multiplicd by a 
which cquala 0-222, and is tho 

tilred sectional t 
Team acct area in equara ; 

SaBlx 2. 

whero S=acctional arca required, 
Hlesacctional rea (outd by 


. Omcurrent in am; i 

Referring to diagram, mrs osin 

rea”: Examplog, 78 x 2roquires 0-354a0c 

Honat area; but thocurrent being 
*43 ninpdres, 0°304 ts inultiplied by | 

jp also, tho EMP, Deing 85 

volts, Snatead of 100, 0-304 4 

ae multiplied by » hey 

53 iGh : 
B= 300 ( 7 x) enals 0°20), | 
tho required soctional area, | 
Butt, 2 i 

Whore Bs RAMP. in 
Ai~equre, tho aetional area for We tale here aha pends 0, 3, 
i - rT : me 
FH aapirey lr align and tuultiplying Wby ER woget 
ostion vin, H 
a fall of’ 0 D100 on tho roquirod sectlonal 
Of Ts pee contin ESSLE 1. 44 

| Ovands: eter Ab 20 yants (belo; 
| aes mete eae ing and Ind the acct! 
' por col 
cent, in the EM, . spubying the a 
Exatnplo 4, 

Sm ois 13 xe 
“Tagalvods” 7008 sectional area 

Lumiére Electrique 
Journal universel d’Electricité 


Paris et Dépastements 3 Un atteess sevecseeee «1G francs, 

Union postales UN ate. eecceeseee o veceescee 20 rancs. 

Le numéro : Un frane, 

Administeateur ; A, GLENARD, 

ire Décembre 1880 Tomo II 


Des etfets dectziques produits au sein des corps medivcrement cons 
ducteurs {2° article); ‘Ih, du Moncet. — Des lucomotives élec- 
trhques (3+ articte); Marcel Deprez, — 1a National-Zeitung 
a VENposition; F. Geraldy. — Profet de docks etectriques; 
1, Hospitalier. ~ Regutateurs de vitesse; 12. Napoli. — Etude sur 
Ja transmission slectrique desimpressions luminctises; M. Leblane. 

, ot Revue des travaua récents en électricité, De la polarisation 
tlectrolytique. Conductibitité des corps pour Velectricité atmos- 
Phértque, bes éclairs en zigeags. Double pince pour piles élece 
teiques. Action prosuite par ta lumitre dans le photuphone, 
Auncaux electriques. Disposition nouveile de annean Gramme 
par M. Heincich, La lampe, Swan. A propos du mesurene de 
sourants de M. Deprez, — Etudes rétrospectives, — Les dernicts 
travaux de M. Gaugain (suite); ‘Fh. du M, — Renseignements et 
Correspondance; lettre de M. Gravier. Lettre de M. Klimenko. 
Lettre de M. Shreymohi, — Failte divers. : 

2 article (vuir le numero du ts nosembre e8So}. 

Parmi les eflets electriques produits au sein des corps 
middiocrement conducteurs, ceux qui résultent de la pol.ri- 
sation sont particuligrement remarquables. One sait que la 
polarisation est tne action clectrique secondaire qui se 
développe a la suite da passage d'un courant, et qui se 
produit généralement dans un sens inverse a ce courant, 
Bien des savants se sunt occupds de ta cause de ces effets, on 
a publié 2 ce sujet un grand nombre de mémoires, et j'ai Te 
reget de le dire, toutes les théories qui ont été entises ov 
peuvent s‘appliquer A tuus les cas que Ton observe. Ce qui 
est certain, c'est que cus eifets secondaires peuvent résulter 
de beaucoup de causes dillérentes qui peuvent se mane 
quelquefois simultangment, et qu'il est souvent tres-di 

Wisoler, Souvent meme, ils peuvent etre confondus avec des 
effets dlectro-statiques d'induction. Sur ce point, il est 
imprudent évidemment d'ttre trop aftirmatif, ct nous 
groyons qu'on doit voir dans tous ces effets une application 
de ce grand principe: qu'il ne peut y avoir d'action physique 
développée sans réaction, Quoi qu'il en soit, nous n'ttudicrons 
en ce Moment que les effets de polarisation résultant de La 
transmission d’un courant 4 travers un corps qui n'est 
conducteur que par I'humidité plus on moins grande qui 
Vimprégue, et nous prendrons, comme type, le silex 
d'Herouville, dont il a dté question dans notre précédent 

Ce silex, comme nous l’avons deja dit, est remarquable par 
son pouvoir hygrometrique, et les expériences suivantes de 
M. Damour peuvent en donner une idde exacte, « Un 
fragment de ce silex, dit-il, du poids de 6 gr., of10 ayant ce 
exposé, pour le dessécher, A une température de > 65° A 
+ 70%, a perdu au bout d'une heure o gr., 0560, apres quatre 
heutres 0 gr., 060, Ayant été exposé A Mair libre, ila repris 
cn £2 heures 0 gr., 02500, et, aprés trois jours, 0 gr., 03700. 
Vlacé sous uae cloche de verre au-dessus d'un vase contenant 
de Neau, ia repris, aprés 24 heures, son poids primitif de 
6 gr, osto, plus un exeddant. de o ge. 1350, eh tout 
6 pr, 1860, » 

Hrésulte de cette Geulté hygrometrique, qu'un silex ou 
autre corps de ce genre traversé par ta courant et mis cn 
rapportaves un galvanométre, peut indiquer les variations 
de Phumidité deVair aux différentes heures du jour. Jinsiste 
sur ces conditions du conducteur dont je parle, atin qu’on 
soit bien certain que sa conductibilite est surtout tlectro- 
lytique, Voici maintenant les effets de polarisation que on 
constate ct qui: sont trésedifférents de ceux que Ton 
obtient avee les electrolytes liquides, ordinaires. 

Sion fait passer ad travers le silex en question fe courant 
Wane pile de 2 cements Lechinché, en prenant comme 
electrodes des lames de plating bien Hambécs ct bien décapees, 
on trouve, apres avoir retire ta pile du circuit ct avoir relié 
les lectrodes un galvanométre sensible (de 50.000 tours), 
lus résultats suivante t . ? 

1° Tl sz produit un courant de polrisation dent Miutensité 

et da dunks angmentent aves’ te tenaps de Uilectrisation deta 


MU made TRS. 

VL eT ALN we Be TPL 

: Menlo Park Scrapbook, Cat. 1004 

No. 4 "Electrolysis" 

° 1 This scrapbook covers the years 1873-1881 and contains clippings a) weathgs  g8 ait See ead 
about electrolysis or electroplating, along with a few items about other , 
scientific or technical subjects. There are 138 numbered pages. 

Blank pages not filmed: 2-3, 36-138. 

py ree Enka Dba TPZ 



> DES  :: 


A> : 2 






SS ae BS 

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October igi 1875. THE TELEGNAPHIO' JOURNAL: 295° 

of. the’ Rio Boissy-d'Anginis consisted’ of three]! 

sheet-iron fanks, one of which; of 7 eubic meties 


capacity, is filled with water, and two (of 5°90) 
with air, Communication being eatublished at wilt 
hetween theso three tunks and the tubo by which 
the despatches are forwarded attached, 1 pressure 
of 16 could bo attained. ‘Che compressed nir sont 
tho carriers in one direction; movement in tho con- 
trary direction could bo effected by allowing the 

- water to flow ont from tho tank, ‘Uhis system was 
very simplo, but it could bo apptied only whero the 
quantity of water was sufficient. : 

Before we examine the London pneumatic inbes, 
we will completo the preceding historical notes by 
the mention of: trinls made to the ent of transport: 
ing pnssengers or pnrcols, 

After the establishment of his pnoumntic tubes, 
that is to say, in 1859, Mr. Latimer Clark formed, 
with the English engineer, Hammel, a‘ company 
{the Pneumnntic Despatch Company), whose aim was 
to apply atmospheric pressure to {ransports of 
every unture. Thoy constructed in London, in 
1863, an atmospheric railway (about 550 metres in 
Jength), connecting Euston Station ant the North 
Western District Oftice; The baga and packets of 
letters: wero cnrrict by these tubes. Tho tubes 
were of cast-iron, Q-shiapeil; tho vertical axis being 
o'8s metre, and {he horizontal: axis 0°76 metro, 
‘The tubes were about 2°75 metres in length; thoy 
wore cemented at the joints with lead. ‘They formed 
two curves of 33. metres radius, and one of 12°16 
inetres,- ''ho slope of the lino varied from t in 80 
to t in 100, A carringe with four wheels (2°40 
metres in length) ran’ on rails. ‘Lhe motor was 2 
ventilntur of 6°38 metres diameter, put in action by 
asteam-engine, The ventilator made 100 to 100 
revolutions per minute; tho pressura wns y's to 
rio of an atmosphere, representing « force upon 
the piston of 46 to 62 kiloxrammes. The speed 
was 8°3 metres per second: In 1863, 15 trips wero 
annde per diem, at 2 cost of og frane per double 
trip. ‘ho use of this line was abandoned on Oct. 
26th, 1866, ‘I'he contitions under which it worked 
wore disndyantageous. 'I'ho traflic being but small, 
tho larger proportion of fuel was burnt whilo the 
eugine was nt rest.* 

Jn: 1864, Rammel: established at tho Crystal 
Datuce,- Sydenham, an: atmospheric railway, 547 
inctres in length, carrying passengers. ‘The arrange: 
nent wag similar to the preeeding, : ‘he tube was 
of Inriel:.3 metres’ in height: by 2°13 metres in 
width, ‘The carringes werd furnished with paddings 
of silk, opposing the: prissaye of air by friction 
against tho sides of the tunnel, ‘The carringes con- 
tained 30 to 35 persons, - ‘The journey was mado in 
50 seconds; with a+ pressuvo ‘of: 44. atmosphere, 
The ventilator: was 6°38 motres in diameter, An 
aceident-happened, and tho: experiment was discon- 

In 1865, the: Whitehall and Waterloo Railway 
Gompany: was formed to conneet by an atmospheric 
lino Waterloo and: Charing Cross Stations, antl the 
East ‘Londoti Railway Company was promoted to 
connect pneumatically different: lines of railways 
the pneumatic tibes being intended to pass through 
‘Thames ‘Cunnel. 

* Blneo tha date of tho reparter'n lait to London, this Uno haa 
Icen extemted to the General Poat Ontleo, with an intermeliate 
atatlon at Iolkorn, and the traMahas beon found aumlelent for mort 
advantageous usc, J 

7 Tu Italy, two* projects wero‘ proposed’ by Messrs,‘ 
Kewaris and‘Dargremont, but thoy did “not “méct’ 
Uio' approval of thé! Commission. “Finally may bé" 
mentioned thintin America Mr, JohnH. Ward pro- 

posed a similar that of Rammel. It is sufi- 

cient to say that, in'spite of the numerous failures, 

tho problem of the pneumatic transport of pas- 

sengers and parcels is still to be solved, But that, 

on the contrary, the transmission of telegrams by 

these tubes hag given excellent results in towns of 
the first importance. 

(To be continual), 

Wr: commence under this title a series of articles 
on tho art and’ practice of Electro-plating. It is 
not intended that the articles shall follow any’ 
prescribed order; for it ia considered that to pregent 
either improvements or known details of tho subject 
as they may occur, and not to wait until the 
improvements lave bacome nearly obgoletd, so that 
n certain arbitrary order may bo followed, will’ bo 
tho plan likely to render these articles more widely’ 
acceptable-—Uiat is to say, these articles aro intended 
to be bath w guide to developed processes and'n’ 
record of what is being discovered in the art, ‘To 
further this aim, tho articles will bo sometimes 
original, but necessarily more ‘often an account’ of 
what has been ‘done abroad or at home’ by others. 
Now formulz, teated hy practical work, will bo 
given; the formule ‘obtained from other sources 
Will bo tested ‘whero the authority is not’ stated; 
and, indeed, every care will be taken to render theso 
columns of practical worth to Use electro-plater. 
The papera will be revised, and’ in some part 
written by a practical plater, sometimo engaged in 
the works of Messrs. Christofle and Co., Paris. 

Yo carry ottt the intended principle of recording 
present statements by others, we present to our 
readers the remarks on 

Nicxrn Pratixa, 
communicated to. tho’ “ Franklin Tnstitite,” by 
Dr, Lewis Fouchtwangor, Ho says:—An_ impor- 
tant branch of industry has beon it practice in tho 
United States for'the Inst ‘fow years only, although 
it was recommended by Alfred Smee, F.R.S,; in his 
Slements of Electro-Metalhirgy,” in 1852, who, 
in pago' 193, speaks of nickel in the’ following 
words =~ nek 
“Niekel is the last in thd list of noble metals, 

being the most ignoblo of that class, ‘The nitrite” 
and sulphate of nickel, the ammonio-nitrate and - 
sulphinte of nickel, the nikelo-cynnide of potassium, 
but especially the chloride of nickel, require con- 
sideration: Tho’ nitrate’ of nickel is very soluble, 
but the metal ling no great inclination: to bo 
precipitated, for the hydrogen appears rather to 
prefer being cvolved than to reduco the metal, The 
sulplinte of nickel is. also’ used a8 n double salt, 
and the motal ia reduced moro'readily from it than 
from tho nitrate. It is best reduced by the com-° 
pound battery process witha, piatinom positive pole, 
though a nickel positive polo" may bo employed 
‘The solution of cithor nitrate or sulphate combined 
with alkalies, those of ammonia ‘ deserving tho- 
preferenco, ought to bons strong nq possible: © ‘The 
chloride of nickel‘ forms anexcellent minterial ‘for 

ae ee ne trangia an 








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Capacity or Etectnotyres.—The following results 
are taken from a paper by M. Herwig, in Art. der! 
Phys. VL, p. $56: It is well known that when a current’ 
of sufficient strength to decompose it is passed through 
a liquid electrolyte the current gradually diminishes in: 
strength until it becomes very feeble; and if the current 
be then interrupted a current in the opposite direction 
will be set up. The effect is analogous to that pro- 
duced when a condenser is substituted for the electrolyte, i 
Assuming that the clectrolyte under such condition | 
behaves like a condenser of capacity ¢, and the resist- 

so te at . , 
ance of which. is w, the intensity of the first changing : 

current will bea function ent (4 4, Jot the time , 

and the current of discharge will he another functio 

—at * i 
ve —nthese two expressions the factor ai 
. 4 

Dari ¢ 
is the same, and equal to Ht +e ), R being the i 

resistance of the circuit external to the liquid. By’ 
measuring with a galvanometer the values of #and i: 
at different instants, we can then obtain the quantity 
a, and, as Ww can be deduced from the intensity towards 
which the discharging current tends, weean calculate ¢. 

In this way, ¢ is found for the same experiment to 
have very different values (in the ratio of ‘1 to 10), ine 
creasing with the time, as well for the current of charge 
as for that of discharge. ‘The resistance w has other. » 
wise nothing in common with the resistance that the 
same liquid presents when traversed by a current 
strong enough to decompose it; (ij an experiment 
where the latter resistance was 6 ohms, w was found to 
be = 1,031 ohms). For the rest, w does not obey Ohm's 
law, and increases much less rapidly than the resistance 
of the platinum plates serving for electrodes; it even i 
varies when the direction of charge is changed. 

Esrtstation oF Zinc AND; Leap tN MINRRALS ‘BY 

Etectrotysts.—MM.-G, Parodi and A. Mascazzini 

(Gassetta Chimica Italiana vil, 222-224) find that zinc 

can be precipitated on, platinum in a coherent film, | 

which can be: washed and weighed, if the solution be 

first rendered ammoniacal_ and then acidulated with an 

organic acid, preferably acetic, and submitted to elecs 
trolysis, ‘care being taken to adjust the current to the 
strength of the solution, “The iron, lead, &e,, present 
{i calamine, blende, and ‘other zine minerals, should be 
remoyed ‘by “Schwartz's: method before electrolysis. 
{The ‘presence of a traco of lead increases the coherence 
‘of. the film, if, no mineral acid. but sulphuric be present. 
Lead may be precipated ina coherent state by acting 
on alkaline solutions containing phosphoric and tartaric 
acids. , ‘The presence of acetle acid tends to keep the 
positive pole free from tead peroxide. . 

Ke 78 

and attributed the deficit to the formation of hydro. 
genated water, M, Berthelot is of opinion that it cane 
not be oxygenated water which is formed nor even 

| Peep ae 
Weare Boyt 

J" Evecrro-Citésican Action or aN Atusinust 

Axope,—M. Beetz has found that when water, acidu. 
lated with sulphuric acid, is decomposed by means of 
an anode of aluminum, a portion of the oxygen 
combines to form alumina which {s dissolved, while 
another portion forms a coating of oxide upon the 
wire, and a third portion is disengaged in the gascous 
form. The sum of these quantities of oxygen is always 
too small, Experiments made with the acid diluted 
in the proportion of 1 to 12, and with an aluminum 
anode, and a platinum cathode in a voltameter, have 

given losses of 10,1, 8, and 5 per cent. Witha feeble . 

current, avery gentle disengagement of gas, and wires 
of aluminum, if the intensity of current and surface 
of the anode be increased at the same time, the loss 
becomes Iess and less until, with ten Bunsen coils, it 
becomes nothing, In the first case, the small bubbles 

are absorbed by the liquid, and diffused into the air; * 

in the second case, the warming up of the liquid and 
the rapidity of the gascous current forbids absorption of 




Etectrouysis or Diture Sutpuuric Acip—It 
was observed by Faraday that the dilute sulphuric acid 
under clectrolysis yielded a volume of oxygen less than ! 
one-half that of the hydrogen simultancously disengaged, 


Tue memoir commences by recalling the experi: } 
_ments of Wollaston on the decomposition of water ! 
by the electricity from the ordinary electrical ma- . 
chine, as well as those made by Faraday for, the? 
purpose of rendering sensible the decomposition 

of salts, when he sought solely to make evident , 
the presence of acids and bases by nid of test- + 

aes With a Ruhmkorff induction-apparatus, which 
3 gives a much more rapid succession of sparks than 
the ordinary electrical machine, more marked 

effects are obtained, The arrangement | have! 
adopted to exhibit them is the following i Taking ' 
a plate of guttapercha on which was placed a small ; 
slip of platinum in communication with the posi- ). : 
tive pole of the apparatus by means of a metallic; 

‘| stem, I applied to this slip of platinum astrip of} 

paper moistened with a metallic solution (copper! 
_or_ silyer), and then to the paper the point of a} 

BBB 2) 

SPLANNSS cy cinete as bs Savon stanary Lodeeih- ay , 
Nv platinum’ wire connected’ with the’ ‘negative polc.! 
It was not long before the metal was seen deposit-| 
‘ing around the point in adherent layers. Ona, 
slip of platinum being placed between the paper| 
‘and the point of this metal, it likewise became 
coated with a thin layer of metal. Submitting to 
experiment successively various solutions, the ap-: 
paratus operating with only two chromic-acid ; 
couples, and sometimes with four, I thus obtained } 
the reduction of copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, lead, 
bismuth, antimony, zinc, cadmium, silver, gold, 
and platinum. 
I likewise applicd myself to the formation of 
amalgams by aid of the same apparatus, following } 
‘the method which Davy employed, with the pile, ; 

to obtain the amalgams of potassium, sodium, and |, 

‘other metals, On a slip of platinum which was! 
brought into contact with the positive pole of the! 
apparatus I placed a picce of caustic potass slightly ; 
: moistencd, and introduced into a small cavity in; 
its surface a drop of mercury in contact with the | 
point of a platinum wire or the negative pole of 
‘the induction-apparatus; after a few moments} 
“the globule changed into a pasty amalgam in‘ 
‘which I perceived’ some crystals of this com: | 
‘ pound, ! 
1 ‘The copper amalgam was obtained by operating | 
! with a mixture of a solution of nitrate of copper | 
! and nitrate of mercury with which the band of! 
' paper applied on the platinum slip was moistened 5 | 
jn the same way were produced the amalgams of, 
\ aluminium, magnesium and other metals. I con-} 
yccive that the discharges of an induction-a; par 
“ratus, when proceeding from electricity. of high 

tension and taking place in rapid succession, arej 
: capable of producing powerful chemical effects.— | 
* Comptes Rendus de UAcadémie des Sciences, vol.’ 
‘Ixxxii. pp. 353) 354+ ! 

even Our \5 Khe 

ne Oem 4 wer 7 


M, Bertuetot, the distinguished French chee ; 
mist, has lately brought before the French | 
Academy of Sciences a series of remarkable 
experiments, which, in addition to affording other. 
results, point to an important and brilliant dis- 
, covery relative to the reactions which occur 

4 : 

between the gascous elements of the nir and the 
organic compounds of ‘the earth. The nature 
and effect of these reactions on vegetation consti. 
tute no amall portion of the science of agricultural 
chemistry. And regarding the question of the 
source of the supply of nitrogen to plants, it is 
well known that none is more closely enlisting the 
attention of chemists who find, in the | loubt 
encircling present accepted theories, the stimulus 
for further and deeper investigation. 

We know that, for the support of vegetation, 
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are needed, 
and that the source of carbon is the carbonic acid 
which exista in the atmosphere in the proportion 
of sha of its volume. Similarly, the water 
always present in the air supplies hydrogen and 
oxygen necessary. It is not so easy to trace 
whence the nitrogen is derived, and here opinions 
have fiercely conflicted. Previous to Liebig’s 
time, it was Supposed that organic matter (humus) 
supplied the chief nutriment of plants; but this 
the great German chemist denounced as * baseless 

* and absurd ;" and after detailing his own experi- 

mental researches and those of others, he aflirms 
that ‘nitrogen ‘tis derived cither from the air, 
whence it is conveyed to the carth in rain or dew, 
or from organic substances accumulated from a 
scries of generations of dead or decayed plants, or 
else from animal remains contained in the carth 
or incorporated with it by man in the form of 
excrements, * * * ‘The remains of extinct 
animal life, which are embedded to an enormous 
extent in sedimentary strata, or which of them- 
selves constitute whole masses of rock, attest the 
extraordinary distribution of organic life in the 
former ages of the carth: and it 1s the nitrogenous 
constituents of these animal bodies, passing over 
into ammonia and nitric acid, which still play an 
important part in the cconomy of the vegetable 
and animal world.” Such is the present theary. 
It is difficult to conceive of its more complete 
reversal than must follow the acceptance of the 
facts which M. Berthelot now places before us— 
facts which the clearest of subsequent investiga- 
tions must substantiate before they will: prevail 
over Liebig’s conclusions—facts which lead to 
the ‘assertion that free atmospheric nitrogen is 
fixed in organic nature, unchanged in form by 
atmospheric electricity. 

It has long been -known that the silent electric , 

discharge is capable of producing special che: 
mical reactions. In order to study these, M. 
Berthelot devised a simple little apparatus, com- 
posed, first, of a bell-mouthed test tube nbout 
which a ribbon of platinum was coiled;:and 
second, a V tube of glass closed at one extremity. 
‘The test tube filled with the gas or liquid to be 

i, tested was inserted over.a mercury bath, and the - 

closed end of the V tube was inserted in it. One 
pole of a Ruhmkorff coil was attached to the plati- 
num. ribbon, the’ other communicated with a 
conducting liquid {acidulated water) in the V tube, 
‘The current then passed through the then annular 
apace comprised between the vertical leg of the 

tube and the inner periphery: of the test tube, 

which space was of course filled with the material’ 

under examination. ° By this instrument he found 
that ‘organic compounds, at ordinary tempera. 

tures, cabsorl - {ree * nitrogen, while “under: the.’ 

» Experiments by ") no Consumed 
{ During the Decomposition of the Liquids —Iweighed 
{the zinc consumed during the two minutes the 
‘eurrent of the galvanic tattery ran into vessel 

; A alone, whilst vessel 4 was detached from vessel} - 

uj; and I also weighed the zinc consumed during 
the two minutes that the current of the same 

; battery ran into vessels 4 and 1, whilst the bvo]- 

vessels were connected in the manner herein do- 
scribed in section one: and I found that there was 
ag much zine constmed during the two minutes 
that the current ran from the battery in vessel « 
fone as there was consumed during the two 
sinutes that the current rn from the samo battery 

: into vessels 4 and n whilst the two vessels were 
- eonnected together as deseribed in the above-men- 

tioned first section, 

Sumuuary.—It lias always heretofore been sup- 
posed by scientists tat when the wires of a galvanic 
Dattery, or magneto-electrie machine, are attached 

“jn the usual manner to only one decomposing 

cell, Uint all of the electricity liberated by the 

| battery, or machine, which enters tho cell is con- 

sumed in doing tho work 6f decomposition in this 

+{ one cell, and that if an ndditional he ndded, as 
=} leseribed in the firat section, the trivity would 

be equully divided betweon the two cells, so that 
ench cell would contain ouly one-half the quantity 
of gus that one cell would contain when used 
alone; but L discovered that tho contrary is trae, 
and that the above supposition is erroneous; and I 
algo discovered that a galvanic battery, when 

; attached to two decomposing cells in the manner 
Aoscribed in section two, produces twice the quan- |: 

' tity of gas ina given timo that tho samo battery 

' produces during the same tite when attached to|! 

‘ only ono decomposing cell; that a givon number of 

| tueng of the crauk of n magneto-cleetric machine, 

{ when attached to two decomposing cells, produce ; 

* twiee the quantity of yas that the same number of | 

turna of the crank of tho samo machine produce 

- when attached to only one cell; and that there is 

uo more zine constimed in a given time, whilst the 
yalvanic battery is attached to two decomposing * 
colls, than thera is consumed by tho samo battery 

i during the samo time when uttached to only one 

ell. ‘This process, or method of decomposing. 

‘ Aguila by electricity, is infinitely cheaper than any’ 

other process or method heretofore known, 

The experiments mentioned are tho average, 

1 yesults of w very Jarge number of experiments per- 

formed by mo between the middle of the month of, 
ptember, 1867, and the iiddte of tho month of: 

September, 1872. { 
Si. Louls, Sept. 29, 1873. 

liquid state, being condensed by pressure when neces- 
+ saryjand not in solution. They were contained in 
_ narrow glass tubes, and decomposed by means of 
; Platinum. clectrodes.a- few millimetres apart.) Ace 
cording. ‘to Hittorf, ‘those - compounds. : possessing 
ievery vactive chemical’ propertics,: or which easily. 
yield. hydrogen, should.’ be casily ‘clectrolysed., But, 
water, alcohol, ; the’’ liquid: “hydrogen .: acids, - with. 
one exception, are.-‘difficult to. break up by electro. 
lysis.. It: should -be mentioned, however, that these 
acids in the . pure. liquid state ‘are not very; act